General Physics I Can Statements


 Lillian Stafford
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1 General Physics I Can Statements Motion (Kinematics) 1. I can describe motion in terms of position (x), displacement (Δx), distance (d), speed (s), velocity (v), acceleration (a), and time (t). A. I can differentiate between vector and scalar quantities in measurement. a. I can understand that vectors are measurement quantities that have both magnitude and direction and depend on a frame of reference. b. I can list examples of vector quantities in motion. i. Displacement ii. Velocity iii. Acceleration c. I can understand that scalars are measurement quantities that have only magnitude but not direction. d. I can list examples of scalar quantities in motion. i. Distance ii. Speed iii. Time B. I can use a frame of reference to describe the position (x) of an object. a. I can accurately measure the position of an object from an origin with a meter rule using the correct amount of significant figures in the measurement. b. I can understand that the positive or negative sign of the measurement of position refers to the distance from the origin as defined by the frame of reference. c. I can calculate displacement as defined as the change in the position of an object (Δx = x final x initial ). d. I can explain why the displacement does not always the distance travelled. e. I can recognize and convert between common units of position, displacement, and distance. i. Millimeters ii. Centimeters iii. Meters (SI unit) iv. Kilometers C. I can describe the velocity of an object. a. I can define velocity as a vector quantity that is equal to the rate of change of displacement per time (v = Δx Δt ). b. I can compare and contrast velocity and speed. i. Velocity 1. Vector having both magnitude and direction. a. I can explain why positive and negative values for velocity correspond to the direction not the magnitude of the speed. 2. The rate of change of displacement per time (v = Δx Δt ). ( ii. Speed (4.1) 1. Scalar having only magnitude.
2 2. The rate of change of distance per time (s = Δd Δt ). iii. Velocity and Speed (4.1) 1. Both measure the rate of change of motion. 2. Both are measured in the SI unit of meters per second (m/s). c. Given displacement and time, I can calculate the velocity of an object using v = Δx Δt. d. Given displacement and time, I can calculate the speed of an object using s = Δd. Δt e. I can differentiate between average velocity and instantaneous velocity. i. Average velocity 1. I can describe average velocity as the average over a given time period but not necessarily constant. I can calculate average velocity as the total displacement over a given time period: v = Δx Δt = x f x i t f  t i 2. I can use lab equipment such as a timer and photogates to calculate the average velocity of an object. ii. Instantaneous velocity 1. I can describe instantaneous velocity as the velocity at a given instant in time. 2. I can use lab equipment such as a timer and a photogate to calculate the instantaneous velocity of an object. f. I can construct and interpret a position time graph. i. I can identify the independent and dependent variables on the position time graph. 1. Independent variable = time (xaxis) 2. Dependent variable = position (yaxis) ii. I can calculate the slope of the position time graph to represent the velocity of the object. 1. v = Δx Δt = x f x i t f  t i = slope of the linea. If line is horizontal, slope = 0, velocity = 0 m/s. Object is stationary. b. If slope is horizontal, object is moving in the positive direction. c. If slope is negative, object is moving in the negative direction. d. The steeper the slope (positive or negative), the faster the object is moving. e. The flatter the slope (positive or negative), the slower the object is moving. f. If the slope is increasing (graph is a curve), the velocity is changing and acceleration is occurring. D. I can describe the acceleration of an object. a. I can define acceleration as a vector quantity that is equal to the rate of change of velocity per time (a = Δv Δt = v final v initial t final  t initial ). 1. I can understand that a negative value for acceleration means that the object is slowing down (if moving in the positive direction). 2. I can understand that because acceleration is a vector, an object that is moving at a constant speed but changes direction is still accelerating. 3. I can define the SI unit for acceleration as m/s 2.
