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1 Initial Assignment Name Subject: Biology The first topic we will study in Biology is the heart and circulatory system. Use the BBC Bitesize website for GCSE (PE) to help you refresh your knowledge from GCSE. Here s a link to help you. The circulatory system (also known as the cardiovascular system) has 3 main components. What are they? 1) 2) 3) Why is it known as a double circulatory system? Use the words below to complete the information Oxygen Haemoglobin Systemic Pulmonary Oxygenated Nutrients De-oxygenated Carbon dioxide Blood is carried to the lungs in the circuit. The blood becomes which means that oxygen enters red blood cells where it is taken up by. At the same time, is removed from the blood and enters the lungs to be breathed out. The blood is then returned to the heart. The blood is carried around the body in the circuit. This delivers and to the cells of the body and returns blood to the heart.

2 Watch the animation to show how blood flows through the pulmonary and systemic circulatory systems then label the diagram and add labels to show the route of blood through these systems. Heart structure First write the words Left and Right in the boxes below to show which is the left side of the heart and which is the right side. Then label the rest of the diagram. side side Now answer the questions on the heart on the next page

3 1) Which chamber of the heart does deoxygenated blood from the body enter? 2) Which chamber of the heart does oxygenated blood from the lungs enter? 3) When the atria contract, blood is pushed from the atria into the ventricles. Which valve does blood pass through on a) the right side of the heart? b) the left side of the heart? 4) When the ventricles contract, blood is pushed upwards and out of the heart. Which valves are pushed open to allow the blood to exit? 5) Where does deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle go when it leaves the heart? 6) Where does oxygenated blood from the left ventricle go when it leaves the heart? 7) What is the role of the septum? Blood vessels This is a diagram of a capillary bed. Label the diagram and add an arrow to show the direction of blood flow through the capillary bed. Now read the information about arteries, veins and capillaries and complete the table below to show which blood vessel each of the statements refers to. Feature of blood vessel Gas exchange takes place here Have thick muscular walls Carry blood to the heart Carry blood away from the heart Are one cell thick Have thick muscular walls Have thin walls Have large internal lumen Have small internal lumen Type of blood vessel (Artery, vein or capillary)

4 Blood What are the 4 key components of the blood? 1) 2) 3) 4) Put labels in the boxes below to identify some of the key components of the blood. Now read the information about blood and complete the table below to show which component of the blood each of the statements refers to. Feature Contains haemoglobin which carries oxygen Component of the blood Produce antibodies Made in the bone marrow more are made when you exercise regularly Protect the body by helping to stop bleeding Destroys harmful microorganisms Liquid part of the blood Clump together during blood clotting Made in the bone marrow Carries carbon dioxide, hormones and waste products

5 AS introduction to the heart Now you ve done the GCSE recap of the heart, you re going to see how you can build on that to develop your A level knowledge. A big difference between GCSE and A level is the independent learning skills you need to demonstrate. You need to be able to research a topic and find things out for yourself, rather than just relying on your teacher to provide you with the answer. We d like you to have a go at this straight away! Use textbooks and/or the internet to help you complete this task sheet before your first lesson. You should hand it in to your teacher fully completed. In this section of the AS level specification you need to be able to: Explain the meaning of the terms single circulatory system and double circulatory system, with reference to the circulatory systems of fish and mammals. Explain the meanings of the terms open circulatory system and closed circulatory system, with reference to the circulatory systems of insects and fish. The purpose of a circulatory system is to deliver oxygen and glucose to cells for use in respiration. There are different types of system depending on the needs of the organism. So, you need to find out the following: 1) The difference between single and double circulatory systems. Complete the sentences In a single circulatory system, the blood In a double circulatory system, the blood 2) The difference between open and closed circulatory systems Complete the sentences In an open circulatory system, the blood In a closed circulatory system, the blood

6 Now do some research into circulatory systems of mammals, insects and fish and put ticks and crosses into the table below to identify the types of circulatory system the following groups of organisms have. Mammal Insect Fish Single Double Open Closed Suggest below why mammals, insects and fish have different types of circulatory system You also need to be able to Describe, with the aid of diagrams and photographs, the external and internal structure of the mammalian heart. Study as many diagrams of the heart as you can find then use the words in the boxes on the next page to label this diagram and the next one. It is challenging but that s A levels for you!

