pork.org Pork Industry Productivity Analysis National Pork Board Research Grant Report Dr. Kenneth J. Stalder, Iowa State University

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1 pork.org Complete REPORT Pork Industry Productivity Anlysis Ntionl Pork Bord Reserch Grnt Report Dr. Kenneth J. Stlder, Iow Stte University

2 Industry Summry The swine industry, like ny industry, strives to continully increse production efficiency over time. Additionlly, it is known tht sesonl effects impcting productivity in the swine industry exist. In order to quntify the overll improvement in the industry nd to determine how sesonlity impcts the industry s whole, ntionl dtbse must be nlyzed for production chnges between sesons, cross yers, nd mong different production systems. The results presented in this study re bsed on group of pork production compnies representing pproximtely 35% of the U.S. swine industry. The study objective ws to quntify the nnul production levels nd the vrition ssocited with severl key performnce indictors for the swine industry in ll swine production phses (i.e. sow frm, nursery, wen-to-finish, nd conventionl finisher fcilities) from 2007 to 2012 s well s to quntify sesonl effects ssocited with the key performnce indictors. The results of this industry nlysis indicte tht the swine industry hs been successful in improving production efficiency; however there re some performnce indictors, such s pre-wening mortlity, tht my need to be focused on in the upcoming yers. Chnges hve been mde to increse the pounds of pork produced in given time frme while reducing finishing mortlity. This long with incresed litter size hs incresed the throughput of the swine industry s whole. The industry improvements over time cn be ttributed to better genetics, helth, mngement, etc. The results from this nlysis cn used to determine when mngement prctices need to be improved nd/or mintined to ensure the mximum performnce level for ech swine production stge bsed on where ech frm rnks for given performnce indictor. Knowing when production levels decresed will llow producers nd reserchers to focus efforts on improving production prctices during tht time to incresed production levels, improve production efficiency, nd ultimtely improve opertionl profitbility. Scientific Abstrct The swine industry, like ny industry, strives to continully increse production efficiency over time. Additionlly, it is known tht sesonl effects impcting productivity in the swine industry exist. In order to quntify the overll improvement in the industry nd to determine how sesonlity impcts the industry s whole, ntionl dtbse must be nlyzed for production chnges between sesons, cross yers, nd mong different production systems. The results presented in this study re bsed on group of pork production compnies representing pproximtely 35% of the U.S. swine industry. The objective of this study ws to quntify the nnul production levels nd the vrition ssocited with severl key performnce indictors for the swine industry in ll swine production phses (i.e. sow frm, nursery, wen-to-finish, nd conventionl finisher fcilities) from 2007 to 2012 s well s to quntify sesonl effects ssocited with the key performnce indictors. To determine the industry trends over time rw mens nd stndrd devitions were used. To determine the sesonlity effects, liner model with fixed effects of yer nd compny ws used. Strt ge, strt dys, nd dys in fcility were used s covrites for production informtion from nursery, grow-finish, nd wen-to-finish fcilities. Wening ge ws used s covrite for the sow frm production indictors. 2 Pork Industry Productivity Anlysis The results of this industry nlysis indicte tht the swine industry hs been successful in improving production efficiency; however there re some production indictors, such s pre-wening mortlity, tht represent opportunities where improvement could increse production efficiency for the frm, compny, nd U.S. industry levels. Chnges hve been mde to increse the pounds of pork produced in given time frme while reducing finishing mortlity. This long with incresed litter size hs incresed the throughput of the swine industry s whole. The industry improvements over time cn be ttributed to better genetics, helth, mngement, etc. The results from this nlysis cn used to determine which mngement prctices need to be improved nd/or mintined to ensure the optimum performnce for ech swine production stge bsed on where ech frm rnks for given performnce indictor. Knowing when production levels decresed will llow producers nd reserchers to focus efforts on improving production prctices during tht time to incresed production levels to reduce the sesonlity typiclly observed in the swine industry.

