Newton s 3 rd Law Study Guide Chapter 7

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1 1. The Big Idea is 2. If you lean over and push on a wall, why don t you fall over? 3. When you paddle a kayak, your paddle pushes on the water. What makes the kayak move forward? Section 7.1 Forces and Interactions 4. A force is always part of a(n) that involves another force. 5. Describe the interaction forces between a nail and a hammer that hits it and explain why the hammer stops moving. Section 7.2 Newton s Third Law 6. State Newton s 3 rd Law 7. State the rule for deciding which force is the action force and which is the reaction force 8. Action and reaction forces are equal in and opposite in 9. Describe the reaction force for each of the following To walk, you push on the floor A dog wags its tail A car s tires push against the road You push on a door Your right hand pushes on your left hand A baseball bat exerts a force on the ball 10. Use the words action force and reaction force to explain why a person walking on ice might not be able to move forward Section 7.3 Identifying Action and Reaction 11. State the two steps for identifying a pair of action-reaction forces a. b. 12. When you drop your smart phone from the top of a building and it falls to the ground, a. The two interacting objects are:_a: and _B: b. The action of A on B is c. The action of B on A is 13. Complete the following table and describe the reaction forces AND their direction A car s tires push backwards on the road A rocket pushes gas out behind A pool ball rolls into another ball and exerts a force on it A swimmer pushes backwards on the water A helicopter s blades push down on the air The earth pulls downward on a falling piano 14. Describe the force interaction pair when a ball is falling towards the earth Section 7.4 Action and Reaction o n Different Masses 15. When you drop a pencil from your desk, the earth exerts a force on the pencil. How big is the force that the pencil exerts on the earth?

2 16. State Newton s Second Law 17. When a pencil falls towards the earth, the earth accelerates towards the pencil. Explain using Newton s Second Law why we don t feel the acceleration of the earth towards the pencil (use the formula in your explanation) 18. When you throw a small ball, you exert a force on the ball and it accelerates. Newton s Third Law says that the ball exerts an equal force on you. Explain using Newton s Second Law why you don t go flying backwards as you throw. 19. When a cannonball is fired from a cannon, the force that the cannon exerts on the ball is and to the force the ball exerts on the cannon. 20. Explain why the change in velocity of the cannonball is much greater than the change in velocity of the cannon: 21. People used to think that rockets could not accelerate in space because there is no air to push against. Explain why this is not true (and compare it to the cannonball example). 22. What is lift? 23. If two different objects receive the same amount of force, how is it that they accelerate at different rates? 24. Match the condition on the left to the result on the right 1. Lift equals the helicopter s weight a. Helicopter moves downward 2. Lift is greater than the helicopter s weight b. Helicopter moves upward 3. Lift is less than the helicopter s weight c. Helicopter hovers in mid-air Section 7.5 Defining Systems 25. Explain why the force of the orange on the apple does NOT cancel the force of the orange on the apple and the orange accelerates 26. Explain why the force of the orange on the apple DOES cancel the force of the apple on the orange and the orange DOES NOT accelerate 27. Inside a golf ball there are billions of atoms, all exerting action-reaction forces on each other. Explain why the ball does not accelerate on its own

3 Section 7.6Horse and Cart Problem A horse is pulling on a cart, accelerating the cart forward. 1. a) Make a force diagram for the cart to the left of the picture. b) Make a force diagram for the horse to the right of the picture. 2. Is the force exerted on the cart by the horse greater than the force exerted on the horse by the cart? How do you know? 3. Is the force exerted on the cart by the horse greater than the force of friction on the cart exerted by the ground? How do you know? 4. Is it true to say that the net force exerted on the cart is in the forward direction? How do you know? 5. Is it true to say that the net force exerted on the cart is zero? How do you know? 6. Is it true to say that the net force of each Newton s third law pair is zero? How do you know? 7. Is the force of friction on the horse less than the force of friction on the cart? How do you know?

4 Concept Checks 1. Can an action force exist without a reaction force? 2. When a hammer exerts a force on a nail, how does this amount of force compare with that of the nail on the hammer? 3. When you walk on a floor, what pushes you along? 4. State Newton s third law of motion. 5. Consider hitting a baseball with a bat. If we call the force the bat exerts against the ball the action force, identify the reaction force. 6. If a bat hits a ball with 1000 N of force, can the ball exert less than 1000 N of force on the bat? More than 1000 N? 7. If the world pulls you downward against your chair, what is the reaction force? 8. When a cannon is fired, are the forces on the cannonball and on the cannon equal in magnitude? Are the accelerations of the two equal? 9. When a cannon is fired, why do the cannonball and cannon have very different accelerations? 10. