Conceptual Physics Review (Chapters 4, 5, & 6)

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Conceptual Physics Review (Chapters 4, 5, & 6)"

Transcription

1 Conceptual Physics Review (Chapters 4, 5, & 6) Solutions Sample Questions and Calculations. If you were in a spaceship and launched a cannonball into frictionless space, how much force would have to be exerted on the ball to keep it moving at a constant velocity? Explain in terms of Newton s laws of motion. To keep an object moving at a constant velocity requires a net force of zero, because acceleration is zero. If there is no friction (and the cannonball is not close enough to a large body such as a star or planet), then zero force would be required on the cannonball to keep it moving at a constant velocity. 2. Does a 2-kilogram rock have twice the mass of a -kilogram rock? Twice the inertia? Twice the weight (when weighed in the same location)? Yes, a 2-kilogram rock has twice the mass, twice the inertia, and twice the weight of a -kilogram rock. 3. If you hold a coin above your head while in a bus that is not moving (relative to the earth), the coin will land at your feet when you drop it. Where will it land if you drop it while the bus is moving in a straight line at constant speed (relative to the earth)? Explain in terms of Newton s laws of motion. The coin will still land at your feet if you drop it in a bus moving at constant speed in a straight line (constant velocity). The coin possesses inertia which means it will continue to move horizontally with the same speed and direction as it had before being dropped, because there is no horizontal force acting on it to change its horizontal motion. 4. Calculate in Newtons and in lbs the weight of a 2.50 kg melon. W = mg = 2.50kg 9.80m /s 2 = 24.5N 2.50kg 2.2lbs kg = 5.53 lbs 5. Susie Small weighs 300N. Explain what this means in terms of her gravitational interaction with the earth. Calculate Susie s mass in kilograms. Would her weight or her mass change if she were on a different planet? Susie s weight is simply the force of earth s gravity acting on her. W = mg m = W m = 300N = 30.6 kg 2 g 9.80m /s Susie s mass will not change if she s on a different planet. Mass is a measure of how much matter there is in a body, and doesn t change. Her weight will change on that different planet, however. 6. When you compress a sponge, what changes: its mass, its inertia, its weight, or its volume? Only the volume changes when you compress a sponge (assuming you didn t squeeze anything out of it).

2 7. If I went to a planet that had twice the gravity of earth, how would that affect my mass? How would it affect my weight? How would it affect my acceleration in free fall? My mass would not change, but my weight would double: W=mg on earth, and W=m(2g) Twice the gravity would also make the acceleration of free-fall twice as great. 8. What is the net force (sum of all forces) acting on an object in static equilibrium? In dynamic equilibrium? In both cases of equilibrium, the net force acting on the object is equal to zero, meaning the object is not accelerating. In static equilibrium, the object is also not moving; in dynamic equilibrium, the object is moving at a constant velocity. 9. True or false: If no force acts on a moving object, the object will eventually come to a stop. If it s false, explain why. False. If no force acts on a moving object, the net force equals zero, so it will continue at a constant speed in a straight line forever. 0. Suppose a pilot announces that the plane is flying at a constant 900km/h and the thrust of the engines is a constant 80,000 N. a. What is the acceleration of the airplane? Velocity is constant, so a=0. b. What is the net force acting on the airplane? Acceleration is zero, so net force =0. c. Are there any other forces that you can identify that are acting on the airplane other than the push of its engines? Gravity and air resistance are also acting on the plane, as well as the lift force that keeps it up in the air. d. Draw a picture of the plane with vectors representing all forces acting on the plane. This is a free body diagram for the plane. Label each force vector with what it represents (for example, Force of A pushing on B or Force of B pulling on A, but specify what exactly A and B are for the particular force).. Describe the motion of an object of fixed mass when a constant net force is applied to it. Discuss whether it is moving or not, and what you know about its velocity and its acceleration. Think about the skateboard lab. If a constant, non-zero, net force is applied to an object, it will be accelerating. The greater the net force applied to an object of a given mass, the greater the acceleration of the object.

3 2. A 00-kg skydiver is falling toward the earth. a. What is the skydiver s weight? W = mg = (00kg)(9.8m/s2) = 980 N b. Three seconds into his fall, the air resistance on the skydiver is 400 N. Draw a picture of the skydiver and clearly label (with words or symbols AND a numerical value) each vector to indicate what force it represents at this instant. Fair resistance=400n c. Determine the net force acting on the skydiver. Be sure to mention both the magnitude and the direction of the net force. Fgravity=980N Fnet = 980N 400N = 580 N downward d. What is the acceleration of the skydiver at this instant? F W R a = net = = = 5.8m /s2 m m a. When the force of air resistance on a falling object is equal to the object s weight, what is the net force on the object? (Think about the direction in which each force (weight and air resistance) acts.) In this case, the weight and the air resistance are acting in opposite directions, so if the magnitude of each is the same, the net force is equal to zero. b. Draw a picture of the object and use force vectors to represent all forces acting on the falling object. c. What is the acceleration of the object? Because net force = 0, acceleration will be =0. d. Does that mean that the object abruptly comes to a halt in midair at the instant that air resistance equals weight? Explain. No. It means that the acceleration is equal to zero, but whatever velocity the object had reached as it fell will remain constant when air resistance grows to be equal to the weight of the object. It will continue to fall at a constant velocity. 4. A skydiver jumps from a high-altitude balloon. Answer each of the following questions in a complete sentence or two. a. As she falls through the air, does her velocity increase, decrease, or stay the same? As she falls from the balloon, her velocity increases at first, then remains constant. b. Does air resistance increase, decrease, or stay the same? Air resistance increases (in a direction opposite to her motion) as her speed increases.