3 b. Given the change in velocity and time, I can calculate the acceleration of an object using a = Δv Δt = v final v initial t final  t initial c. I can construct and interpret a velocity time graph. i. I can identify the independent and dependent variables on the velocity time graph. 1. Independent variable = time (xaxis) 2. Dependent variable = velocity (yaxis) ii. I can calculate the slope of the velocity time graph to represent the acceleration of the object. 1. slope of line = a = Δv Δt = v final v initial t final  t initial 2. a. If line is horizontal, slope = 0, acceleration = 0 m/s. Object is moving at a constant velocity. b. If slope is horizontal, object has a positive acceleration. c. If slope is negative, object has a negative acceleration. d. I can understand that all objects in freefall accelerate at the same rate due to the Earth s gravitational acceleration (9.8 m/s 2 ) Forces (Dynamics) 1. I can describe types of forces as anything having the ability to change the motion of an object. a. I can identify and classify various types of forces. i. Contact forces 1. Applied forces that push or pull 2. Frictional forces 1. Forces that oppose the direction of motion 2. Air resistance 3. Normal 1. Forces that act perpendicular to the surface of an object. 4. Tension 1. Forces that occur due to the pulling force of cables or ropes. 5. Elastic 1. Forces that occur due to the elastic nature of springs or other objects. ii. Field forces 1. I can order the elementary field forces from strongest to weakest. 1. Strong nuclear force 2. Electromagnetic force 3. Weak nuclear force 4. Gravitational force 2. Other field force examples 1. Magnetic force 2. Electric force 3. I can relate the inverse square law to various types of field forces.
4 2. I can recognize forces as vector quantities having both magnitude and direction. a. I can construct free body diagrams showing the force vectors that are acting on an object. b. I can identify the SI unit of force is the Newton (N). i. I can define a Newton to be the amount of force needed to cause a 1kg object to accelerate at 1 m/s I can use Newton s Laws of Motion to describe how forces affect the motion of an object. a. I can define and apply Newton s First Law of Inertia. i. Objects in motion will stay in motion and objects at rest will stay at rest unless acted upon by an outside force. ii. I can define inertia as the tendency of an object to remain in its present state of motion. 1. I can understand that the inertia of an object increases with the mass of an object. iii. I can explain that forces may be present even if an object is at rest because the net force is zero. iv. I can explain how an object may still be moving at a constant velocity if there is a net force of zero. b. I can define and use Newton s Second Law to describe how forces affect the motion of an object. i. I can understand that the rate at which an object changes its velocity is directly proportional to the net force acting on the object. ii. I can understand that the rate at which an object changes its velocity is inversely proportional to the mass of an object. iii. I can explain Newton s Second Law in terms of the equation F net = ma. 1. Given the mass and acceleration I can calculate the net force acting on an object. c. I can define and use Newton s Third Law to describe how forces affect the motion of an object. i. I can explain how every action must have an equal and opposite reaction ii. I can identify force pairs acting on an object. 4. I can differentiate between the weight and the mass of an object. a. I can explain how weight is a force due to gravitational attraction between objects. i. I can explain how the gravitational attraction is caused by both the masses of objects and the distance between the two objects. 1. I can explain how the gravitational force increases as the mass of an object increases. 1. Comparison of gravity on the Earth vs. the moon 2. I can explain how the gravitational force decreases as the distance between objects increases. 1. Comparison of weights of mass at sea level vs. Mt. Everest b. I can calculate the weight of an object on Earth in Newtons using the formula: Weight = 9.8 x mass of the object or F g = mg where g = 9.8m/s 2 Energy
5 1. I can define and apply the Law of Conservation of Energy to closed systems in which energy is never lost nor gained but transformed from one type to another. 2. I can compare and contrast various types of energy. a. Kinetic Energy i. I can describe kinetic energy as the energy due to the movement of matter. ii. I can use the equation E k = ½ mv 2 to calculate the amount of kinetic energy in Joules (J). iii. I can use the Law of Conservation of Energy to convert between kinetic and gravitational potential energy in a closed system using the equation: Total Mechanical Energy = E k + E g = ½ mv 2 + mgh b. Potential Energy i. Gravitational 1. I can define gravitational potential energy as the energy due to an object s height or position in a gravitational field. 2. I can use the equation E g = mgh to calculate potential energy in Joules (J). 3. I can describe gravitational potential energy in terms of mutually attracting masses. ii. I can explain how mass is a form of energy using E=mc 2 3. I can use work to explain how energy can be transferred over a specified distance. a. I can define work as the amount of force applied over a certain displacement. b. I can understand that to do work, the applied force must be in the same direction as the displacement. c. I can realize that if the force applied is perpendicular to the direction of the motion that no work has been done. d. I can use the formula W = FΔx to calculate how work is the product of the applied force times the displacement as measured in Joules (J). Electricity 1. Electric Charges a. I can explain the electric interactions of the electric force between any two charged objects. b. I can use Coulombs law to calculate the electric force between charged objects. c. I can predict how the electric force will vary in relation to changes in distance or magnitude of charges 2. Electric Charges Interactions a. I can explain charging by conduction b. I can explain charging by induction 3. Electrical Circuits and Energy ii. I can explain electrical energy as the movement of electrons. I can construct basic electric circuits. 1. I can determine if a circuit is open or closed. iii. I can define and identify basic circuit elements and their symbols. 1. Battery 2. Wire 3. Resistor 4. Bulb iv. I can differentiate between series and parallel circuits.
6 v. I can define and contrast electrical quantities. 1. Charge 2. Current 3. Potential Difference 4. Resistance 4. Electromagnetic Force i. I can explain how the interaction of electric and magnetic forces is the basis for electric motors, generators, and the production of electromagnetic waves ii. I can explain how a changing electric field creates a magnetic field and a changing magnetic field creates an electric field. iii. I can explain how an electromagnet functions. Waves 1. I can describe how various types of waves transfer energy. a. I can define and identify characteristics of waves. i. Period 1. Given the frequency, I can use the equation (T = 1 ) to calculate the period of a f wave as measured in seconds. 2. I can understand how period and frequency are inversely proportional. ii. Frequency 1. Given the period I can use the equation (f = 1 ) to calculate the frequency of a T wave as measured in Hertz (Hz). iii. Wavelength 1. I can understand how wavelength and frequency are inversely proportional. iv. Wave speed 1. I can use the equation v = λf to calculate wave speed given the wavelength and frequency. 2. I can understand that the wave speed remains constant as long as the material through which the wave is passing remains uniform. 3. I can contrast how waves can change speed depending on the medium. v. Cycle vi. Amplitude b. I can use simple harmonic motion to explain the basic characteristics of waves. i. I can give examples of simple harmonic motion. ii. I can interpret of graph of simple harmonic motion and label the basic characteristics of waves. 1. Period 2. Frequency 3. Wavelength 4. Cycle 5. Amplitude 6. Crest 7. Trough c. I can compare and contrast transverse and longitudinal waves i. Transverse waves 1. I can explain how transverse waves move perpendicular to their direction of
7 motion. 2. I can list examples of transverse waves. 1. Water waves 2. Light waves 3. Electromagnetic radiation ii. Longitudinal waves 1. I can explain how longitudinal waves move parallel to their direction of motion. i. I can define compression and rarefication in explaining the movement of longitudinal waves. 2. I can explain how sound waves are longitudinal waves and require matter to transport them. d. I can interpret the electromagnetic spectrum. i. I can rank electromagnetic radiation based on order of the following: 1. Wavelength 2. Frequency 3. Energy ii. I can use the speed of light in a vacuum as 3.0 x 10 8 m/s to all types of electromagnetic radiation when using the equation v = λf in order to calculate wavelength and frequency. iii. I can explain how electromagnetic waves do not need matter to be present to travel and therefore are able to transmit energy throughout the universe. e. I can compare and contrast types of wave motion. i. Reflection 1. I can diagram how a plane wave experiences reflection when meeting a boundary. 2. I can predict the angle at which a wave will reflect when meeting a boundary. ii. Refraction 1. I can explain how waves can change direction as it passes through differing types of materials. 2. I can explain how waves travel at different speeds depending on the type of material. iii. Diffraction 1. I can diagram how waves bend when passing through a small slit or opening. f. I can predict wave behavior when two or more waves exist at the same point in terms of the principle of superposition. i. Constructive Interference 1. I can diagram and explain how waves in the same phase exhibit constructive interference. ii. Destructive Interference 1. I can diagram and explain how waves that are out of phase exhibit destructive interference. g. I can use the Doppler Effect to describe the how the behavior of a wave can change based on the position of the observer. i. I can describe how a wave moving away from the observer experiences a longer wavelength and shorter frequency. 1. I can use the Doppler effect to explain red shifts in the universe. ii. I can describe how a wave moving towards the observer experiences a shorter wavelength and longer frequency.
8 1. I can use the Doppler effect to explain blue shifts in the universe.
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