3 Report The swine industry, like ny industry, strives to continully increse production efficiency over time. Additionlly, it is known tht sesonl effects impcting productivity in the swine industry represent substntil economic loss. In order to quntify the overll improvement in the industry nd to determine how sesonlity impcts the industry s whole, ntionl dtbse ws evluted for production chnges between sesons. The results presented in this study re bsed on informtion submitted to ntionl benchmrking system tht represents pproximtely 35% of the U.S. swine industry. The objective of this study ws to quntify the nnul production levels nd the vrition ssocited with severl key performnce indictors for the swine industry in ll swine production phses (i.e. sow frm, nursery, wen-to-finish, nd conventionl finisher fcilities) from 2007 to 2012 s well s to quntify sesonl effects ssocited with the production indictors. One wy these dt my be utilized by compnies nd individul producers is estblishing production benchmrks nd trgets (gols). Benchmrks re used to describe chievble performnce levels for vrious production indictors. Benchmrks cn be used to mke performnce comprisons between countries, compnies, nd frms. These comprisons cn then be used to set gols for incresing herd performnce. Producers cn determine which production indictors need to be improved reltive to the benchmrk vlues. It is importnt to set ttinble gols where improvements cn be mde incrementlly. Once gols re set pln must be defined nd implemented to chieve the desired performnce. Sesonl effects cn pper in ll production phses. They result when production levels vry bsed on the time of yer. For exmple, het stress cn hve detrimentl effects on production levels. Understnding sesonl effects cn help producers to understnd cuses of lower production nd levels, nd then, they cn mke focus or improve mngement for specific issues during certin prts of the yer. For exmple, monitoring when curtins re open versus closed my be more importnt in cooler sesons when the temperture is more vrible compred to summer months when curtins should be opened constntly. Understnding nd mking chnges to del with sesonlity cn improve the production efficiency for swine opertions. To begin the lrge dtset evlution, the number of compnies nd frms by yer ws tllied by yer. The number of compnies nd the number of frms in ech production stge is shown in Tble 1. The frms represent the multiple sites owned by n overrching compny. The dtset incresed in size from yer to yer, especilly when looking t the number of compnies contributing or reporting wen-to-finish dt. The number of conventionl finishing compnies incresed from 29 in 2007 to 50 in This is 72.4% increse in the number of compnies reporting dt from conventionl grow-finish fcilities. Similr trends cn be observed for the number of frms recording conventionl grow-finish fcilities doubled from 2007 (849 frms) by 2012 (1744 frms). This resulted in 105.4% increse in the number of frms recording conventionl grow-finish production dt. Additionlly, the number of compnies with wen-to-finish fcilities hs shown tremendous growth incresing from 17 in 2007 to 28 in 2012 which is 64.7% increse in the number of compnies reporting wen-to-finish production informtion. Similrly, the number of frms recording wen-to-finish production informtion incresed from 251 in 2007 to 830 in 2012 over 3-fold increse in just 5 yers. The number of compnies nd frms reporting nursery dt followed the trends of the number from the conventionl grow-finish production informtion. The number of compnies owning sows styed reltively stedy from 2007 to 2012 only incresing by 2 compnies; however, from 2011 to 2012, 7 new compnies owning sows were dding to the dtbse. This dded over 200 frms in the sme time frme. The key production indictors nlyzed for conventionl finishers nd wen-to-finish fcilities were percent mortlity in finisher, finishing weight, dys in finisher, nd finisher feed conversion. Similr production indictors were nlyzed for the nursery fcilities. The sow frm mesures nlyzed were pigs/mted sow/yer, litters/mted sow/yer, totl born, still born nd mummies, number born live, number wened, percent pre-wening mortlity, wening weight, nd wening ge. 3 Pork Industry Productivity Anlysis

4 Records were reported monthly for ech production stge. For finisher nd nursery dt, verges within month re bsed on nimls exiting the fcility in tht month. For sow frm dt, verges within month re bsed on litters wened in the month. A seprte model ws nlyzed for ech production indictor. All models contined compny nd month s fixed effects nd yer s covrite. Additionlly, effects for sow frm production indictors were djusted for wening ge nd effects for the nursery nd both finisher types were djusted for strting weight, strting ge nd dys in the fcility. Compny mens re not reported. The increse in the number of compnies nd frms represented in the dtset indictes tremendous improvement in the volume of informtion nd the interprettions tht cn be mde from the wen-to-finish production dt. This dt suggests tht the U.S. pork industry ws becoming much more dt driven during this time period s indicted by the tremendous increses in the number of compnies nd frms reporting in the grow-finish nd wen-to-finish production phses. Furthermore, dt trends suggests tht grow-finish nd wen-to-finish producers were becoming much more like their sow frm counterprts where decisions t the frm level needed to become much more dt driven nd the industry needed to move in direction where dt needed to mke these decisions ws collected whether the questions centered round employee, finncil, helth, nutritionl, genetic or some combintion of issues tht needed to be ddressed. Tbles 2-5 report the verge nd stndrd devition for the key production indictors by yer for ech production stge. Tbles 6-9, 10-13, nd contin the verge nd stndrd devition for ech production indictor for the top 10%, top 25% nd bottom 25% of frms in ech production stge, respectively. The frms in ech percentile were determined for ech production indictor mening tht the frms in ech percentile were not the sme for ech production indictor. The top nd bottom were defined s desirble nd undesirble for ech trit rther thn numericlly higher nd lower. Finishing mortlity hs decresed by bout 2% for both types of finisher fcilities (grow-finish nd wen-to-finish) from 2007 to Finishing weights hve incresed over time for both conventionl finisher nd wen-to-finish fcilities; however, dys in finisher remined the sme for conventionl finishers nd incresed for wen-to-finish fcilities. Wen-to-finish fcilities hd higher mortlity compred to conventionl finishers, but this would be expected s wen-to-finish producers re deling with newly wened pig tht is not ccustomed to eting dry feed nd my or my not be fmilir with wter ccess nd is much lighter body weight compred to pigs in grow-finish fcilities. Additionlly, pigs housed in wen-to-finisher fcilities for longer period of time compred to conventionl finishers which cn contribute to the greter mortlity when compred to conventionl finishers. A 2% improvement in finishing mortlity for 1000-hed finishing fcility would be equivlent to $3,240 ech time the brn is turned ssuming 270 lb finishing weight nd $60/cwt live mrket price. Along with this, the verge dily gin incresed for conventionl finishers nd remined reltively unchnged for wen-to-finish fcilities. Since finishing weights re similr for conventionl nd wen-to-finish fcilities due to the mount of time pigs spend in ech fcility, verge dily gin is greter for conventionl finishers (effect of lb. pig in conventionl finishing vs lb. pig in wen-tofinish brns). Feed conversion hs slightly improved for both finisher types from 2007 through Nursery production levels hve chnged little over the sme time period when compred to finishers. 4 Pork Industry Productivity Anlysis Pigs/mted sow/yer hs incresed by lmost 2 pigs from 2007 to This cn be ttributed to better mngement nd/or improved genetics. The top 10% of frms in pigs/mted sow/yer verge 28.5 pigs. While mny people like to dvertise how they hve been ble to chieve 30 pigs/mted sow/yer, this dt clerly points out tht few producers re ble to chieve this productivity level nd more importntly most producers re not ble to sustin tht high production level for ny length of time. Clerly, producers should benchmrk where they re currently t nd identify res where improvement could help them improve production efficiency in their opertion or ny phse of their opertion. Litters/mted sow/yer hs chnged little suggesting tht most of the increse in pigs/mted sow/yer hs been result of incresing litter size. Totl born hs incresed by over pig from 2007 to 2012 with some of the increse being still born nd mummies so tht number born live hs only incresed by 1 pig. Number wened hs incresed by 0.8 pigs. Unfortuntely, percent pre-wening mortlity hs incresed. The increse in pre-wening mortlity represents lost opportunity for the pork industry, production compnies nd individul production frms where pre-wening mortlity ws not mintined t previous levels (or even improved) nd incresed number of piglets born live occurred over time. Wening ge hs incresed by 2 dys nd wening