4 c. Does the force exerted on her by gravity increase, decrease, or stay the same? The force of gravity on her (mg) remains constant. d. Does the net force on her increase, decrease, or stay the same? The net force on her decreases as air resistance increases. e. Does her acceleration increase, decrease, or stay the same? Her acceleration decreases as the net force decreases. 5. After she jumps, a skydiver reaches terminal velocity after 0.0 seconds. a. Does she gain more speed during the first second of fall or the ninth second of fall? She gains more speed during the first second of fall. Acceleration =9.80m/s2 b. Compared with the first second of fall, does she fall a greater or lesser distance during the ninth second of fall? She falls a greater distance during the ninth second because her velocity is greater by then. 6. We know that the Earth pulls on the moon. Does the moon also pull on the earth? Which pull is stronger? Explain in terms of Newton s laws of motion. Which one of Newton s laws refers to interactions between two objects? Draw a picture of the earth and the moon, including force vectors representing the interaction between the two objects. Label each force vector with words, as you did in problem # 0. According to Newton s Third Law, the moon pulls on the Earth with a force that is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force of the Earth on the moon. 7. Apply Newton s third law to a tug-of-war. If the action is you pulling on the rope, is the reaction force the ground pushing back on you or your opponent pulling back on the rope or something else? If the action is you pulling on the rope, the reaction force is the rope pulling back on you.

5 8. Describe the relative motions of two people of equal mass who push off from each other on slippery ice. Then describe the relative motions of two people of different mass who push off each other on the ice. Use Newton s laws of motion in your explanations. Discuss the magnitudes of the forces involved as well as the resulting accelerations of the two people. If two people of equal mass push off from each other on slippery ice, the force of person # on person #2 is equal in magnitude to the force of person#2 on person #. Because both people have the same mass, this same force gives them the same acceleration---except the forces and the accelerations are in opposite directions. If two people of different mass push off of each other, once again the two forces will be equal in magnitude and opposite in direction, but this equal force is now acting on different masses. So now, the person with the smaller mass will have a greater acceleration than the person with the larger mass. The accelerations will be in opposite directions, because the two forces acted in opposite directions. 9. What is the acceleration given to a 30.0-kg block of cement when it is pulled sideways with a net force of 600 N? a = F net m a = 600N 30kg a = 20m /s A 600-kg car and an 800-kg truck both go from zero to 60.0 miles per hour in 0.0 seconds flat. Calculate the acceleration of each vehicle, including units with your answer. Do they have the same acceleration? Is the same force required to cause this amount of acceleration in each vehicle? Explain using Newton s laws of motion. a = Δv Δt Big truck acceleration: a = (60.0mi /hr 0) 0.0s = 6.00mi /hr /s Small truck acceleration: a = Yes, they have the same acceleration. (60.0mi /hr 0) 0.0s = 6.00mi /hr /s Different forces will be required to reach this acceleration because they have different masses: Newton s Second Law says that acceleration is directly proportional to the force on an object and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. So, to achieve the same acceleration, the larger mass (bigger truck) requires a greater force. The larger truck is three times as massive as the smaller truck, so three times the force will be required to accelerate it at the same rate as the smaller force. Conversions: Be sure to show your work and box in your final answer. Don t forget units!. How many seconds are in one year? yr x 365days 24hrs yr day 60min 60sec hr min = 3,536,000sec or x 07 sec

6 2. How many days are in a century? century 00yrs century 365days = 36,500days yr 3. How many millimeters are in a kilometer? km 03 m km 03 mm m = 06 mm 4. How many Gm are there in 2.56 x 0 9 pm? pm 0 2 m pm 5. How many Mg are there in 3.7 x 0 5 kg? kg Gm 0 9 m = Gm 03 g kg Mg 0 6 g Mg 6. How many nm are there in 8.64 x 0 9 µm? µm 7. How many mg are there in 2.89 cg? 2.89cg 0 6 m µm nm 0 9 m = nm 0 2 g cg mg 0 3 g = 28.9mg 8. How many cm 2 are in 400 m 2? 400m 2 ( ) 2 02 cm m ( ) 2 = 4.0x0 6 cm 2 9. How many m 3 are in 3.0 x 0 5 mm 3? 3.0x0 5 mm 3 ( m) mm 0. Convert 85 m/sec to nm/hr. 85 meters x 09 nm 60 sec x sec m min ( ) 3 = 3.0x0 4 m 3 x 60 min hr = 3.06x0 4 nm /hr

b. Velocity tells you both speed and direction of an object s movement. Velocity is the change in position divided by the change in time.

b. Velocity tells you both speed and direction of an object s movement. Velocity is the change in position divided by the change in time. I. What is Motion? a. Motion - is when an object changes place or position. To properly describe motion, you need to use the following: 1. Start and end position? 2. Movement relative to what? 3. How far

More information

circular motion & gravitation physics 111N

circular motion & gravitation physics 111N circular motion & gravitation physics 111N uniform circular motion an object moving around a circle at a constant rate must have an acceleration always perpendicular to the velocity (else the speed would

More information

Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion Force Units of Chapter 4 Newton s First Law of Motion Mass Newton s Second Law of Motion Newton s Third Law of Motion Weight the Force of Gravity; and the Normal

More information

Newton s Laws of Motion

Newton s Laws of Motion Section 3.2 Newton s Laws of Motion Objectives Analyze relationships between forces and motion Calculate the effects of forces on objects Identify force pairs between objects New Vocabulary Newton s first

More information

F13--HPhys--Q5 Practice

F13--HPhys--Q5 Practice Name: Class: Date: ID: A F13--HPhys--Q5 Practice Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A vector is a quantity that has a. time and direction.

More information

Chapter 4. Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion. continued

Chapter 4. Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion. continued Chapter 4 Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion continued Clicker Question 4.3 A mass at rest on a ramp. How does the friction between the mass and the table know how much force will EXACTLY balance the gravity

More information

TEACHER ANSWER KEY November 12, 2003. Phys - Vectors 11-13-2003

TEACHER ANSWER KEY November 12, 2003. Phys - Vectors 11-13-2003 Phys - Vectors 11-13-2003 TEACHER ANSWER KEY November 12, 2003 5 1. A 1.5-kilogram lab cart is accelerated uniformly from rest to a speed of 2.0 meters per second in 0.50 second. What is the magnitude

More information

Force. A force is a push or a pull. Pushing on a stalled car is an example. The force of friction between your feet and the ground is yet another.

Force. A force is a push or a pull. Pushing on a stalled car is an example. The force of friction between your feet and the ground is yet another. Force A force is a push or a pull. Pushing on a stalled car is an example. The force of friction between your feet and the ground is yet another. Force Weight is the force of the earth's gravity exerted

More information

NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION

NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION Background: Aristotle believed that the natural state of motion for objects on the earth was one of rest. In other words, objects needed a force to be kept in motion. Galileo studied

More information

Chapter 4 Newton s Laws: Explaining Motion

Chapter 4 Newton s Laws: Explaining Motion Chapter 4 Newton s s Laws: Explaining Motion Newton s Laws of Motion The concepts of force, mass, and weight play critical roles. A Brief History! Where do our ideas and theories about motion come from?!

More information

Conceptual Physics 11 th Edition

Conceptual Physics 11 th Edition Conceptual Physics 11 th Edition Chapter 5: NEWTON S THIRD LAW OF MOTION This lecture will help you understand: Forces and Interactions Newton s Third Law of Motion Summary of Newton s Laws Vectors Forces

More information

Physics 11 Assignment KEY Dynamics Chapters 4 & 5

Physics 11 Assignment KEY Dynamics Chapters 4 & 5 Physics Assignment KEY Dynamics Chapters 4 & 5 ote: for all dynamics problem-solving questions, draw appropriate free body diagrams and use the aforementioned problem-solving method.. Define the following

More information

Conceptual Physics Fundamentals

Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 4: NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION Newton s Laws of Motion I was only a scalar until you came along and gave me direction. Barbara Wolfe This lecture will help you understand:

More information

Chapter 4: Newton s Laws: Explaining Motion

Chapter 4: Newton s Laws: Explaining Motion Chapter 4: Newton s Laws: Explaining Motion 1. All except one of the following require the application of a net force. Which one is the exception? A. to change an object from a state of rest to a state

More information

Describe the relationship between gravitational force and distance as shown in the diagram.

Describe the relationship between gravitational force and distance as shown in the diagram. Name Period Chapter 2 The Laws of Motion Review Describe the relationship between gravitational force and distance as shown in the diagram. Assess the information about gravity, mass, and weight. Read

More information

2.1 Force and Motion Kinematics looks at velocity and acceleration without reference to the cause of the acceleration.

2.1 Force and Motion Kinematics looks at velocity and acceleration without reference to the cause of the acceleration. 2.1 Force and Motion Kinematics looks at velocity and acceleration without reference to the cause of the acceleration. Dynamics looks at the cause of acceleration: an unbalanced force. Isaac Newton was

More information

Review Chapters 2, 3, 4, 5

Review Chapters 2, 3, 4, 5 Review Chapters 2, 3, 4, 5 4) The gain in speed each second for a freely-falling object is about A) 0. B) 5 m/s. C) 10 m/s. D) 20 m/s. E) depends on the initial speed 9) Whirl a rock at the end of a string

More information

ACTIVITY 1: Gravitational Force and Acceleration

ACTIVITY 1: Gravitational Force and Acceleration CHAPTER 3 ACTIVITY 1: Gravitational Force and Acceleration LEARNING TARGET: You will determine the relationship between mass, acceleration, and gravitational force. PURPOSE: So far in the course, you ve

More information

Physics: Principles and Applications, 6e Giancoli Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion

Physics: Principles and Applications, 6e Giancoli Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion Physics: Principles and Applications, 6e Giancoli Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion Conceptual Questions 1) Which of Newton's laws best explains why motorists should buckle-up? A) the first law

More information

NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION

NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION Name Period Date NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION If I am anything, which I highly doubt, I have made myself so by hard work. Isaac Newton Goals: 1. Students will use conceptual and mathematical models to predict

More information

Forces. When an object is pushed or pulled, we say that a force is exerted on it.

