# Appendix B: Absolute and relative gender gaps

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1 1 Appendix B: Absolute and relative gaps There are several ways to describe gaps between men and women. One can measure the absolute value of the percentage-point between the commitment of women and men. A limitation of this approach is that it does not capture the relative between women and men, which is more pronounced if a behavior is relatively rare. For example, if 20% of women and 10% of men attend worship services in a given week, then this absolute of 10 percentage points could result in congregations with twice as many women as men. 1 However, if 90% of women and 80% of men attend services, then this of 10 percentage points could result in congregations that are 53% female and 47% male, a more equal distribution. Measuring the ratio of commitment among women to commitment among men captures these relative s. In the first example, the ratio is 2.0 to 1 and in the second example, the ratio is 1.1 to 1. A limitation of measuring relative s is that results depend upon how the calculation is framed. If 20% of women and 10% of men attend services in a given week, this also means that 80% of women and 90% of men do not attend services in a given week. Thus, the ratio for the in attendance is either 2.0 to 1 or 0.9 to 1, depending on whether the comparison is frequent attendance or its complement, the lack of frequent attendance. Focusing on the absolute value of the percentage-point avoids this problem because the absolute value is the same in either case. To account for the complementary ways of measuring relative s, David Voas and colleagues suggest using an adjusted relative method that summarizes results from both approaches. 2 They calculate the gap as the geometric mean of the ratio (the relative between women s and men s likelihood of being highly ) and the un- ratio (the relative between men s and women s likelihood of not being highly ). In the previous example, the ratio, or the degree to which women are more than men, is 2.0 to 1 (20% of women attend weekly vs. 10% of men; 20/10=2.0). The un ratio, or the degree to which men are more un- than women, is to 1 (90% of men do not attend weekly vs. 80% of women; 90/80=1.125). The un- ratio is reversed for the calculation men s un- divided women s, rather than women s divided by men s so that both ratios are in the same direction (greater than 1.0 to 1). To calculate 1 This calculation assumes a population with an equal number of men and women. 2 Voas, David, Siobhan McAndrew, and Ingrid Storm Modernization and the gap in religiosity: Evidence from cross-national European surveys. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie.

2 2 the gap, Voas and colleagues then take the geometric mean of these two ratios, which is the squareroot of their product. In this example, the adjusted relative gap is 1.5 to 1 (sqrt[2.0*1.125]). This adjusted relative method is elegant though its meaning is less intuitive than the absolute or unadjusted relative s. Because absolute s are easier to understand and because results are similar across approaches, this report presents gaps in commitment and beliefs as absolute s between men and women. However, researchers at Pew Research Center also conducted analyses using the adjusted relative method. In general, the results were similar. The correlation between the absolute and the adjusted relative was moderate to high for all measures of Religious gaps in the United States compared to other countries in absolute and relative terms % of women and men in the general population who pray daily, consider religion very important and attend services weekly Daily Prayer Women commitment in the general population. The overall ranking of countries from largest to smallest gap on a given measure was also similar regardless of whether the absolute or adjusted relative was used. Using the relative versus the absolute approach affects only the magnitude of the, not its direction or statistical significance. Men Absolute relative United States 64% 47% United Kingdom Germany France Australia Canada Religion is very important United States Australia United Kingdom Canada Germany France Weekly Attendance United Kingdom Canada United States France Australia Germany Note: Differences in italics are statistically significant. relative calculated using method from Voas, David, Siobhan McAndrew, and Ingrid Storm Modernization and the gap in religiosity: Evidence from cross-national European surveys. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie. Values in column are calculated from unrounded numbers. Source: Pew Research Center surveys,

3 3 One place where there were important s between the absolute and relative measures was in the comparison between the United States and other economically advanced countries (see Chapter 6, page 50). In absolute terms, the United States has much wider gaps on weekly attendance, daily prayer and the importance of religion than do Canada, Australia, United Kingdom, France or Germany (the U.S. is also much more than these countries). When the gap is considered in relative terms, using the adjusted relative, the United States still has larger gaps in daily prayer and the importance of religion than any of the other five countries. But when it comes to weekly attendance, Canada and the U.K. have larger relative gaps than the United States. This is because far fewer men and women attend services weekly in Canada and the U.K. compared to the United States, making smaller absolute s much larger in relative terms. Below are tables showing the absolute, unadjusted relative and adjusted relative for every country by -commitment measure for the general population and for each religion: Weekly attendance, general population (* = is not statistically significant) Afghanistan -84 Men Albania -2 * Algeria -33 Men Argentina 13 Women Australia 3 * Azerbaijan -4 Men Bangladesh -66 Men Bolivia 5 * Bosnia-Herzegovina -11 Men Botswana 11 Women Brazil 12 Women Cameroon 3 * Canada 6 Women Chad -15 Men Chile 10 Women China 0 * Colombia 20 Women Costa Rica 13 Women Czech Republic 0 * Democratic Republic of the Congo 3 * Djibouti -5 Men Dominican Republic 16 Women

