Operational Amplifiers (Op-Amps)

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1 Chapter 18 Operational Amplifiers (Op-Amps)

2 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers The standard Operational amplifier has two input terminals, the inverting (-) and noninverting (+)

3 FIGURE 18-3 Practical op-amp representation. The ideal op-amp has: Infinite voltage gain An infinite input impedance Does not load the driving source Low (Zero) output impedance High Low High Gain Thomas L. Floyd Electronics Fundamentals, 6e Electric Circuit Fundamentals, 6e Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

4 The Operational Amplifier A typical op-amp is made up of three types of amplifier circuits: Differential amplifier Input stage for the op-amp; it has two inputs and provides amplification of the difference voltage Voltage amplifier Usually a class A amplifier that provides gain Push-pull amplifier Class B amplifier is used for the output stage

5 Basic internal arrangement of an op-amp Thomas L. Floyd Electronics Fundamentals, 6e Electric Circuit Fundamentals, 6e Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

6 The Differential Amplifier The heart of the Op-Amp is the Differential Amplifier (Diff-Amp) It is the first stage of the Op-Amp and is the basis of their inverting and non-inverting capability They also have a positive and negative power supply so they can take ac signal inputs directly to an ac output

7 The Differential Amplifier A basic differential amplifier is shown below There are two outputs It requires a negative and positive supply voltage

8 Not Used Output Non-Inverting Input (+) Signal on Input 1 is Inverted on Output 1 and Non-Inverted on Output 2 Not Used Output Inverting Input (-) Signal on Input 2 is Inverted on Output 2 and Non-Inverted on Output 1

9

10 Negative Feedback Required Since the inherent open-loop gain of a typical opamp is very high, usually > 100,000, an extremely small difference in the two input voltages drives the op-amp into its saturated output states With negative feedback, the overall closed-loop gain (A cl ) can be reduced and controlled so that the op-amp can function as a linear amplifier

11 Without negative feedback, an extremely small difference in the two input voltages drives the op-amp to its output limits and it becomes nonlinear. V out is limited by the positive and negative voltage supply For example, if the supply was +/-15 Volts, the output signal would clip at +/- 15 Volts (+15V) (-15V) Thomas L. Floyd Electronics Fundamentals, 6e Electric Circuit Fundamentals, 6e Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

12 Negative Feedback A portion of the output is fed back to the Input The Feedback Voltage effectively subtracts from the input voltage A Higher Negative Feedback produces a Lower Amplifier Output Generic Block Diagram

13 Op-amp Configurations with Negative Feedback Closed-loop voltage gain Closed-loop voltage gain is the voltage gain of an opamp with negative feedback An external feedback network connects the output to the inverting input The closed-loop voltage gain is determined by the component values in the feedback network There are Non-Inverting and Inverting configurations

14 Non-Inverting Op-amp Configuration An op-amp connected as a non-inverting amplifier has the input signal applied to the non- inverting input A portion of the output applied back to the inverting input through the feedback network It is internally inverted which effectively subtracts from the input voltage

15 Non-Inverting Op-amp Configuration Thomas L. Floyd Electronics Fundamentals, 6e Electric Circuit Fundamentals, 6e Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

16 Differential input, V in V f. Thomas L. Floyd Electronics Fundamentals, 6e Electric Circuit Fundamentals, 6e Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

17 Non-Inverting Op-amp Configuration The feedback Voltage (V f ) is determined by the voltage divider equation as: V f Ri = R + R i R f The closed-loop voltage gain A cl(ni) of the non-inverting (NI) amplifier can be calculated with the following formula: V out A R f cl( NI ) = + Ri 1

18 Non-Inverting Op-amp Voltage Follower The voltage-follower is a special non-inverting amplifier were 100% of the output voltage is fed back to the inverting input The gain of a Voltage Follower is 1 Voltage Followers are used to buffer between a circuit with a high output impedance and a circuit with a low input impedance. A = cl ( VF ) 1

19 Inverting Op-amp Configurations An op-amp connected an inverting amplifier A portion of the inverted output is applied directly back to the inverting input through the feedback network which effectively subtracts from the input voltage R f A = cl ( I ) Ri Closed-loop gain is: The minus symbol means the signal has been inverted

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