Conceptual Physics Review (Chapters 4, 5, & 6)


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1 Conceptual Physics Review (Chapters 4, 5, & 6) Solutions Sample Questions and Calculations. If you were in a spaceship and launched a cannonball into frictionless space, how much force would have to be exerted on the ball to keep it moving at a constant velocity? Explain in terms of Newton s laws of motion. To keep an object moving at a constant velocity requires a net force of zero, because acceleration is zero. If there is no friction (and the cannonball is not close enough to a large body such as a star or planet), then zero force would be required on the cannonball to keep it moving at a constant velocity. 2. Does a 2kilogram rock have twice the mass of a kilogram rock? Twice the inertia? Twice the weight (when weighed in the same location)? Yes, a 2kilogram rock has twice the mass, twice the inertia, and twice the weight of a kilogram rock. 3. If you hold a coin above your head while in a bus that is not moving (relative to the earth), the coin will land at your feet when you drop it. Where will it land if you drop it while the bus is moving in a straight line at constant speed (relative to the earth)? Explain in terms of Newton s laws of motion. The coin will still land at your feet if you drop it in a bus moving at constant speed in a straight line (constant velocity). The coin possesses inertia which means it will continue to move horizontally with the same speed and direction as it had before being dropped, because there is no horizontal force acting on it to change its horizontal motion. 4. Calculate in Newtons and in lbs the weight of a 2.50 kg melon. W = mg = 2.50kg 9.80m /s 2 = 24.5N 2.50kg 2.2lbs kg = 5.53 lbs 5. Susie Small weighs 300N. Explain what this means in terms of her gravitational interaction with the earth. Calculate Susie s mass in kilograms. Would her weight or her mass change if she were on a different planet? Susie s weight is simply the force of earth s gravity acting on her. W = mg m = W m = 300N = 30.6 kg 2 g 9.80m /s Susie s mass will not change if she s on a different planet. Mass is a measure of how much matter there is in a body, and doesn t change. Her weight will change on that different planet, however. 6. When you compress a sponge, what changes: its mass, its inertia, its weight, or its volume? Only the volume changes when you compress a sponge (assuming you didn t squeeze anything out of it).
2 7. If I went to a planet that had twice the gravity of earth, how would that affect my mass? How would it affect my weight? How would it affect my acceleration in free fall? My mass would not change, but my weight would double: W=mg on earth, and W=m(2g) Twice the gravity would also make the acceleration of freefall twice as great. 8. What is the net force (sum of all forces) acting on an object in static equilibrium? In dynamic equilibrium? In both cases of equilibrium, the net force acting on the object is equal to zero, meaning the object is not accelerating. In static equilibrium, the object is also not moving; in dynamic equilibrium, the object is moving at a constant velocity. 9. True or false: If no force acts on a moving object, the object will eventually come to a stop. If it s false, explain why. False. If no force acts on a moving object, the net force equals zero, so it will continue at a constant speed in a straight line forever. 0. Suppose a pilot announces that the plane is flying at a constant 900km/h and the thrust of the engines is a constant 80,000 N. a. What is the acceleration of the airplane? Velocity is constant, so a=0. b. What is the net force acting on the airplane? Acceleration is zero, so net force =0. c. Are there any other forces that you can identify that are acting on the airplane other than the push of its engines? Gravity and air resistance are also acting on the plane, as well as the lift force that keeps it up in the air. d. Draw a picture of the plane with vectors representing all forces acting on the plane. This is a free body diagram for the plane. Label each force vector with what it represents (for example, Force of A pushing on B or Force of B pulling on A, but specify what exactly A and B are for the particular force).. Describe the motion of an object of fixed mass when a constant net force is applied to it. Discuss whether it is moving or not, and what you know about its velocity and its acceleration. Think about the skateboard lab. If a constant, nonzero, net force is applied to an object, it will be accelerating. The greater the net force applied to an object of a given mass, the greater the acceleration of the object.
3 2. A 00kg skydiver is falling toward the earth. a. What is the skydiver s weight? W = mg = (00kg)(9.8m/s2) = 980 N b. Three seconds into his fall, the air resistance on the skydiver is 400 N. Draw a picture of the skydiver and clearly label (with words or symbols AND a numerical value) each vector to indicate what force it represents at this instant. Fair resistance=400n c. Determine the net force acting on the skydiver. Be sure to mention both the magnitude and the direction of the net force. Fgravity=980N Fnet = 980N 400N = 580 N downward d. What is the acceleration of the skydiver at this instant? F W R a = net = = = 5.8m /s2 m m a. When the force of air resistance on a falling object is equal to the object s weight, what is the net force on the object? (Think about the direction in which each force (weight and air resistance) acts.) In this case, the weight and the air resistance are acting in opposite directions, so if the magnitude of each is the same, the net force is equal to zero. b. Draw a picture of the object and use force vectors to represent all forces acting on the falling object. c. What is the acceleration of the object? Because net force = 0, acceleration will be =0. d. Does that mean that the object abruptly comes to a halt in midair at the instant that air resistance equals weight? Explain. No. It means that the acceleration is equal to zero, but whatever velocity the object had reached as it fell will remain constant when air resistance grows to be equal to the weight of the object. It will continue to fall at a constant velocity. 4. A skydiver jumps from a highaltitude balloon. Answer each of the following questions in a complete sentence or two. a. As she falls through the air, does her velocity increase, decrease, or stay the same? As she falls from the balloon, her velocity increases at first, then remains constant. b. Does air resistance increase, decrease, or stay the same? Air resistance increases (in a direction opposite to her motion) as her speed increases.