4 4 Weekly attendance, general population (* = is not statistically significant) Ecuador 9 Women Egypt -15 Men El Salvador 16 Women Ethiopia 3 * France 3 * Germany -1 * Ghana 4 * Greece 11 Women Guatemala 8 Women Guinea-Bissau -2 * Honduras 15 Women Indonesia -36 Men Iran -10 Men Iraq -45 Men Israel -19 Men Italy 20 Women Japan 2 * Jordan -31 Men Kazakhstan -3 * Kenya 14 Women Kosovo -21 Men Kyrgyzstan -33 Men Lebanon -19 Men Liberia 2 * Lithuania 9 Women Malaysia -40 Men Mali -14 Men Mexico 10 Women Morocco -27 Men Mozambique -2 * Nicaragua 15 Women Niger -20 Men Nigeria -10 Men Pakistan -72 Men Palestinian territories -40 Men Panama 10 Women Paraguay 11 Women Peru 14 Women Philippines 15 Women Poland 8 * Puerto Rico 10 Women Russia 0 * Rwanda 5 Women

5 5 Weekly attendance, general population (* = is not statistically significant) Senegal -52 Men South Africa 20 Women South Korea 12 Women Spain 7 Women Tajikistan -56 Men Tanzania 3 * Tunisia -21 Men Turkey -47 Men Uganda -3 * Ukraine 4 * United Kingdom 5 Women United States 8 Women Uruguay 6 Women Uzbekistan -18 Men Venezuela 5 * Zambia 3 * Weekly attendance, Christians (* = is not statistically significant) Argentina 13 Women Australia -3 * Bolivia 5 * Bosnia-Herzegovina 11 Women Botswana 10 Women Brazil 11 Women Cameroon 9 Women Canada 6 * Chad -1 * Chile 9 Women Colombia 20 Women Costa Rica 11 Women Democratic Republic of the Congo 2 * Dominican Republic 14 Women Ecuador 9 Women El Salvador 10 Women Ethiopia 4 * France 3 * Germany 1 *

6 6 Weekly attendance, Christians (* = is not statistically significant) Ghana 3 * Greece 11 Women Guatemala 6 Women Guinea-Bissau -4 * Honduras 10 Women Italy 19 Women Kazakhstan 3 * Kenya 16 Women Lebanon 1 * Liberia 1 * Lithuania 9 Women Mexico 9 Women Mozambique 0 * Nicaragua 13 Women Nigeria -2 * Panama 9 Women Paraguay 11 Women Peru 13 Women Philippines 16 Women Poland 6 * Puerto Rico 7 Women Russia 3 * Rwanda 5 * South Africa 18 Women South Korea 12 Women Spain 9 Women Tanzania 4 * Uganda -5 * Ukraine 4 * United Kingdom 5 * United States 6 Women Uruguay 5 * Venezuela 5 * Zambia 2 *

7 7 Weekly attendance, Muslims (* = is not statistically significant) Afghanistan -84 Men Albania -3 * Algeria -34 Men Azerbaijan -3 * Bangladesh -76 Men Bosnia-Herzegovina -32 Men Chad -30 Men Djibouti -5 Men Egypt -16 Men Ethiopia -2 * Ghana 0 * Guinea-Bissau -2 * Indonesia -38 Men Iran -10 Men Iraq -49 Men Jordan -31 Men Kazakhstan -6 * Kenya -7 Men Kosovo -24 Men Kyrgyzstan -37 Men Lebanon -34 Men Malaysia -68 Men Mali -17 Men Morocco -27 Men Mozambique 0 * Niger -21 Men Nigeria -18 Men Pakistan -73 Men Palestinian territories -40 Men Russia -26 Men Senegal -57 Men Tajikistan -57 Men Tanzania -2 * Thailand -64 Men Tunisia -22 Men Turkey -48 Men Uganda 3 * United States -20 Men Uzbekistan -18 Men