Forces. When an object is pushed or pulled, we say that a force is exerted on it. Forces When an object is pushed or pulled, we say that a force is exerted on it. Forces can Cause an object to start moving Change the speed of a moving object Cause a moving object to stop moving Change

More information

Physics: Principles and Applications, 6e Giancoli Chapter 2 Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimension

Physics: Principles and Applications, 6e Giancoli Chapter 2 Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimension Physics: Principles and Applications, 6e Giancoli Chapter 2 Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimension Conceptual Questions 1) Suppose that an object travels from one point in space to another. Make

More information

Conceptual Questions: Forces and Newton s Laws

Conceptual Questions: Forces and Newton s Laws Conceptual Questions: Forces and Newton s Laws 1. An object can have motion only if a net force acts on it. his statement is a. true b. false 2. And the reason for this (refer to previous question) is

More information

Physics I Honors: Chapter 4 Practice Exam

Physics I Honors: Chapter 4 Practice Exam Physics I Honors: Chapter 4 Practice Exam Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following statements does not describe

More information

Understanding the motion of the Universe. Motion, Force, and Gravity

Understanding the motion of the Universe. Motion, Force, and Gravity Understanding the motion of the Universe Motion, Force, and Gravity Laws of Motion Stationary objects do not begin moving on their own. In the same way, moving objects don t change their movement spontaneously.

More information

Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion

Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion Units of Chapter 4 Force Newton s First Law of Motion Mass Newton s Second Law of Motion Newton s Third Law of Motion Weight the Force of Gravity; and the Normal

More information

STAAR Science Tutorial 25 TEK 8.6C: Newton s Laws

STAAR Science Tutorial 25 TEK 8.6C: Newton s Laws Name: Teacher: Pd. Date: STAAR Science Tutorial 25 TEK 8.6C: Newton s Laws TEK 8.6C: Investigate and describe applications of Newton's law of inertia, law of force and acceleration, and law of action-reaction

More information

Conceptual Physics 11 th Edition. Forces and Interactions. Newton s Third Law of Motion. This lecture will help you understand:

Conceptual Physics 11 th Edition. Forces and Interactions. Newton s Third Law of Motion. This lecture will help you understand: This lecture will help you understand: Conceptual Physics 11 th Edition Chapter 5: NEWTON S THIRD LAW OF MOTION Forces and Interactions Summary of Newton s Laws Vectors Forces and Interactions Interaction

More information

UNIT 2D. Laws of Motion

UNIT 2D. Laws of Motion Name: Regents Physics Date: Mr. Morgante UNIT 2D Laws of Motion Laws of Motion Science of Describing Motion is Kinematics. Dynamics- the study of forces that act on bodies in motion. First Law of Motion

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Vector A has length 4 units and directed to the north. Vector B has length 9 units and is directed

More information

Name Class Period. F = G m 1 m 2 d 2. G =6.67 x 10-11 Nm 2 /kg 2

Name Class Period. F = G m 1 m 2 d 2. G =6.67 x 10-11 Nm 2 /kg 2 Gravitational Forces 13.1 Newton s Law of Universal Gravity Newton discovered that gravity is universal. Everything pulls on everything else in the universe in a way that involves only mass and distance.

More information

More of Newton s Laws

More of Newton s Laws More of Newton s Laws Announcements: Tutorial Assignments due tomorrow. Pages 19-21, 23, 24 (not 22,25) Note Long Answer HW due this week. CAPA due on Friday. Have added together the clicker scores so

More information

Newton s Laws of Motion

Newton s Laws of Motion Newton s Laws of Motion The Earth revolves around the sun in an elliptical orbit. The moon orbits the Earth in the same way. But what keeps the Earth and the moon in orbit? Why don t they just fly off

More information

Newton s Laws. Physics 1425 lecture 6. Michael Fowler, UVa.

Newton s Laws. Physics 1425 lecture 6. Michael Fowler, UVa. Newton s Laws Physics 1425 lecture 6 Michael Fowler, UVa. Newton Extended Galileo s Picture of Galileo said: Motion to Include Forces Natural horizontal motion is at constant velocity unless a force acts:

More information

2 Newton s First Law of Motion Inertia

2 Newton s First Law of Motion Inertia 2 Newton s First Law of Motion Inertia Conceptual Physics Instructor Manual, 11 th Edition SOLUTIONS TO CHAPTER 2 RANKING 1. C, B, A 2. C, A, B, D 3. a. B, A, C, D b. B, A, C, D 4. a. A=B=C (no force)

More information

Newton s Laws. Newton s Imaginary Cannon. Michael Fowler Physics 142E Lec 6 Jan 22, 2009

Newton s Laws. Newton s Imaginary Cannon. Michael Fowler Physics 142E Lec 6 Jan 22, 2009 Newton s Laws Michael Fowler Physics 142E Lec 6 Jan 22, 2009 Newton s Imaginary Cannon Newton was familiar with Galileo s analysis of projectile motion, and decided to take it one step further. He imagined

More information

5. Forces and Motion-I. Force is an interaction that causes the acceleration of a body. A vector quantity.

5. Forces and Motion-I. Force is an interaction that causes the acceleration of a body. A vector quantity. 5. Forces and Motion-I 1 Force is an interaction that causes the acceleration of a body. A vector quantity. Newton's First Law: Consider a body on which no net force acts. If the body is at rest, it will

More information

356 CHAPTER 12 Bob Daemmrich

356 CHAPTER 12 Bob Daemmrich Standard 7.3.17: Investigate that an unbalanced force, acting on an object, changes its speed or path of motion or both, and know that if the force always acts toward the same center as the object moves,

More information

Newton s Wagon Newton s Laws

Newton s Wagon Newton s Laws Newton s Wagon Newton s Laws What happens when you kick a soccer ball? The kick is the external force that Newton was talking about in his first law of motion. What happens to the ball after you kick it?