5 weight hs incresed by 1 lb. from 2007 to This indictes shift from erly wening to wening n older, s hevier pig is more desirble to move into tody s wen-to-finish production systems. Figures 1-24 grphiclly depict the chnge over time for the top 25%, overll, nd bottom 25% verge for ech production indictor in ech production stge in the red, blck, nd blue lines, respectively. This visul representtion clerly depicts trits tht re chnging in the sme direction for ll three groups, but ech group my hve different slopes (rte of chnge) depending on the trit being evluted.. For exmple, litter size verges hve incresed t lmost the sme rtes for top 25%, overll, nd bottom 25% groups. This suggests tht litter size limit hs yet to be reched. On the other hnd, the vrition between the three groups in percent finisher mortlity hs substntilly decresed over time. This could be the result of incresed importnce or focus plced on reducing mortlity by owners, brn mngers nd brn workers s well s new vccintion developments. The top 10% tbles cn be used to understnd performnce levels of the very best swine opertions for ech production indictor. These levels show wht production level is possible to chieve. The top 25% tbles show the production vlues for frms performing bove verge. These levels cn be used to set ttinble gols for opertions performing t n verge level for most production indictors. Producers rnking in the bottom 25% for one or more key performnce indictors cn focus on those mesurements where performnce is not cceptble nd set gols bsed on the verge production level for the given mesurement. Tbles depict the yerly chnge in ech key performnce indictor s well s the monthly effects reltive to Jnury production levels. Bsed on the results shown in Tble 18, it is cler tht litter size hs incresed by pproximtely 1 pig from 2007 to 2012; however, pre-wening mortlity hs incresed. Pre-wening mortlity ws gretest mong litters wened in Februry nd lowest in litters wened in June. Additionlly, wening weight ws gretest mong litters wened in My nd lowest in litters wened in August. Number born live ws gretest mong litters wened in September nd lowest mong litters wened in Jnury. Producers cn use this informtion to determine if fctors tht occur from when the time sows re mted ll the wy through frrowing contribute to the sesonlity experienced on ech frm to better understnd how nd when sesonlity will impct litter size nd thus, production flow in lter production phses. Nursery mortlity hs decresed nd nursery exit weight hs incresed from 2007 to 2012 s shown in Tble 19. Nursery mortlity ws best for pigs exiting the fcility in July nd poorest for pigs exiting in Mrch. Exit weight ws gretest in December nd lowest in June. Feed conversion ws poorest for pigs exiting in Februry nd best for pigs exiting in June. Producers cn use this type of nursery mortlity nd feed efficiency informtion to develop mngement plns to ddress time periods when mortlity is the gretest or when feed efficiency is the poorest. At times, simple reminder to brn works is sufficient to bring focus on certin trits in order to bring bout improvement. The results in tbles 20 nd 21 show tht mrket weight hs incresed nd finisher mortlity hs decresed from 2007 to 2012 in both finisher types (grow-finish nd wen-to-finish fcilities). Mrket weight ws lowest in August for both finisher types nd highest in December for conventionl nd wen-to-finish fcilities. Mortlity in conventionl finishers ws best for pigs mrketed in November nd poorest for pigs mrketed in Februry. Mortlity in wen-to-finish fcilities ws highest in for pigs mrketed in July. There ws less vrition between months for wen-to-finish fcilities compred to the vrition between months for conventionl finishers. Since producers re moving towrds more wen-to-finish brn use, focus on mny of the sme things tht improve nursery mortlity nd performnce if implemented on wen-to-finish fcilities would result in similr improvements. Br grphs of the 2011 lest squre mens for the monthly verge production level for ech of the performnce indictors re shown in Figures The lest squre mens were estimted using the model described previously. The grphs plinly show the decresed production seen in during certin times of the yer n effect commonly known in the industry s sesonlity. Decresed performnce resulting from sesonlity represents substntil productivity nd economic losses for swine opertions nd the U.S. swine industry. Developing methods to llevite the effects of sesonlity would hve lrge finncil impct on the entire swine industry. For exmple, lower finishing weights directly impct n opertion s revenue. The blck horizontl line in Figure 37 represents the verge finishing weight for conventionl finishers. Clerly, finishing weights were below verge June through October 5 Pork Industry Productivity Anlysis