8 8 Weekly attendance, other groups (* = is not statistically significant) Buddhists China -1 * Malaysia 5 * United States 5 * Hindus United States 9 * Jews Israel -19 Men United States -3 * Unaffiliated Australia -1 * Canada -2 * China 0 * Czech Republic 0 * Germany 1 * Japan 1 * South Korea 1 * Spain 0 * United Kingdom 1 * United States 2 Women Uruguay 0 * Daily prayer, general population (* = is not statistically significant) Afghanistan -3 * Albania 7 Women Algeria 5 * Argentina 22 Women Australia 6 Women Azerbaijan 8 * Bangladesh 7 * Bolivia 11 Women Bosnia-Herzegovina 7 Women Botswana 3 * Brazil 15 Women Burkina Faso -1 * Cameroon 9 Women Canada 2 * Chad 3 * Chile 23 Women China 1 *

9 9 Daily prayer, general population (* = is not statistically significant) Colombia 21 Women Costa Rica 12 Women Czech Republic 6 Women Democratic Republic of the Congo 0 * Djibouti 0 * Dominican Republic 21 Women Ecuador 12 Women Egypt -5 * El Salvador 14 Women Ethiopia 2 * France 6 Women Germany 9 Women Ghana 6 * Greece 25 Women Guatemala 4 * Guinea-Bissau -3 * Honduras 13 Women India 3 * Indonesia 1 * Iran 1 * Iraq 1 * Israel -6 Men Italy 20 Women Japan 11 Women Jordan 3 * Kazakhstan 4 * Kenya 6 Women Kosovo 7 * Kyrgyzstan 6 * Lebanon -2 * Liberia 2 * Lithuania 19 Women Malaysia 2 * Mali 1 * Mexico 11 Women Morocco 0 * Mozambique -2 * Nicaragua 13 Women Niger 2 * Nigeria 3 Women Pakistan -1 * Palestinian territories 12 Women

10 10 Daily prayer, general population (* = is not statistically significant) Panama 8 Women Paraguay 13 Women Peru 16 Women Philippines 8 Women Poland 17 Women Puerto Rico 18 Women Russia 7 Women Rwanda 4 * Senegal -4 * South Africa 15 Women South Korea 10 Women Spain 14 Women Tajikistan -4 * Tanzania 1 * Tunisia 4 * Turkey 11 * Uganda 5 * Ukraine 17 Women United Kingdom 9 Women United States 17 Women Uruguay 19 Women Uzbekistan 16 Women Venezuela 13 Women Vietnam 9 Women Zambia 2 * Daily prayer, Christians (* = is not statistically significant) Argentina 21 Women Australia 7 * Bolivia 11 Women Bosnia-Herzegovina 12 Women Botswana 0 * Brazil 13 Women Burkina Faso -3 * Cameroon 11 Women Canada 7 * Chad 4 *

11 11 Daily prayer, Christians (* = is not statistically significant) Chile 22 Women Colombia 21 Women Costa Rica 10 Women Democratic Republic of the Congo 0 * Dominican Republic 14 Women Ecuador 11 Women El Salvador 9 Women Ethiopia 4 * France 3 * Germany 10 Women Ghana 6 * Greece 25 Women Guatemala 2 * Guinea-Bissau -5 * Honduras 10 Women Italy 22 Women Kazakhstan 10 Women Kenya 8 Women Lebanon -1 * Liberia 1 * Lithuania 19 Women Mexico 10 Women Mozambique 0 * Nicaragua 11 Women Nigeria 5 Women Panama 8 Women Paraguay 13 Women Peru 15 Women Philippines 8 Women Poland 17 Women Puerto Rico 16 Women Russia 8 Women Rwanda 5 * South Africa 12 Women South Korea 7 * Spain 15 Women Tanzania 6 * Uganda 5 * Ukraine 15 Women United Kingdom 16 Women United States 14 Women Uruguay 15 Women