More information

PHYS 117- Exam I. Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

PHYS 117- Exam I. Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. PHYS 117- Exam I Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Car A travels from milepost 343 to milepost 349 in 5 minutes. Car B travels

More information

Units DEMO spring scales masses

Units DEMO spring scales masses Dynamics the study of the causes and changes of motion Force Force Categories ContactField 4 fundamental Force Types 1 Gravity 2 Weak Nuclear Force 3 Electromagnetic 4 Strong Nuclear Force Units DEMO spring

More information

1. Newton s Laws of Motion and their Applications Tutorial 1

1. Newton s Laws of Motion and their Applications Tutorial 1 1. Newton s Laws of Motion and their Applications Tutorial 1 1.1 On a planet far, far away, an astronaut picks up a rock. The rock has a mass of 5.00 kg, and on this particular planet its weight is 40.0

More information

v v ax v a x a v a v = = = Since F = ma, it follows that a = F/m. The mass of the arrow is unchanged, and ( )

v v ax v a x a v a v = = = Since F = ma, it follows that a = F/m. The mass of the arrow is unchanged, and ( ) Week 3 homework IMPORTANT NOTE ABOUT WEBASSIGN: In the WebAssign versions of these problems, various details have been changed, so that the answers will come out differently. The method to find the solution

More information

Newton s Laws of Motion

Newton s Laws of Motion Physics Newton s Laws of Motion Newton s Laws of Motion 4.1 Objectives Explain Newton s first law of motion. Explain Newton s second law of motion. Explain Newton s third law of motion. Solve problems

More information

Name Period Chapter 10 Study Guide

Name Period Chapter 10 Study Guide Name _ Period Chapter 10 Study Guide Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. Unbalanced forces do not change an object s motion. 2. Friction depends on the types of surfaces

More information

B) 286 m C) 325 m D) 367 m Answer: B

B) 286 m C) 325 m D) 367 m Answer: B Practice Midterm 1 1) When a parachutist jumps from an airplane, he eventually reaches a constant speed, called the terminal velocity. This means that A) the acceleration is equal to g. B) the force of

More information

Physics 111: Lecture 4: Chapter 4 - Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion. Physics is about forces and how the world around us reacts to these forces.

Physics 111: Lecture 4: Chapter 4 - Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion. Physics is about forces and how the world around us reacts to these forces. Physics 111: Lecture 4: Chapter 4 - Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion Physics is about forces and how the world around us reacts to these forces. Whats a force? Contact and non-contact forces. Whats a

More information

Chapter 5 Newton s Laws of Motion

Chapter 5 Newton s Laws of Motion Chapter 5 Newton s Laws of Motion Force and Mass Units of Chapter 5 Newton s First Law of Motion Newton s Second Law of Motion Newton s Third Law of Motion The Vector Nature of Forces: Forces in Two Dimensions

More information

Worksheet #1 Free Body or Force diagrams

Worksheet #1 Free Body or Force diagrams Worksheet #1 Free Body or Force diagrams Drawing Free-Body Diagrams Free-body diagrams are diagrams used to show the relative magnitude and direction of all forces acting upon an object in a given situation.

More information

GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS PHYSICS 20 GRAVITATIONAL FORCES. Gravitational Fields (or Acceleration Due to Gravity) Symbol: Definition: Units:

GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS PHYSICS 20 GRAVITATIONAL FORCES. Gravitational Fields (or Acceleration Due to Gravity) Symbol: Definition: Units: GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS Gravitational Fields (or Acceleration Due to Gravity) Symbol: Definition: Units: Formula Description This is the formula for force due to gravity or as we call it, weight. Relevant

More information

4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction

4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction CHAPTER 1 SECTION Matter in Motion 4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is gravity? How are weight and mass different?

More information

AP1 Gravity. at an altitude equal to twice the radius (R) of the planet. What is the satellite s speed assuming a perfectly circular orbit?

AP1 Gravity. at an altitude equal to twice the radius (R) of the planet. What is the satellite s speed assuming a perfectly circular orbit? 1. A satellite of mass m S orbits a planet of mass m P at an altitude equal to twice the radius (R) of the planet. What is the satellite s speed assuming a perfectly circular orbit? (A) v = Gm P R (C)

More information

Chapter 5 Newton s Laws of Motion

Chapter 5 Newton s Laws of Motion Chapter 5 Newton s Laws of Motion Sir Isaac Newton (1642 1727) Developed a picture of the universe as a subtle, elaborate clockwork slowly unwinding according to well-defined rules. The book Philosophiae

More information

Physics 2A, Sec B00: Mechanics -- Winter 2011 Instructor: B. Grinstein Final Exam

Physics 2A, Sec B00: Mechanics -- Winter 2011 Instructor: B. Grinstein Final Exam Physics 2A, Sec B00: Mechanics -- Winter 2011 Instructor: B. Grinstein Final Exam INSTRUCTIONS: Use a pencil #2 to fill your scantron. Write your code number and bubble it in under "EXAM NUMBER;" an entry

More information

1) 0.33 m/s 2. 2) 2 m/s 2. 3) 6 m/s 2. 4) 18 m/s 2 1) 120 J 2) 40 J 3) 30 J 4) 12 J. 1) unchanged. 2) halved. 3) doubled.

1) 0.33 m/s 2. 2) 2 m/s 2. 3) 6 m/s 2. 4) 18 m/s 2 1) 120 J 2) 40 J 3) 30 J 4) 12 J. 1) unchanged. 2) halved. 3) doubled. Base your answers to questions 1 through 5 on the diagram below which represents a 3.0-kilogram mass being moved at a constant speed by a force of 6.0 Newtons. 4. If the surface were frictionless, the

More information

Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 5 LAWS OF MOTION

Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 5 LAWS OF MOTION 1 P a g e Inertia Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 5 LAWS OF MOTION The property of an object by virtue of which it cannot change its state of rest or of uniform motion along a straight line its own, is

More information

III. Applications of Force and Motion Concepts. Concept Review. Conflicting Contentions. 1. Airplane Drop 2. Moving Ball Toss 3. Galileo s Argument

III. Applications of Force and Motion Concepts. Concept Review. Conflicting Contentions. 1. Airplane Drop 2. Moving Ball Toss 3. Galileo s Argument III. Applications of Force and Motion Concepts Concept Review Conflicting Contentions 1. Airplane Drop 2. Moving Ball Toss 3. Galileo s Argument Qualitative Reasoning 1. Dropping Balls 2. Spinning Bug

More information

Section 3 Newton s Laws of Motion

Section 3 Newton s Laws of Motion Section 3 Newton s Laws of Motion Key Concept Newton s laws of motion describe the relationship between forces and the motion of an object. What You Will Learn Newton s first law of motion states that

More information

Understanding the motion of the Universe. Motion, Force, and Gravity

Understanding the motion of the Universe. Motion, Force, and Gravity Understanding the motion of the Universe Motion, Force, and Gravity Laws of Motion Stationary objects do not begin moving on their own. In the same way, moving objects don t change their movement spontaneously.

More information

Catapult Engineering Pilot Workshop. LA Tech STEP 2007-2008

Catapult Engineering Pilot Workshop. LA Tech STEP 2007-2008 Catapult Engineering Pilot Workshop LA Tech STEP 2007-2008 Some Background Info Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) did experiments regarding Acceleration. He realized that the change in velocity of balls rolling

More information

This week s homework. 2 parts Quiz on Friday, Ch. 4 Today s class: Newton s third law Friction Pulleys tension. PHYS 2: Chap.

This week s homework. 2 parts Quiz on Friday, Ch. 4 Today s class: Newton s third law Friction Pulleys tension. PHYS 2: Chap. This week s homework. 2 parts Quiz on Friday, Ch. 4 Today s class: Newton s third law Friction Pulleys tension PHYS 2: Chap. 19, Pg 2 1 New Topic Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 3 A 2.0 kg wood box slides down a vertical

More information

Name: Partners: Period: Coaster Option: 1. In the space below, make a sketch of your roller coaster.

Name: Partners: Period: Coaster Option: 1. In the space below, make a sketch of your roller coaster. 1. In the space below, make a sketch of your roller coaster. 2. On your sketch, label different areas of acceleration. Put a next to an area of negative acceleration, a + next to an area of positive acceleration,

More information

1. The unit of force, a Newton, is equal to a. The amount of mass in an object c. kg m/s b. Mass X Velocity d. kg m/s 2

1. The unit of force, a Newton, is equal to a. The amount of mass in an object c. kg m/s b. Mass X Velocity d. kg m/s 2 Forces in Motion Test- FORM B Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The unit of force, a Newton, is equal to a. The amount of mass in an object

More information

CHAPTER 6 WORK AND ENERGY

CHAPTER 6 WORK AND ENERGY CHAPTER 6 WORK AND ENERGY CONCEPTUAL QUESTIONS. REASONING AND SOLUTION The work done by F in moving the box through a displacement s is W = ( F cos 0 ) s= Fs. The work done by F is W = ( F cos θ). s From

More information

Student Exploration: Gravitational Force

Student Exploration: Gravitational Force 5. Drag STUDENT PACKET # 7 Name: Date: Student Exploration: Gravitational Force Big Idea 13: Forces and Changes in Motion Benchmark: SC.6.P.13.1 Investigate and describe types of forces including contact

More information

8. Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy Potential Energy: When an object has potential to have work done on it, it is said to have potential

8. Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy Potential Energy: When an object has potential to have work done on it, it is said to have potential 8. Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy Potential Energy: When an object has potential to have work done on it, it is said to have potential energy, e.g. a ball in your hand has more potential energy

More information

Notes: Mechanics. The Nature of Force, Motion & Energy

Notes: Mechanics. The Nature of Force, Motion & Energy Notes: Mechanics The Nature of Force, Motion & Energy I. Force A push or pull. a) A force is needed to change an object s state of motion. b) Net force- The sum (addition) of all the forces acting on an

More information

Newton s Universal Law of Gravitation The Apple and the Moon Video

Newton s Universal Law of Gravitation The Apple and the Moon Video Name Date Pd Newton s Universal Law of Gravitation The Apple and the Moon Video Objectives Recognize that a gravitational force exists between any two objects and that the force is directly proportional

More information

tps Q: If the Earth were located at 0.5 AU instead of 1 AU, how would the Sun s gravitational force on Earth change?