6 with lmost 6 lb lower finishing weight in August. If the finishing weight could be incresed by 1 lb during those months, producer could hve $600 in incresed revenue for every 1,000 pigs mrketed ssuming live mrket hog price of $60/cwt. In generl, lowest production levels t the finishers were seen during summer months. Sow frms hd lowest production for litters wened during winter months (sows experience hot wether nd then express the effects during the winter months). Except for nursery mortlity, sesonlity hd less impct on nursery performnce reltive to the other production stges. The results of this industry productivity nlysis indicte tht the swine industry hs been successful in improving production efficiency cross ll swine production phses; however there re some production indictors, such s pre-wening mortlity, tht my require dditionl focus in the upcoming yers. Chnges hve been mde to increse the pounds of pork produced in given time frme while reducing finishing mortlity. This long with incresed litter size hs incresed the throughput of the swine industry s whole. The industry improvements over time cn be ttributed to better genetics, helth, mngement, etc. The results from this nlysis cn used to determine when mngement prctices need to be improved nd/or mintined to ensure the optiml level of performnce for ech swine production stge. Knowing when production levels decresed will llow producers nd reserchers to focus efforts on improving production prctices during tht time to mintin production levels nd improve overll opertion production nd finncil efficiency. Tble 1. Number of compnies nd frms used in nlysis for ech fcility type by yer. Conventionl Wen- Yer Nursery Sow Finisher to-finish 2007 Compnies Frms 2008 Compnies Frms 2009 Compnies Frms 2010 Compnies Frms 2011 Compnies Frms 2012 Compnies Frms More thn one frm cn be mnged by the sme compny. A frm represents single production site Tble 2. Conventionl finisher verge (±stndrd devition) productivity from 2007 to 2012 Percent Mortlity 6.98 (±5.61) 6.29 (±4.60) 5.12 (±3.44) 4.70 (±3.05) 4.48 (±2.49) 5.03 (±3.30) Finishing Weight (lbs) (±17.0) (±16.1) (±14.9) (±13.4) (±12.8) (±14.1) Dys in Finisher (±11.0) (±11.0) (±11.4) (±10.3) (±9.7) (±10.8) Avg. Dily Gin (lbs) 1.71 (±0.16) 1.69 (±0.16) 1.75 (±0.15) 1.76 (±0.14) 1.81 (±0.14) 1.81 (±0.15) Feed Conversion b 2.75 (±0.26) 2.82 (0.32) 2.76 (±0.27) 2.77 (±0.25) 2.71 (±0.24) 2.68 (±0.23) All frms were given equl weighting. b Feed conversion is defined s feed to gin. Pork Industry Productivity Anlysis Tble 3. Wen-to-finish verge (±stndrd devition) productivity from 2007 to 2012 Percent Mortlity 8.25 (±4.64) 7.92 (±4.91) 7.61 (±4.79) 6.30 (±3.55) 6.33 (±3.96) 6.39 (±4.79) Finishing Wt. (lbs) (±12.5) (±12.5) (±11.0) (±13.5) (±12.8) (±12.9) Dys in Finisher (±10.8) (±11.4) (±10.7) (±10.3) (±9.0) (±9.9) Averge Dily Gin (lbs) 1.55 (±0.12) 1.54 (±0.13) 1.54 (±0.11) 1.54 (±0.11) 1.57 (±0.10) 1.57 (±0.11) Feed Conversion b 2.52 (±0.17) 2.51 (±0.17) 2.54 (±0.18) 2.52 (±0.20) 2.50 (±0.20) 2.50 (±0.18) All frms were given equl weighting. b Feed conversion is defined s feed to gin.

7 Tble 4. Nursery verge (±stndrd devition) productivity from 2007 to 2012 Percent Mortlity 4.42 (±4.12) 5.82 (±5.71) 4.68 (±4.41) 4.12 (±3.62) 4.32 (±4.32) 3.80 (±3.01) Exit Weight 48.0 (±7.5) 49.0 (±9.2) 49.4 (±8.4) 50.7 (±9.1) 50.3 (±9.3) 50.7 (±8.4) Dys in Nursery 47.1 (±5.0) 47.4 (±6.8) 46.2 (±5.4) 46.2 (±5.5) 46.0 (±6.1) 46.0 (±5.1) Avg. Dily Gin (lbs) 0.76 (±0.12) 0.78 (±0.14) 0.80 (±0.13) 0.82 (±0.14) 0.81 (±0.14) 0.82 (±0.13) Feed Conversion b 1.51 (±0.23) 1.54 (±0.30) 1.53 (±0.29) 1.52 (±0.28) 1.53 (±0.25) 1.48 (±0.19) All frms were given equl weighting. b Feed conversion is defined s feed to gin. Tble 5. Sow frm verge (±stndrd devition) productivity from 2007 to 2012 Pigs/Mted Sow/Yer 22.6 (±2.8) 22.8 (±2.9) 23.2 (±3.0) 23.5 (±2.7) 24.1 (±3.1) 23.9 (±2.8) Litters/Mted Sow/Yr 2.36 (±0.22) 2.35 (±0.23) 2.34 (±0.21) 2.33 (±0.20) 2.33 (±0.22) 2.31 (±0.22) Totl Born 12.3 (±0.9) 12.5 (±0.9) 12.8 (±0.9) 13.0 (±1.0) 13.4 (±1.1) 13.4 (±1.0) Stillborn/Mummies 1.19 (±0.42) 1.23 (±0.49) 1.20 (±0.46) 1.22 (±0.48) 1.24 (±0.49) 1.17 (±0.46) Number Born Alive 11.1 (±0.8) 11.3 (±0.8) 11.6 (±0.9) 11.8 (±0.9) 12.1 (±1.0) 12.3 (±0.9) Number Wened 9.5 (±0.7) 9.7 (±0.7) 9.9 (±0.8) 10.0 (±0.7) 10.2 (±0.7) 10.3 (±0.7) Pre-wening Mortlity % 14.2 (±5.6) 14.2 (±5.5) 14.5 (±5.6) 14.6 (±5.8) 15.5 (±5.9) 15.5 (±5.7) Wening Weight (lbs) 12.3 (±1.3) 12.4 (±1.3) 12.8 (±1.5) 13.0 (±1.4) 13.1 (±1.4) 13.2 (±1.6) Wening Age (d) 19.5 (±1.7) 19.7 (±1.8) 20.5 (±2.0) 20.8 (±2.1) 20.9 (±2.5) 21.5 (±2.8) All frms were given equl weighting. Tble 6. Conventionl finisher verge (±stndrd devition) productivity from 2007 to 2012 for frms in the top 10% for ech production indictor Percent Mortlity 1.97 (±0.54) 1.90 (±0.56) 1.50 (±0.46) 1.44 (±0.42) 1.37 (±0.41) 1.62 (±0.44) Finishing Weight (lbs) (±9.8) (±10.2) (±8.8) (±6.9) (±7.8) (±11.4) Dys in Finisher (±7.8) (±5.5) (±5.5) (±5.0) (±5.2) (±5.7) Averge Dily Gin (lbs) 1.98 (±0.10) 1.95 (±0.08) 2.00 (±0.09) 2.00 (±0.07) 2.05 (±0.09) 2.05 (±0.07) Feed Conversion b 2.40 (±0.11) 2.34 (±0.14) 2.35 (±0.13) 2.39 (±0.10) 2.38 (±0.08) 2.35 (±0.08) All frms were given equl weighting. b Feed conversion is defined s feed to gin. Tble 7. Wen-to-finish verge (±stndrd devition) productivity from 2007 to 2012 for frms in the top 10% for ech production indictor Percent Mortlity 3.14 (±0.97) 2.80 (±0.67) 2.54 (±0.65) 2.28 (±0.58) 2.34 (±0.44) 1.94 (±0.51) Finishing Weight (lbs) (±5.3) (±6.7) (±4.7) (±4.8) (±3.5) (±4.5) Dys in Finisher (±7.1) (±6.1) (±6.6) (±5.8) (±2.9) (±5.4) Avg. Dily Gin (lbs) 1.77 (±0.08) 1.75 (±0.05) 1.73 (±0.08) 1.74 (±0.06) 1.74 (±0.04) 1.76 (±0.06) Feed Conversion b 2.24 (±0.11) 2.23 (±0.12) 2.24 (±0.09) 2.23 (±0.05) 2.19 (±0.05) 2.21 (±0.04) All frms were given equl weighting. b Feed conversion is defined s feed to gin. 7 Pork Industry Productivity Anlysis

8 Tble 8. Nursery verge (±stndrd devition) productivity from 2007 to 2012 for frms in the top 10% for ech production indictor Percent Mortlity 0.83 (±0.30) 1.06 (±0.36) 0.93 (±0.31) 0.95 (±0.34) 0.91 (±0.31) 0.94 (±0.28) Exit Weight 63.2 (±7.4) 68.7 (±8.5) 66.1 (±7.4) 68.5 (±9.1) 69.0 (±9.4) 65.8 (±4.2) Dys in Nursery 38.2 (±3.1) 36.6 (±3.9) 37.3 (±3.4) 38.3 (±3.9) 35.8 (±4.2) 36.3 (±3.3) Avg. Dily Gin (lbs) 1.00 (±0.09) 1.05 (±0.11) 1.05 (±0.08) 1.09 (±0.09) 1.08 (±0.11) 1.04 (±0.06) Feed Conversion b 1.12 (±0.16) 1.07 (±0.19) 1.11 (±0.18) 1.08 (±0.21) 1.16 (±0.15) 1.16 (±0.16) All frms were given equl weighting. b Feed conversion is defined s feed to gin. Tble 9. Sow frm verge (±stndrd devition) productivity from 2007 to 2012 for frms in the top 10% for ech production indictor Pigs/Mted Sow/Yer 27.4 (±1.2) 27.5 (±1.4) 27.6 (±1.2) 27.7 (±1.2) 29.2 (±3.1) 28.5 (±2.0) Litters/Sow/Yer 2.74 (±0.13) 2.71 (±0.14) 2.67 (±0.13) 2.64 (±0.14) 2.69 (±0.17) 2.65 (±0.11) Totl Born 14.0 (±0.4) 14.1 (±0.7) 14.2 (±0.4) 14.7 (±0.5) 15.3 (±0.6) 15.1 (±0.4) Stillborn/Mummies 0.61 (±0.15) 0.59 (±0.14) 0.60 (±0.12) 0.62 (±0.10) 0.61 (±0.11) 0.55 (±0.13) Number Born Alive 12.6 (±0.4) 12.6 (±0.3) 12.9 (±0.4) 13.3 (±0.5) 13.9 (±0.6) 13.8 (±0.4) Number Wened 10.7 (±0.3) 10.9 (±0.3) 11.0 (±0.3) 11.2 (±0.4) 11.4 (±0.3) 11.5 (±0.3) Pre-wening Mortlity % 4.9 (±3.8) 5.2 (±3.4) 5.8 (±2.9) 4.6 (±4.3) 5.8 (±2.2) 5.6 (±3.5) Wening Weight (lbs) 12.6 (±1.2) 12.6 (±1.2) 13.0 (±1.3) 13.2 (±1.3) 13.3 (±1.2) 13.5 (±1.4) Wening Age (d) 19.8 (±1.5) 20.1 (±1.5) 20.9 (±1.8) 21.1 (±1.9) 21.3 (±2.1) 22.0 (±2.5) All frms were given equl weighting. Tble 10. Conventionl finisher verge (±stndrd devition) productivity from 2007 to 2012 for frms in the top 25% for ech production indictor Percent Mortlity 2.69 (±0.71) 2.61 (±0.72) 2.16 (±0.65) 2.03 (±0.58) 1.96 (±0.58) 2.25 (±0.63) Finishing Weight (lbs) (±10.6) (±10.5) (±9.5) (±7.0) (±7.5) (±9.5) Dys in Finisher (±6.9) (±6.2) (±5.8) (±5.4) (±5.6) (±5.5) Averge Dily Gin (lbs) 1.91 (±0.10) 1.88 (±0.08) 1.93 (±0.08) 1.93 (±0.07) 1.98 (±0.08) 1.98 (±0.08) Feed Conversion b 2.49 (±0.11) 2.46 (±0.14) 2.45 (±0.12) 2.48 (±0.10) 2.46 (±0.09) 2.43 (±0.08) All frms were given equl weighting. b Feed conversion is defined s feed to gin. 8 Pork Industry Productivity Anlysis Tble 11. Wen-to-finish verge (±stndrd devition) productivity from 2007 to 2012 for frms in the top 25% for ech production indictor Percent Mortlity 4.08 (±1.03) 3.65 (±0.85) 3.44 (±0.89) 3.04 (±0.76) 2.98 (±0.64) 2.65 (±0.70) Finishing Weight (lbs) (±6.05) (±6.6) (±5.0) (±6.5) (±5.2) (±6.5) Dys in Finisher (±6.5) (±5.8) (±5.8) (±6.4) (±3.6) (±5.1) Averge Dily Gin (lbs) 1.71 (±0.08) 1.69 (±0.06) 1.67 (±0.07) 1.67 (±0.07) 1.69 (±0.05) 1.70 (±0.06) Feed Conversion b 2.32 (±0.10) 2.31 (±0.11) 2.33 (±0.09) 2.29 (±0.64) 2.25 (±0.06) 2.26 (±0.06) All frms were given equl weighting. b Feed conversion is defined s feed to gin.