12 12 Daily prayer, Christians (* = is not statistically significant) Venezuela 14 Women Zambia 2 * Daily prayer, Muslims (* = is not statistically significant) Afghanistan -3 * Albania 6 * Algeria 5 * Azerbaijan 8 * Bangladesh 8 * Bosnia-Herzegovina 2 * Burkina Faso 0 * Chad 1 * Djibouti 1 * Egypt -6 * Ethiopia -1 * Ghana 0 * Guinea-Bissau -2 * Indonesia 1 * Iran 1 * Iraq 2 * Jordan 4 * Kazakhstan 2 * Kenya -4 * Kosovo 11 Women Kyrgyzstan 4 * Lebanon 1 * Malaysia 2 * Mali 1 * Morocco 0 * Mozambique -13 Men Niger 2 * Nigeria 0 * Pakistan -2 * Palestinian territories 12 Women Russia -1 * Senegal -5 Men Tajikistan -4 *

13 13 Daily prayer, Muslims (* = is not statistically significant) Tanzania -10 Men Thailand 3 * Tunisia 4 * Turkey 11 * Uganda 1 * United States 5 * Uzbekistan 17 Women Daily prayer, other groups (* = is not statistically significant) Buddhists Japan 10 Women Malaysia 4 * United States 8 * Hindus India 3 * United States 29 Women Jews Israel -11 Men United States 4 * Unaffiliated Australia 1 * Canada -8 * China 0 * Czech Republic 2 * France 6 Women Germany -2 * Japan 7 Women South Korea 3 * Spain 2 * United Kingdom -2 * United States 11 Women Uruguay 12 Women Vietnam 7 Women Religion is very important, general population

14 14 (* = is not statistically significant) Afghanistan -3 * Albania -3 * Algeria 10 Women Argentina 16 Women Australia 7 Women Azerbaijan 5 * Bangladesh -1 * Bolivia 9 Women Bosnia-Herzegovina 4 * Botswana 1 * Brazil 11 Women Burkina Faso 1 * Cameroon 3 Women Canada 4 * Chad 1 * Chile 12 Women China 1 * Colombia 14 Women Costa Rica 10 Women Czech Republic 1 * Democratic Republic of the Congo 5 Women Djibouti -2 * Dominican Republic 9 Women Ecuador 7 Women Egypt -1 * El Salvador 7 Women Ethiopia 3 * France 2 * Germany 3 * Ghana 3 * Greece 15 Women Guatemala 3 * Guinea-Bissau -1 * Honduras 5 Women India 4 * Indonesia 1 * Iran 4 * Iraq 1 * Israel -5 Men Italy 14 Women Japan 5 Women Jordan 0 * Kazakhstan 2 * Kenya 7 Women Kosovo 10 Women Kyrgyzstan -3 *

15 15 Religion is very important, general population (* = is not statistically significant) Lebanon 5 * Liberia -3 * Lithuania 20 Women Malaysia 3 * Mali 3 Women Mexico 6 * Morocco 1 * Mozambique -4 Men Nicaragua 5 Women Niger -3 * Nigeria 0 * Pakistan -4 * Palestinian territories 3 * Panama 3 * Paraguay 15 Women Peru 11 Women Philippines 2 * Poland 19 Women Puerto Rico 15 Women Russia 6 Women Rwanda 7 Women Senegal 1 * South Africa 18 Women South Korea 11 Women Spain 12 Women Tajikistan -2 * Tanzania 2 * Tunisia 1 * Turkey 3 * Uganda 2 * Ukraine 11 Women United Kingdom 6 Women United States 13 Women Uruguay 10 Women Uzbekistan 1 * Venezuela 5 * Vietnam 14 Women Zambia 0 *

16 16 Religion is very important, Christians (* = is not statistically significant) Argentina 14 Women Australia 8 * Bolivia 8 Women Bosnia-Herzegovina 8 * Botswana -1 * Brazil 9 Women Burkina Faso 3 * Cameroon 3 * Canada 7 * Chad -2 * Chile 10 Women Colombia 13 Women Costa Rica 7 Women Democratic Republic of the Congo 3 * Dominican Republic 5 Women Ecuador 6 Women El Salvador 3 * Ethiopia 4 * France 1 * Germany 0 * Ghana 0 * Greece 15 Women Guatemala 3 * Guinea-Bissau -2 * Honduras 2 * Italy 14 Women Kazakhstan 10 * Kenya 9 Women Lebanon 9 * Liberia -5 Men Lithuania 19 Women Mexico 5 * Mozambique -3 * Nicaragua 3 * Nigeria 0 * Panama 1 * Paraguay 14 Women Peru 10 Women Philippines 2 * Poland 18 Women Puerto Rico 12 Women Russia 5 Women

17 17 Religion is very important, Christians (* = is not statistically significant) Rwanda 7 Women South Africa 15 Women South Korea 23 Women Spain 12 Women Tanzania 2 * Uganda 2 * Ukraine 9 Women United Kingdom 13 Women United States 10 Women Uruguay 7 * Venezuela 2 * Zambia 0 * Religion is very important, Muslims (* = is not statistically significant) Afghanistan -3 * Albania -8 Men Algeria 9 * Azerbaijan 5 * Bangladesh 0 * Bosnia-Herzegovina 0 * Burkina Faso 0 * Chad 0 * Djibouti -1 * Egypt -2 * Ethiopia -2 * Ghana 2 * Guinea-Bissau -1 * Indonesia 0 * Iran 4 * Iraq 0 * Jordan 0 * Kazakhstan -1 * Kenya -2 * Kosovo 12 Women Kyrgyzstan -4 * Lebanon 1 * Malaysia 1 *

18 18 Religion is very important, Muslims (* = is not statistically significant) Mali 2 * Morocco 1 * Mozambique -3 * Niger -4 * Nigeria 1 * Pakistan -4 * Palestinian territories 3 * Russia 5 * Senegal 0 * Tajikistan -2 * Tanzania -2 * Thailand 0 * Tunisia 1 * Turkey 3 * Uganda -2 * United States 7 * Uzbekistan 1 * Religion is very important, other groups (* = is not statistically significant) Buddhists Japan 6 * Malaysia 2 * United States 4 * Hindus India 3 * United States 11 * Jews Israel -9 Men United States 8 Women Unaffiliated Australia 2 * Canada -3 * China 0 * Czech Republic 1 * France 1 * Germany -1 * Japan 0 * South Korea 0 * Spain 3 * United Kingdom 0 *

19 19 Religion is very important, other groups (* = is not statistically significant) United States 3 Women Uruguay -1 * Vietnam 7 * Belief in heaven, general population (* = is not statistically significant) Albania 1 * Algeria 1 * Argentina 8 Women Azerbaijan 1 * Bangladesh 0 * Bolivia -1 * Bosnia-Herzegovina 8 Women Botswana 6 Women Brazil 3 * Cameroon 4 Women Chad 2 * Chile 10 Women Colombia 5 * Costa Rica 5 Women Democratic Republic of the Congo 7 Women Djibouti 0 * Dominican Republic 0 * Ecuador 4 * Egypt 0 * El Salvador 4 * Ethiopia 1 * Ghana -1 * Guatemala 2 * Guinea-Bissau 1 * Honduras 0 * Indonesia 0 * Iran 0 * Iraq 1 * Jordan -3 * Kazakhstan 7 * Kenya 0 *

20 20 Belief in heaven, general population (* = is not statistically significant) Kosovo -4 * Kyrgyzstan 2 * Lebanon -6 Men Liberia 2 Women Malaysia 3 * Mali 2 Women Mexico 6 * Morocco 0 * Mozambique -1 * Nicaragua 2 * Niger 1 * Nigeria 0 * Pakistan -2 * Palestinian territories 1 * Panama 2 * Paraguay 2 * Peru 6 Women Puerto Rico 6 Women Russia 17 Women Rwanda 1 * Senegal 0 * South Africa 3 * Tajikistan 1 * Tanzania 2 * Tunisia -1 * Turkey 2 * Uganda 1 * United States 9 Women Uruguay 15 Women Uzbekistan 8 Women Venezuela 2 * Zambia 1 * Belief in heaven, Christians (* = is not statistically significant) Argentina 3 * Bolivia -1 * Bosnia-Herzegovina 12 Women

21 21 Belief in heaven, Christians (* = is not statistically significant) Botswana 4 Women Brazil 1 * Cameroon 3 * Chad 2 * Chile 6 Women Colombia 4 * Costa Rica 2 * Democratic Republic of the Congo 3 * Dominican Republic 0 * Ecuador 2 * El Salvador 2 * Ethiopia 1 * Ghana 0 * Guatemala 1 * Guinea-Bissau 2 * Honduras -1 * Kazakhstan 16 * Kenya 0 * Lebanon -11 Men Liberia -1 * Mexico 2 * Mozambique -1 * Nicaragua 0 * Nigeria -1 * Panama 1 * Paraguay 2 * Peru 5 * Puerto Rico 4 * Russia 13 Women Rwanda 0 * South Africa 0 * Tanzania 2 * Uganda 1 * United States 3 Women Uruguay 9 * Venezuela -1 * Zambia 0 *