tps Q: If the Earth were located at 0.5 AU instead of 1 AU, how would the Sun s gravitational force on Earth change? tps Q: If the Earth were located at 0.5 AU instead of 1 AU, how would the Sun s gravitational force on Earth change? A. It would be one-fourth as strong. B. It would be one-half as strong. C. It would

More information

B) 40.8 m C) 19.6 m D) None of the other choices is correct. Answer: B

B) 40.8 m C) 19.6 m D) None of the other choices is correct. Answer: B Practice Test 1 1) Abby throws a ball straight up and times it. She sees that the ball goes by the top of a flagpole after 0.60 s and reaches the level of the top of the pole after a total elapsed time

More information

Serway_ISM_V1 1 Chapter 4

Serway_ISM_V1 1 Chapter 4 Serway_ISM_V1 1 Chapter 4 ANSWERS TO MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Newton s second law gives the net force acting on the crate as This gives the kinetic friction force as, so choice (a) is correct. 2. As

More information

LeaPS Workshop March 12, 2010 Morehead Conference Center Morehead, KY

LeaPS Workshop March 12, 2010 Morehead Conference Center Morehead, KY LeaPS Workshop March 12, 2010 Morehead Conference Center Morehead, KY Word Bank: Acceleration, mass, inertia, weight, gravity, work, heat, kinetic energy, potential energy, closed systems, open systems,

More information

Force & Motion. Force & Mass. Friction

Force & Motion. Force & Mass. Friction 1 2 3 4 Next Force & Motion The motion of an object can be changed by an unbalanced force. The way that the movement changes depends on the strength of the force pushing or pulling and the mass of the

More information

CLASS TEST GRADE 11. PHYSICAL SCIENCES: PHYSICS Test 1: Mechanics

CLASS TEST GRADE 11. PHYSICAL SCIENCES: PHYSICS Test 1: Mechanics CLASS TEST GRADE 11 PHYSICAL SCIENCES: PHYSICS Test 1: Mechanics MARKS: 45 TIME: 1 hour INSTRUCTIONS AND INFORMATION 1. Answer ALL the questions. 2. You may use non-programmable calculators. 3. You may

More information

LAWS OF FORCE AND MOTION

LAWS OF FORCE AND MOTION reflect Does anything happen without a cause? Many people would say yes, because that often seems to be our experience. A cup near the edge of a table suddenly crashes to the fl oor. An apple falls from

More information

Version A Page 1. 1. The diagram shows two bowling balls, A and B, each having a mass of 7.00 kilograms, placed 2.00 meters apart.

Version A Page 1. 1. The diagram shows two bowling balls, A and B, each having a mass of 7.00 kilograms, placed 2.00 meters apart. Physics Unit Exam, Kinematics 1. The diagram shows two bowling balls, A and B, each having a mass of 7.00 kilograms, placed 2.00 meters apart. What is the magnitude of the gravitational force exerted by

More information

Q1. (a) State the difference between vector and scalar quantities (1)

Q1. (a) State the difference between vector and scalar quantities (1) Q1. (a) State the difference between vector and scalar quantities....... (1) (b) State one example of a vector quantity (other than force) and one example of a scalar quantity. vector quantity... scalar

More information

Q: Who established the law of universal gravitation? A: Newton. Q: What is a spring scale used for? A: To measure weight

Q: Who established the law of universal gravitation? A: Newton. Q: What is a spring scale used for? A: To measure weight Q: Who established the law of universal gravitation? A: Newton Q: What is a spring scale used for? A: To measure weight Q: What is the Law of Universal Gravitation? A: Everything in the universe has gravity.

More information

VELOCITY, ACCELERATION, FORCE

VELOCITY, ACCELERATION, FORCE VELOCITY, ACCELERATION, FORCE velocity Velocity v is a vector, with units of meters per second ( m s ). Velocity indicates the rate of change of the object s position ( r ); i.e., velocity tells you how

More information

C B A T 3 T 2 T 1. 1. What is the magnitude of the force T 1? A) 37.5 N B) 75.0 N C) 113 N D) 157 N E) 192 N

C B A T 3 T 2 T 1. 1. What is the magnitude of the force T 1? A) 37.5 N B) 75.0 N C) 113 N D) 157 N E) 192 N Three boxes are connected by massless strings and are resting on a frictionless table. Each box has a mass of 15 kg, and the tension T 1 in the right string is accelerating the boxes to the right at a

More information

Chapter 4. Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion. continued

Chapter 4. Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion. continued Chapter 4 Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion continued 4.9 Static and Kinetic Frictional Forces When an object is in contact with a surface forces can act on the objects. The component of this force acting

More information

Inertia, Forces, and Acceleration: The Legacy of Sir Isaac Newton

Inertia, Forces, and Acceleration: The Legacy of Sir Isaac Newton Inertia, Forces, and Acceleration: The Legacy of Sir Isaac Newton Position is a Vector Compare A A ball is 12 meters North of the Sun God to A A ball is 10 meters from here A vector has both a direction

More information

Physical Science Chapter 2. Forces

Physical Science Chapter 2. Forces Physical Science Chapter 2 Forces The Nature of Force By definition, a Force is a push or a pull. A Push Or A Pull Just like Velocity & Acceleration Forces have both magnitude and direction components

More information

Kepler, Newton and Gravitation

Kepler, Newton and Gravitation Kepler, Newton and Gravitation Kepler, Newton and Gravity 1 Using the unit of distance 1 AU = Earth-Sun distance PLANETS COPERNICUS MODERN Mercury 0.38 0.387 Venus 0.72 0.723 Earth 1.00 1.00 Mars 1.52