7 Diagram 1 internal structure of the mammalian heart Labels for diagram 1 Apex Right pulmonary artery Aorta Thick wall of left ventricle Aortic arch Inferior vena cava Right pulmonary vein Superior vena cava Left pulmonary artery Bicuspid valve Left pulmonary vein Right atrium Aortic valve Septum Wall of right ventricle Chordae tendinae Left atrium Tricuspid valve Pulmonary valve Papillary muscles Carotid artery Diagram 2 external structure of the mammalian heart Labels for Diagram 2 Aortic arch Pulmonary vein Right atrium Base of left ventricle Inferior vena Pulmonary Superior vena Left atrium cava artery cava Right ventricle Coronary artery and vein You must also be able to Explain with the aid of diagrams the differences in the thickness of the walls of the different chambers of the heart in terms of their functions.

8 Look at the walls of the atria and ventricles on the diagram above. What do you notice about a) the thickness of the atrial walls compared with the thickness of the ventricle walls? b) The thickness of the wall of the left ventricle compared with the thickness of the right ventricle? The thickness of the wall reflects the amount of muscle present in the wall. If the wall is thicker there is more muscle and so more pressure can be generated. Use this information to explain why the walls have different thicknesses. You will have noticed that the heart has valves at various locations. What is the purpose of valves in the heart?

9 There are 6 valves that are important in the heart function. They can be grouped into two different types. Find out the names of the two types of valves and fill in the boxes below. A valves S valves Now find out where each of the 6 valves are located and, if possible, find out their specific names. You should be able to name at least 4 of them. Name of valve Type of valve Location The four chambers of the heart are the two atria at the top (one on the left side and one on the right side) and the two ventricles at the bottom (one on the left side and one on the right side). Look back at the diagram you have labelled on page 2. You will see that the blood enters the heart from the venae cavae and the pulmonary veins.

10 Where is the blood in the venae cavae coming from? Does it enter the left side or the right side? Which chamber does it enter? Where is the blood in the pulmonary veins coming from? Does it enter the left side or the right side? Which chamber does it enter? For this next section you need to do some research on the cardiac cycle and find out the meaning of the terms systole and diastole. Now study the diagrams below and put the correct headers above them. The headers are diastole, atrial systole and ventricular systole. Put them above the appropriate diagram. Overleaf are 15 statements about the cardiac cycle. 5 of them are about diastole, 5 are about atrial systole and 5 are about ventricular systole. Use the diagrams, and your own research to help you decide which phase the statement refers to and add it in the table.

11 Statement Phase The atrio-ventricular valves are pushed fully open The increasing pressure in the ventricles causes semilunar valves to be pushed open Blood enters the atria from the vena cavae and pulmonary veins Muscle in ventricle walls contracts Muscle in atrial walls contracts As the atria fill, some blood trickles through from atria to ventricles Blood leaves the ventricles and enters the aorta and pulmonary arteries Blood leaves the atria and enters the ventricles Pressure in the chambers of the heart is less than outside in arteries and veins The volume of the atria decreases causing the pressure to increase The muscle in the walls of all chambers relaxes The volume of the ventricles decreases causing the pressure to increase The increasing pressure in the atria causes semilunar valves in the venae cavae and pulmonary veins to be pushed shut which prevents back flow of blood into the veins. Higher pressure in the aorta and pulmonary arteries causes semi-lunar valves to close, preventing backflow of blood into the ventricles The increasing pressure in the ventricles causes atrio-ventricular valves to be pushed shut which prevents back flow of blood into the atria.

12 Now group the statements together and put them in a logical order to help you write a summary of the key events in the cardiac cycle. During atrial systole: During ventricular systole: During diastole: Well done! You ve completed your initial induction assignment! You now need to ensure that you learn this topic thoroughly, as you will be tested on in it the first couple of weeks of your course. The test is part of your induction programme which you must successfully complete to be allowed to continue with AS Biology.

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