9 Tble 12. Nursery verge (±stndrd devition) productivity from 2007 to 2012 for frms in the top 25% for ech production indictor Percent Mortlity 1.32 (±0.48) 1.63 (±0.56) 1.42 (±0.48) 1.43 (±0.47) 1.36 (±0.45) 1.36 (±0.41) Exit Weight 57.8 (±6.5) 61.4 (±8.2) 60.4 (±6.7) 62.4 (±7.7) 62.2 (±8.2) 61.4 (±4.6) Dys in Nursery 41.3 (±3.3) 40.1 (±4.0) 39.8 (±3.0) 40.0 (±03.6) 39.5 (±3.9) 36.5 (±3.5) Avg. Dily Gin (lbs) 0.92 (±0.09) 0.96 (±0.11) 0.97 (±0.08) 1.00 (±0.10) 0.99 (±0.11) 0.98 (±0.07) Feed Conversion b (±0.16) 1.24 (±0.18) 1.25 (±0.17) 1.25 (±0.20) 1.28 (±0.14) 1.28 (±0.13) All frms were given equl weighting. b Feed conversion is defined s feed to gin. Tble 13. Sow frm verge (±stndrd devition) productivity from 2007 to 2012 for frms in the top 25% for ech production indictor Pigs/Mted Sow/Yer 26.0 (±1.4) 26.2 (±1.4) 26.5 (±1.2) 26.6 (±1.2) 27.5 (±2.4) 27.2 (±1.4) Litters/Mted Sow/Yer 2.62 (±0.13) 2.60 (±0.13) 2.56 (±0.12) 2.55 (±0.1) 2.58 (±0.15) 2.55 (±0.11) Totl Born 13.5 (±0.5) 13.7 (±0.6) 13.9 (±0.4) 14.2 (±0.5) 14.7 (±0.6) 14.7 (±0.5) Stillborn/Mummies 0.76 (±0.16) 0.75 (±0.17) 0.74 (±0.14) 0.75 (±0.13) 0.76 (±0.15) 0.70 (±0.16) Number Born Alive 12.2 (±0.4) 12.3 (±0.37) 12.6 (±0.4) 12.9 (±0.5) 13.4 (±0.6) 13.4 (±0.4) Number Wened 10.4 (±0.3) 10.6 (±0.3) 10.7 (±0.3) 10.9 (±0.4) 11.1 (±0.4) 11.2 (±0.3) Pre-wening Mortlity % 7.6 (±3.3) 7.7 (±3.0) 8.2 (±2.7) 7.6 (±3.7) 8.4 (±2.6) 8.4 (±3.3) Wening Weight (lbs) 12.8 (±1.1) 12.8 (±1.1) 13.3 (±1.3) 13.5 (±1.2) 13.7 (±1.1) 13.8 (±1.3) Wening Age (d) 20.2 (±1.3) 20.4 (±1.3) 21.3 (±1.8) 21.6 (±1.8) 21.8 (±1.9) 22.6 (±2.3) All frms were given equl weighting. Tble 14. Conventionl finisher verge (±stndrd devition) productivity from 2007 to 2012 for frms in the bottom 25% for ech production indictor Percent Mortlity (±6.69) (±5.72) 9.28 (±4.32) 8.40 (±3.75) 7.63 (±2.53) 8.98 (±4.21) Finishing Weight (lbs) (±9.4) (±9.3) (±8.7) (±8.6) (±8.0) (±10.2) Dys in Finisher (±7.5) (±6.8) (±7.9) (±7.2) (±5.4) (±6.8) Avg. Dily Gin (lbs) 1.51 (±0.09) 1.48 (±0.08) 1.57 (±0.08) 1.58 (±0.09) 1.64 (±0.08) 1.63 (±0.09) Feed Conversion b 3.06 (±0.27) 3.21 (0.26) 3.10 (±0.20) 3.11 (±0.20) 3.02 (±0.22) 2.99 (±0.16) All frms were given equl weighting. b Feed conversion is defined s feed to gin. 9 Tble 15. Wen-to-finish verge (±stndrd devition) productivity from 2007 to 2012 for frms in the bottom 25% for ech production indictor Percent Mortlity (±5.20) 14.43(±5.36) (±5.65) (±3.91) (±4.79) (±6.18) Finishing Weight (lbs) (±8.2) (±10.0) (±6.2) (±7.8) (±7.4) (±7.5) Dys in Finisher (±5.2) (±9.4) (±5.8) (±6.6) (±5.6) (±5.5) Avg. Dily Gin (lbs) 1.41 (±0.05) 1.39 (±0.08) 1.41 (±0.05) 1.41 (±0.06) 1.44 (±0.06) 1.43 (±0.06) Feed Conversion b 2.72 (±0.13) 2.73 (±0.10) 2.75 (±0.15) 2.78 (±0.17) 2.75 (±0.12) 2.73 (±0.10) All frms were given equl weighting. b Feed conversion is defined s feed to gin. Pork Industry Productivity Anlysis

10 Tble 16. Nursery verge (±stndrd devition) productivity from 2007 to 2012 for frms in the bottom 25% for ech production indictor Percent Mortlity 9.67 (±5.16) (±7.15) (±5.53) 8.61 (±4.72) 9.36 (±6.02) 7.70 (±3.56) Exit Weight 39.9 (±3.0) 39.6 (±3.1) 39.8 (±3.1) 40.6 (±4.1) 40.2 (±4.1) 40.1 (±4.2) Dys in Nursery 52.3 (±4.9) 55.1 (±7.3) 52.1 (±5.2) 52.5 (±4.8) 52.7 (±6.2) 51.7 (±3.4) Avg. Dily Gin (lbs) 0.62 (±0.05) 0.64 (±0.05) 0.65 (±0.06) 0.66 (±0.06) 0.66 (±0.05) 0.66 (±0.05) Feed Conversion b 1.76 (±0.19) 1.89 (±0.32) 1.84 (±0.33) 1.80 (±0.32) 1.79 (±0.29) 1.71 (±0.15) All frms were given equl weighting. b Feed conversion is defined s feed to gin. Tble 17. Sow frm verge (±stndrd devition) productivity from 2007 to 2012 for frms in the bottom 25% for ech production indictor Pigs/Mted Sow/Yer 19.1 (±1.9) 19.0 (±2.0) 19.3 (±2.7) 20.0 (±2.1) 20.4 (±2.4) 20.1 (±2.4) Litters/Mted Sow/Yer 2.09 (±0.15) 2.07 (±0.17) 2.09 (±0.20) 2.09 (±0.15) 2.07 (±0.15) 2.04 (±0.18) Totl Born 11.2 (±0.4) 11.4 (±0.4) 11.7 (±0.4) 11.8 (±0.5) 12.1 (±0.5) 12.1 (±0.5) Stillborn nd Mummies 1.70 (±0.45) 1.80 (±0.57) 1.78 (±0.48) 1.84 (±0.51) 1.83 (±0.54) 1.74 (±0.47) Number Born Alive 10.1 (±0.5) 10.3 (±0.5) 10.5 (±0.6) 10.7 (±0.5) 11.0 (±0.6) 11.4 (±0.6) Number Wened 8.6 (±0.6) 8.7 (±0.6) 8.9 (±0.8) 9.1 (±0.6) 9.3 (±0.7) 9.4 (±0.6) Pre-wening Mortlity % 21.2 (±3.6) 21.2 (±3.2) 21.5 (±4.4) 21.6 (±3.7) 22.9 (±4.1) 22.5 (±3.4) Wening Weight (lbs) 10.9 (±0.6) 11.0 (±0.7) 11.2 (±0.6) 11.5 (±0.5) 11.5 (±0.5) 11.5 (±0.5) Wening Age (d) 17.3 (±0.8) 17.6 (±1.0) 18.3 (±0.8) 18.5 (±0.8) 18.0 (±1.4) 18.3 (±1.1) All frms were given equl weighting. 10 Pork Industry Productivity Anlysis