4 c. Does the force exerted on her by gravity increase, decrease, or stay the same? The force of gravity on her (mg) remains constant. d. Does the net force on her increase, decrease, or stay the same? The net force on her decreases as air resistance increases. e. Does her acceleration increase, decrease, or stay the same? Her acceleration decreases as the net force decreases. 5. After she jumps, a skydiver reaches terminal velocity after 0.0 seconds. a. Does she gain more speed during the first second of fall or the ninth second of fall? She gains more speed during the first second of fall. Acceleration =9.80m/s2 b. Compared with the first second of fall, does she fall a greater or lesser distance during the ninth second of fall? She falls a greater distance during the ninth second because her velocity is greater by then. 6. We know that the Earth pulls on the moon. Does the moon also pull on the earth? Which pull is stronger? Explain in terms of Newton s laws of motion. Which one of Newton s laws refers to interactions between two objects? Draw a picture of the earth and the moon, including force vectors representing the interaction between the two objects. Label each force vector with words, as you did in problem # 0. According to Newton s Third Law, the moon pulls on the Earth with a force that is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force of the Earth on the moon. 7. Apply Newton s third law to a tugofwar. If the action is you pulling on the rope, is the reaction force the ground pushing back on you or your opponent pulling back on the rope or something else? If the action is you pulling on the rope, the reaction force is the rope pulling back on you.
5 8. Describe the relative motions of two people of equal mass who push off from each other on slippery ice. Then describe the relative motions of two people of different mass who push off each other on the ice. Use Newton s laws of motion in your explanations. Discuss the magnitudes of the forces involved as well as the resulting accelerations of the two people. If two people of equal mass push off from each other on slippery ice, the force of person # on person #2 is equal in magnitude to the force of person#2 on person #. Because both people have the same mass, this same force gives them the same accelerationexcept the forces and the accelerations are in opposite directions. If two people of different mass push off of each other, once again the two forces will be equal in magnitude and opposite in direction, but this equal force is now acting on different masses. So now, the person with the smaller mass will have a greater acceleration than the person with the larger mass. The accelerations will be in opposite directions, because the two forces acted in opposite directions. 9. What is the acceleration given to a 30.0kg block of cement when it is pulled sideways with a net force of 600 N? a = F net m a = 600N 30kg a = 20m /s A 600kg car and an 800kg truck both go from zero to 60.0 miles per hour in 0.0 seconds flat. Calculate the acceleration of each vehicle, including units with your answer. Do they have the same acceleration? Is the same force required to cause this amount of acceleration in each vehicle? Explain using Newton s laws of motion. a = Δv Δt Big truck acceleration: a = (60.0mi /hr 0) 0.0s = 6.00mi /hr /s Small truck acceleration: a = Yes, they have the same acceleration. (60.0mi /hr 0) 0.0s = 6.00mi /hr /s Different forces will be required to reach this acceleration because they have different masses: Newton s Second Law says that acceleration is directly proportional to the force on an object and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. So, to achieve the same acceleration, the larger mass (bigger truck) requires a greater force. The larger truck is three times as massive as the smaller truck, so three times the force will be required to accelerate it at the same rate as the smaller force. Conversions: Be sure to show your work and box in your final answer. Don t forget units!. How many seconds are in one year? yr x 365days 24hrs yr day 60min 60sec hr min = 3,536,000sec or x 07 sec
6 2. How many days are in a century? century 00yrs century 365days = 36,500days yr 3. How many millimeters are in a kilometer? km 03 m km 03 mm m = 06 mm 4. How many Gm are there in 2.56 x 0 9 pm? pm 0 2 m pm 5. How many Mg are there in 3.7 x 0 5 kg? kg Gm 0 9 m = Gm 03 g kg Mg 0 6 g Mg 6. How many nm are there in 8.64 x 0 9 µm? µm 7. How many mg are there in 2.89 cg? 2.89cg 0 6 m µm nm 0 9 m = nm 0 2 g cg mg 0 3 g = 28.9mg 8. How many cm 2 are in 400 m 2? 400m 2 ( ) 2 02 cm m ( ) 2 = 4.0x0 6 cm 2 9. How many m 3 are in 3.0 x 0 5 mm 3? 3.0x0 5 mm 3 ( m) mm 0. Convert 85 m/sec to nm/hr. 85 meters x 09 nm 60 sec x sec m min ( ) 3 = 3.0x0 4 m 3 x 60 min hr = 3.06x0 4 nm /hr
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