22 22 Belief in heaven, Muslims (* = is not statistically significant) Albania 0 * Algeria 0 * Azerbaijan 1 * Bangladesh 0 * Bosnia-Herzegovina 4 * Chad -3 * Djibouti -1 * Egypt 1 * Ethiopia 1 * Ghana -2 * Guinea-Bissau 0 * Indonesia 0 * Iran 0 * Iraq 0 * Jordan -4 * Kazakhstan 3 * Kenya 0 * Kosovo -3 * Kyrgyzstan 2 * Lebanon -1 * Malaysia 1 * Mali -1 * Morocco 0 * Mozambique -2 * Niger 1 * Nigeria -1 * Pakistan -2 * Palestinian territories 1 * Russia 11 Women Senegal 0 * Tajikistan 1 * Tanzania 1 * Thailand 0 * Tunisia -1 * Turkey 1 * Uganda 0 * Uzbekistan 6 Women

23 23 Belief in heaven, other groups (* = is not statistically significant) Buddhist Malaysia 4 * United States 7 * Hindu United States 19 Women Unaffiliated United States 11 Women Uruguay 10 * Belief in hell, general population (* = is not statistically significant) Albania 0 * Algeria 2 * Argentina 8 Women Azerbaijan 1 * Bangladesh 1 * Bolivia -5 * Bosnia-Herzegovina 9 Women Botswana 4 * Brazil 2 * Cameroon 4 Women Chad 1 * Chile 8 Women Colombia 7 * Costa Rica 1 * Democratic Republic of the Congo 3 * Djibouti 0 * Dominican Republic 2 * Ecuador 1 * Egypt -3 * El Salvador 0 * Ethiopia 2 * Ghana -3 * Guatemala -3 * Guinea-Bissau 11 Women Honduras 1 * Indonesia -1 * Iran 0 * Iraq 1 * Jordan -7 *

24 24 Belief in hell, general population (* = is not statistically significant) Kazakhstan 5 * Kenya -1 * Kosovo -6 * Kyrgyzstan 3 * Lebanon -7 Men Liberia 2 * Malaysia 4 * Mali 2 * Mexico 6 * Morocco 0 * Mozambique -3 * Nicaragua 1 * Niger 3 * Nigeria 2 * Pakistan -3 * Palestinian territories 1 * Panama 2 * Paraguay 2 * Peru 2 * Puerto Rico 3 * Russia 17 Women Rwanda -1 * Senegal -1 * South Africa 6 Women Tajikistan 0 * Tanzania 3 * Tunisia -1 * Turkey -1 * Uganda 0 * United States 3 Women Uruguay 9 Women Uzbekistan 6 Women Venezuela 1 * Zambia 2 * Belief in hell, Christians (* = is not statistically significant) Argentina 4 *

25 25 Belief in hell, Christians (* = is not statistically significant) Bolivia -5 * Bosnia-Herzegovina 12 Women Botswana 1 * Brazil 1 * Cameroon 1 * Chad 2 * Chile 8 Women Colombia 5 * Costa Rica -1 * Democratic Republic of the Congo 0 * Dominican Republic 2 * Ecuador -1 * El Salvador -3 * Ethiopia 2 * Ghana -4 * Guatemala -4 * Guinea-Bissau 7 * Honduras 0 * Kazakhstan 16 Women Kenya 0 * Lebanon -11 Men Liberia -3 * Mexico 3 * Mozambique -1 * Nicaragua -1 * Nigeria 4 * Panama 3 * Paraguay 3 * Peru 1 * Puerto Rico 1 * Russia 13 Women Rwanda -2 * South Africa 3 * Tanzania 2 * Uganda -1 * United States -2 Men Uruguay 7 * Venezuela -3 * Zambia 0 *

26 26 Belief in hell, Muslims (* = is not statistically significant) Albania -2 * Algeria 1 * Azerbaijan 1 * Bangladesh 1 * Bosnia-Herzegovina 6 Women Chad -3 * Djibouti 0 * Egypt -4 * Ethiopia 0 * Ghana -4 * Guinea-Bissau 18 Women Indonesia -1 * Iran 0 * Iraq 0 * Jordan -7 * Kazakhstan 0 * Kenya -2 * Kosovo -7 * Kyrgyzstan 3 * Lebanon -3 * Malaysia 2 * Mali 0 * Morocco 0 * Mozambique -6 * Niger 3 * Nigeria 0 * Pakistan -2 * Palestinian territories 1 * Russia 11 Women Senegal -3 * Tajikistan 0 * Tanzania 1 * Thailand 0 * Tunisia -1 * Turkey -1 * Uganda -1 * Uzbekistan 5 *

