UNDERSTANDING CAMBODIA S NATIONAL BUDGET 2006

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1 UNDERSTANDING CAMBODIA S NATIONAL BUDGET 2006 Supported by: WORLD BANK May 2006 ECONOMIC INSTITUTE of CAMBODIA

2 What is a National Budget? Cambodia's national budget is both a plan for fund raising, and a spending plan to ensure funds are used effectively for the benefit of the Cambodian people. This plan is made by the Royal Government of Cambodia and adopted by the National Assembly and the Senate. Like some individuals or families, the government does not have enough money to carry out all the programs it needs. Therefore, the government plans ahead. It estimates how much money will be available in the coming financial year (1st January to 31st December). In a consultative manner, it decides on the most important activities to be undertaken to improve the quality of life for citizens. 1

3 Domestic Revenue Domestic revenue includes money collected by the tax department, customs department, and non-tax department of the Ministry of Economy and Finance. Domestic revenue is also comprised of non-tax revenues raised by some government institutions within other ministries. In Cambodia, there are hundreds of kinds of taxes and government fees. Economists or tax professionals generally divide the domestic revenue into four main classifications: direct taxes, indirect taxes, international trade taxes, and non-tax revenue. The following table shows who collects what, and how much*: *in billions of riel 2

4 Revenue from Direct Taxes The direct taxes are comprised mainly of tax on salary, tax on profit, and tax on land and property. Tax officers directly receive these taxes from individuals or companies. In 2006, the government expects to collect CR 205 billion from direct taxes, indicating an increase of 23 percent compared with the national budget of Tax on profit is the most important direct taxes in Cambodia, representing about 74 percent of total direct taxes in 2006, while taxes on salary and on property represent only 19 percent and 7 percent, respectively. 3

5 Revenue from Indirect Taxes The indirect taxes are comprised mainly of value added taxes, and excise taxes on consumer goods and machinery, which are imported or locally produced. These taxes are not directly perceived by users or buyers, but from importers, producers or traders. The amount of these taxes is already included in sale prices. In 2006, the government expects to collect CR 1,238 billion from indirect taxes, showing an increase of 22 percent compared with the national budget of Value added taxes represent about 65 percent of the total indirect taxes. 4

6 Revenue from International Trade Taxes International trade taxes, or "customs duties" are applied on imported and exported goods. Therefore, these taxes are directly received from importers or exporters by customs officers. Like indirect taxes, the final consumers do not perceive these taxes, as its amount is already included in sale prices. In 2006, the government expects to collect CR 692 billion from international trade taxes, an increase of 23 percent compared with the national budget of The taxes on imported goods represent about 96 percent of the total international trade taxes. 5

7 Non-tax Revenue The non-tax revenue generally includes government fees on the concessions of state properties, such as fishing lots, forestry, state owned enterprises or real estate. Fees for the rights of doing some business, such as telecommunication and casino, constitute an important source of non-tax revenue. Revenue generated from privatization and sales of state properties could be included in the non-tax revenue. In Cambodia, the amount of this revenue is insignificant. In 2006, the government expects to raise CR 678 billion from overall non-tax revenue, of which CR 228 billion are generated from tourism related activities, CR 120 billion from telecommunication, CR 50 billion from casino, and CR 40 billion from the sale of state property. 6

8 Budget Spending In order to provide public services to the citizen, the government expects to spend a total of CR 3,718 billion on the salary of civil servants, general operational activities, and public investments, such as roads, schools, and hospitals, in In 2006, the government expects to dedicate CR 793 billion to the salary of the civil servants, an increase of 9 percent compared with the 2005 budget. However, the spending on the general operational activities should amount to CR 1,621 billion, increasing 29 percent from the 2005 budget. In its spending programs, the government has identified four "Priority Sectors". Special attention has been given to these ministries: Education, Public Health, Agriculture, and Rural Development. Priority Sectors 21% Defense and Security 13% Public Investment 36% Other Ministries 30% 7

9 Spending on Priority Sectors In the 2006 national budget, the four priority ministries of Education, Public Health, Agriculture, and Rural Development, have an allowance of CR 793 billion, which corresponds to an increase of 17 percent compared with the 2005 budget. This amount is equal to 21 percent of the total national budget spending. Education represents about 56 percent of the total, followed by Public Health (33 percent). Agriculture and Rural Development together represent only 11 percent of the total spending of the priority sectors. Additional priority areas for 2006 will be labor and vocational training, gender, and land management. 8

10 Spending on Defense and Security In order to protect the country's territorial integrity, and guarantee security and safety of citizens, the Cambodian government expects to spend CR 488 billion in its 2006 national budget, an increase of 8 percent compared with the 2005 national budget. The budget allocated for Defense and Security represents 13 percent of the total 2006 national budget. The National Defense represents 64 percent of the total budget allocated for Defense and Security in

11 Spending on Other Ministries In order to ensure the functioning of the public administration, the Cambodian government allocated CR 1,133 billion of its national budget 2006 for the rest of the ministries and state institutions. This amount provides a substantial increase of 33 percent compared with the national budget of The budget of the Royal Palace, Senate, National Assembly, and Council of Ministers amounts to CR 168 billion and represents 5 percent of the total 2006 national budget. It was increased by 21% compared with the 2005 budget. 10

12 Spending on Public Investment Understanding Cambodia's National Budget 2006 Public infrastructure, such as roads, schools, and hospitals, is critical for economic development and the well being of citizens. Cambodia still profoundly suffers from a lack of adequate public infrastructure. To improve the country's public infrastructure, the Cambodian government allocated CR 1,304 billion in its 2006 national budget for public investment spending. This amount indicates an increase of 19 percent compared with the national budget of The budget for public investment represents 36 percent of the total national budget This budget is mostly financed by foreign donors. 11

13 Foreign Aid and External Debts After years of war and conflicts, Cambodia strongly needs supports to rebuild the country and develop the national economy. Domestic state revenues alone are not sufficient to finance these urgent needs. After the signing of the Paris agreement in 1991, multilateral and bilateral donors have strongly committed to support Cambodia. A consultative group (CG) composed of the Cambodian government and donors was formed, and meet annually to discuss reform progress, and pledge financial assistance to Cambodia. Since 1993, Cambodia has received about US$ 600 million per year in foreign aid, which is composed of grants and loans. The overall loans accrued since 1993 are estimated to amount to US$ 1 billion at the end of If we include the not-yet-recognized loans owed to the USA during 70's and Russia during 80's, the total amount of Cambodia external debts should reach almost US$ 3 billion. 12

14

15 The objective of this booklet is to explain the National Budget of Cambodia: where does the money come from, and where does it go to? Public money belongs to all Cambodian citizens, and the way it is collected and spent affects their daily life. Prepared by: with the support of: WORLD BANK

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