11 11 Pork Industry Productivity Anlysis

12 12 Pork Industry Productivity Anlysis

13 Tble 18. Sesonl effect estimtes for sow fcilities djusted for wening ge Yer Feb. Mr. Apr. My Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Pigs/Mted Sow/Yr 0.39* 0.89* 1.14* 1.00* 1.04* 1.43* 1.58* 1.42* 1.31* 0.90* 2.19* -1.99* Litters/Mted Sow/Yr 0.004* 0.072* 0.081* 0.047* 0.037* 0.074* 0.096* 0.096* 0.077* 0.044* * Totl Born 0.22* 0.13* 0.13* 0.16* 0.13* 0.19* 0.20* 0.23* 0.21* 0.13* Stillborn/Mummies 0.010* 0.034* * *-0.034*-0.052*-0.027* Number Born Alive 0.21* 0.10* 0.13* 0.17* 0.15* 0.19* 0.22* 0.23* 0.24* 0.17* 0.06* 0.04* % Pre-Wening Mortlity 0.17* * -1.17* -0.96* -0.63* * -0.67* -0.79* -0.40* Wening Wt (lbs) 0.09* * 0.12* 0.10* * -0.09* * *Indictes effect is significntly different from 0 compred to Jnury production (P<0.05). Compny ws included in the model s fixed effect. Tble 19. Sesonl effect estimtes for nursery fcilities djusted for strt weight, strt ge, nd dys in nursery Yer Feb. Mr. Apr. My Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. % Nursery Mortlity -0.07* * -1.21* -1.18* -1.13* -1.10* -0.76* -0.45* Nursery Exit Weight (lbs) 0.22* * -0.47* -0.66* -0.50* -0.61* -0.35* Avg. Dily Gin (lbs) 0.004* * * * * * * * Feed Conversion Rtio (feed/gin) * * * * * *Indictes effect is significntly different from 0 compred to Jnury production (P<0.05). Compny ws included in the model s fixed effect. Tble 20. Sesonl effect estimtes for conventionl fcilities djusted for strt weight, strt ge, nd dys in finisher Yer Feb. Mr. Apr. My Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. % Finishing Mortlity -0.32* * -0.39* -0.28* -0.28* -0.48* -0.38* Finishing Weight (lbs) 2.28* -1.48* -1.12* -1.00* -1.77* -4.16* -7.74* * -8.17* -3.46* -0.81* 2.19* Averge Dily Gin (lbs) 0.018* * * * * * * * * * 0.007* 0.019* Feed Conversion Rtio (feed/gin) -0.03* * -0.04* -0.05* -0.05* -0.06* -0.10* -0.12* -0.10* -0.07* *Indictes effect is significntly different from 0 compred to Jnury production (P<0.05). Compny ws included in the model s fixed effect. 13 Tble 21. Sesonl effect estimtes for wen-to-finish fcilities djusted for strt weight, strt ge, nd dys in finisher Yer Feb. Mr. Apr. My Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. % Finishing Mortlity -0.34* * * Finishing Weight (lbs) * -3.79* -5.66* -3.25* * Avg. Dily Gin (lbs) 0.006* * * * * * Feed Conversion Rtio (feed/gin) -0.01* * -0.04* -0.05* -0.07* -0.07* -0.05* *Indictes effect is significntly different from 0 compred to Jnury production (P<0.05). Compny ws included in the model s fixed effect. Pork Industry Productivity Anlysis

14 14 Pork Industry Productivity Anlysis

15 15 Pork Industry Productivity Anlysis

16 16 Pork Industry Productivity Anlysis Ntionl Pork Bord 1776 NW 114 th St, Des Moines, IA pork.org Ntionl Pork Bord, Des Moines, IA USA. This messge funded by Americ s Pork Producers nd the Pork Checkoff.

Treatment Spring Late Summer Fall 0.10 5.56 3.85 0.61 6.97 3.01 1.91 3.01 2.13 2.99 5.33 2.50 1.06 3.53 6.10 Mean = 1.33 Mean = 4.88 Mean = 3.

Treatment Spring Late Summer Fall 0.10 5.56 3.85 0.61 6.97 3.01 1.91 3.01 2.13 2.99 5.33 2.50 1.06 3.53 6.10 Mean = 1.33 Mean = 4.88 Mean = 3. The nlysis of vrince (ANOVA) Although the t-test is one of the most commonly used sttisticl hypothesis tests, it hs limittions. The mjor limittion is tht the t-test cn be used to compre the mens of only

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