27 27 Belief in hell, other groups (* = is not statistically significant) Buddhist Malaysia -3 * United States 15 Women Hindu United States 7 * Unaffiliated United States 4 Women Uruguay 0 *

28 28 Belief in angels, general population (* = is not statistically significant) Afghanistan -1 * Albania 6 * Algeria 2 * Argentina 15 Women Azerbaijan 6 Women Bangladesh -2 * Bolivia 2 * Bosnia-Herzegovina 9 Women Botswana 6 * Brazil 3 * Cameroon 5 Women Chad 2 * Chile 13 Women Colombia 5 * Costa Rica 4 * Democratic Republic of the Congo 3 * Djibouti 3 * Dominican Republic 2 * Ecuador 7 Women Egypt 1 * El Salvador 3 * Ethiopia 3 * Ghana 1 * Guatemala 3 Women Guinea-Bissau 1 * Honduras 3 * Indonesia 0 * Iran 1 * Iraq 1 * Jordan 3 * Kazakhstan 15 Women Kenya 0 * Kosovo 2 * Kyrgyzstan 6 * Lebanon -2 * Liberia 0 * Malaysia 4 * Mali 0 * Mexico 7 Women

29 29 Belief in angels, general population (* = is not statistically significant) Morocco 0 * Mozambique -2 * Nicaragua 3 * Niger 2 * Nigeria -1 * Pakistan -4 Men Palestinian territories -1 * Panama 2 * Paraguay 4 * Peru 5 * Puerto Rico 6 Women Russia 22 Women Rwanda 0 * Senegal -1 * South Africa 5 Women Tajikistan 0 * Tanzania 1 * Tunisia 0 * Turkey 2 * Uganda 4 * Uruguay 20 Women Uzbekistan 8 * Venezuela 4 * Zambia -3 * Belief in angels, Christians (* = is not statistically significant) Argentina 8 Women Bolivia 0 * Bosnia-Herzegovina 11 Women Botswana 2 * Brazil 1 * Cameroon 2 * Chad 2 * Chile 9 Women Colombia 3 * Costa Rica 1 * Democratic Republic of the 0 *

30 30 Belief in angels, Christians (* = is not statistically significant) Congo Dominican Republic 1 * Ecuador 5 Women El Salvador 1 * Ethiopia 4 * Ghana 1 * Guatemala 3 Women Guinea-Bissau 4 * Honduras 1 * Kazakhstan 21 Women Kenya 0 * Lebanon -6 * Liberia -1 * Mexico 3 * Mozambique 0 * Nicaragua 1 * Nigeria 0 * Panama 2 * Paraguay 3 * Peru 4 * Puerto Rico 4 * Russia 19 Women Rwanda 0 * South Africa 1 * Tanzania 2 * Uganda 4 Women Uruguay 13 Women Venezuela 3 * Zambia -5 Men Belief in angels, Muslims (* = is not statistically significant) Afghanistan -1 * Albania 6 * Algeria 2 * Azerbaijan 6 * Bangladesh -2 * Bosnia-Herzegovina 6 *

31 31 Belief in angels, Muslims (* = is not statistically significant) Chad -2 * Djibouti 3 * Egypt 0 * Ethiopia -2 * Ghana -2 * Guinea-Bissau -3 * Indonesia 0 * Iran 1 * Iraq 1 * Jordan 3 * Kazakhstan 11 Women Kenya 4 * Kosovo 2 * Kyrgyzstan 6 * Lebanon 1 * Malaysia -1 * Mali -3 * Morocco 0 * Mozambique -2 * Niger 1 * Nigeria -1 * Pakistan -3 Men Palestinian territories -1 * Russia 12 Women Senegal 0 * Tajikistan 0 * Tanzania -1 * Thailand 0 * Tunisia 0 * Turkey 1 * Uganda -2 * United States 2 * Uzbekistan 7 *

32 32 Belief in angels, other groups (* = is not statistically significant) Buddhist Malaysia 3 * United States 10 * Hindu United States 26 Women Unaffiliated Uruguay 17 Women

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