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1 TEIN2 Measurement and Monitoring Workshop Passive Measurements

2 Passive Measurements Syslog SNMP

3 Syslog Syslog is a means where messages originating on a device are logged Normally these are logged to a machine running the syslogd daemon

4 On the router: Configuring syslog logging history notifications logging trap debugging logging source-interface Loopback0 logging Logs will be sent to the device at ip address

5 Configuring syslog (continued) On a unix host syslogd or syslog-ng can be used /etc/syslog.conf Local7.* /var/log/netdev /etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf destination d_netdev { file("/srv/syslog/netdev/$host/$year$month/$year$month$day-$host.log" template("$date $HOST $MESSAGE\n") template_escape(no) owner(root) group(network) perm(0640) dir_owner(root) dir_group(network) dir_perm(0750) create_dirs(yes)); }; filter f_netdev { facility(local7); };

6 SNMP SNMP is the Simple Network Management Protocol and runs over TCP/IP and is embedded in many network devices allowing access to information An SNMP MIB is a Management Information Base essentially a database that contains information about the state of objects within a device. The initial SNMP MIB (RFC1213) contained basic information for use with network management protocols in TCP/IP-based internets.

7 SNMP Since then the SNMP protocol has been enhanced by versions SNMPv2 and SNMPv3. Each SNMP capable device will have a community string (password) with the default for read access being public. Make sure you control SNMP access by passwords and ACLS!

8 Configuring SNMP On a Cisco router: snmp-server community public RO 99 snmp-server community thisismysecretcommunity RW 98 snmp-server ifindex persist snmp-server trap link ietf snmp-server trap-source Loopback0 snmp-server packetsize 9178 snmp-server location APL, ARRC, Kensington, WA 6151 snmp-server contact snmp-server enable traps tty snmp-server enable traps config snmp-server enable traps entity snmp-server enable traps envmon fan shutdown supply temperature status snmp-server enable traps sonet snmp-server enable traps bgp snmp-server enable traps frame-relay snmp-server enable traps rtr snmp-server enable traps mpls traffic-eng snmp-server host inform version 2c thisismysecretcommunity

9 SNMP Tools There are a number of basic SNMP packages which can be used to interrogate MIB Object Identifiers (OIDs). Net-SNMP ( contains command-line applications to retrieve information from SNMP capable devices.

10 snmp snmpget snmpgetnext snmpwalk snmpstatus snmpset snmptranslate

11 OID translation iso(1).org(3).dod(6).internet(1).mgmt(2).mib- 2(1).Interfaces(2).iftable(2)Ifentry(1).ifInOctets(10).ifIndex

12 MIB values RFC 1213 ifinoctets ( ) ifoutoctets ( ) ifinucastpkts ( ) ifoutucastpkts ( ) are counts of the number of bytes input by the interface as shown in the show interfaces command are counts of the number of bytes output by the interface as shown in the show interfaces command are counts of inbound unicast packets are counts of outbound unicast packets

13 More MIB OIDs ifinnucastpkts ( ) are counts of inbound broadcast and multicast packets ifindiscards ( ) ifinerrors ( ) ifinunknownprotos ( ) are counted as no buffers as reflected in the show interfaces command are counts of all input errors as reflected in the show interfaces command are counted as unclassified errors

14 And out ifoutdiscards ( ) ifouterrors ( ) ifoutqlen ( ) are counted as output drops as shown in the show interfaces command are counted as output errors as shown in the show interfaces command is the number of packets allowed to be on the output queue as shown in the show interfaces command

15 but as speed increases Normally measurements of interface counters are taken at 5 minute intervals seconds. With 32 bit counters we get wrap around at (2**32/300)*8 bits per second 114Mbps as opposed to petabits with 64bit counters Standard Interface management information is defined in the iftable, and this is extended with SNMPv2 to the ifxtable described in RFC2233 iftable uses 32 bit counters to store inbound and outbound octets (ifinoctets/ifoutoctets) while ifxtable uses 64-bit values (ifhcinoctets/ifhcoutoctets).

16 IF-MIB (64-bit counters) ifhcinoctets ( ) ifhcoutoctets ( ) ifhcinucastpkts ( ) ifhcoutucastpkts ( ) ifhcinmulticastpkts ( ) ifhcoutmulticastpkts ( ) ifhcinbroadcastpkts ( ) ifhcoutbroadcastpkts ( )

17 Exercise: % snmpwalk v 2c c public % snmpwalk v 2c c public ifinoctets % snmpwalk v 2c c public % snmpwalk v 2c c public ifhcinoctets % snmpwalk v 2c c public Why is ifindex persist important?

18 Monitoring Interface Status %{ifadminstatus} = ( 1 => 'up', 2 => 'down' ); %{ifoperstatus} = ( 1 => 'up', 2 => 'down' );

19 Monitoring BGP $oid{bgppeerstate} = " "; $oid{bgppeerremoteas} = " "; $soid{bgppeerremoteas} = "mib "; $soid{bgppeerstate} = "mib "; %{bgppeerstate} = ( 1 => 'idle', 2 => 'connect', 3 => 'active', 4 => 'opensent', 5 => 'openconfirm', 6 => 'established' );

20 Monitoring OSPF $oid{ospfnbripaddr} = " "; $oid{ospfnbrrtrid} = " "; $oid{ospfnbrstate} = " "; $soid{ospfnbripaddr} = "mib "; $soid{ospfnbrrtrid} = "mib "; $soid{ospfnbrstate} = "mib ";. %{ospfnbrstate} = ( 1 => 'down', 2 => 'attempt', 3 => 'init', 4 => 'twoway', 5 => 'exchangestart', 6 => 'exchange', 7 => 'loading', 8 => 'full' );

21 Monitoring MSDP $oid{msdppeerstate} = " "; $soid{msdppeerstate} = "experimental "; $soid{msdppeerlocaladdress} = "experimental "; $oid{msdppeerlocaladdress} = " "; %{msdppeerstate} = ( 1 => 'inactive', 2 => 'listen', 3 => 'connecting', 4 => 'established', 5 => 'disabled' );

22 MIB files: /usr/share/snmp/mibs Cisco OID Translator Where to find OIDs?

23 snmpbulkwalk More efficient than snmpwalk as the request is processed bulk fashion Can result in far fewer packets and processing overhead on both the interrogated device and the machine requesting Very useful if monitoring a large number of hosts

24 MRTG MRTG is the Multi Router Traffic Grapher created by Tobias Oetiker. It is a tool to monitor the traffic load on network-links. MRTG generates HTML pages containing graphical images which provide a live visual representation of this traffic. Check for an example. MRTG is based on Perl and C and works under UNIX and Windows NT. MRTG is being successfully used in many places

25 MRTG While MRTG is generally used to interrogate SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) instances on a network device such as a switch or router, it has the capability to interact with almost any type of user defined input. If you have lots of devices to monitor and many things to monitor MRTG can hog the CPU of your collecting host!

26 MRTG basics cfgmaker > host.cfg Set crontab entry indexmaker host.cfg Ensure data files are available via http

27 Monitoring OIDs ifindiscards ifoutdiscards ifin Errors ifouterrors monitoring router CPU monitoring environmentals

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