More information

1. Mass, Force and Gravity

1. Mass, Force and Gravity STE Physics Intro Name 1. Mass, Force and Gravity Before attempting to understand force, we need to look at mass and acceleration. a) What does mass measure? The quantity of matter(atoms) b) What is the

More information

Physics 160 Biomechanics. Newton s Laws

Physics 160 Biomechanics. Newton s Laws Physics 160 Biomechanics Newton s Laws Questions to Think About Why does it take more force to cause an object to start sliding than it does to keep it sliding? Why is a ligament more likely to tear during

More information

Homework 4. problems: 5.61, 5.67, 6.63, 13.21

Homework 4. problems: 5.61, 5.67, 6.63, 13.21 Homework 4 problems: 5.6, 5.67, 6.6,. Problem 5.6 An object of mass M is held in place by an applied force F. and a pulley system as shown in the figure. he pulleys are massless and frictionless. Find

More information

Chapter 07 Test A. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chapter 07 Test A. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Class: Date: Chapter 07 Test A Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. An example of a vector quantity is: a. temperature. b. length. c. velocity.

More information

8. As a cart travels around a horizontal circular track, the cart must undergo a change in (1) velocity (3) speed (2) inertia (4) weight

8. As a cart travels around a horizontal circular track, the cart must undergo a change in (1) velocity (3) speed (2) inertia (4) weight 1. What is the average speed of an object that travels 6.00 meters north in 2.00 seconds and then travels 3.00 meters east in 1.00 second? 9.00 m/s 3.00 m/s 0.333 m/s 4.24 m/s 2. What is the distance traveled

More information

PHYSICS 149: Lecture 4

PHYSICS 149: Lecture 4 PHYSICS 149: Lecture 4 Chapter 2 2.3 Inertia and Equilibrium: Newton s First Law of Motion 2.4 Vector Addition Using Components 2.5 Newton s Third Law 1 Net Force The net force is the vector sum of all

More information

Physics 100 Friction Lab

Physics 100 Friction Lab Åsa Bradley SFCC Physics Name: AsaB@spokanefalls.edu 509 533 3837 Lab Partners: Physics 100 Friction Lab Two major types of friction are static friction and kinetic (also called sliding) friction. Static

More information

Mass, energy, power and time are scalar quantities which do not have direction.

Mass, energy, power and time are scalar quantities which do not have direction. Dynamics Worksheet Answers (a) Answers: A vector quantity has direction while a scalar quantity does not have direction. Answers: (D) Velocity, weight and friction are vector quantities. Note: weight and

More information

5.1 Vector and Scalar Quantities. A vector quantity includes both magnitude and direction, but a scalar quantity includes only magnitude.

5.1 Vector and Scalar Quantities. A vector quantity includes both magnitude and direction, but a scalar quantity includes only magnitude. Projectile motion can be described by the horizontal ontal and vertical components of motion. In the previous chapter we studied simple straight-line motion linear motion. Now we extend these ideas to

More information

Rocketry for Kids. Science Level 4. Newton s Laws

Rocketry for Kids. Science Level 4. Newton s Laws Rocketry for Kids Science Level 4 Newton s Laws Victorian Space Science Education Centre 400 Pascoe Vale Road Strathmore, Vic 3041 www.vssec.vic.edu.au Some material for this program has been derived from

More information

8. Newton's Law of Gravitation

8. Newton's Law of Gravitation 2 8. Newton's Law Gravitation Rev.nb 8. Newton's Law of Gravitation Introduction and Summary There is one other major law due to Newton that will be used in this course and this is his famous Law of Universal

More information

PHY231 Section 2, Form A March 22, 2012. 1. Which one of the following statements concerning kinetic energy is true?

PHY231 Section 2, Form A March 22, 2012. 1. Which one of the following statements concerning kinetic energy is true? 1. Which one of the following statements concerning kinetic energy is true? A) Kinetic energy can be measured in watts. B) Kinetic energy is always equal to the potential energy. C) Kinetic energy is always

More information

force (mass)(acceleration) or F ma The unbalanced force is called the net force, or resultant of all the forces acting on the system.

force (mass)(acceleration) or F ma The unbalanced force is called the net force, or resultant of all the forces acting on the system. 4 Forces 4-1 Forces and Acceleration Vocabulary Force: A push or a pull. When an unbalanced force is exerted on an object, the object accelerates in the direction of the force. The acceleration is proportional

More information

How Rockets Work Newton s Laws of Motion

How Rockets Work Newton s Laws of Motion How Rockets Work Whether flying a small model rocket or launching a giant cargo rocket to Mars, the principles of how rockets work are exactly the same. Understanding and applying these principles means

More information

Lecture Outline Chapter 5. Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outline Chapter 5. Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outline Chapter 5 Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker Chapter 5 Newton s Laws of Motion Dynamics Force and Mass Units of Chapter 5 Newton s 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd Laws of Motion The Vector Nature

More information

Lecture 5: Newton s Laws. Astronomy 111

Lecture 5: Newton s Laws. Astronomy 111 Lecture 5: Newton s Laws Astronomy 111 Isaac Newton (1643-1727): English Discovered: three laws of motion, one law of universal gravitation. Newton s great book: Newton s laws are universal in scope,

More information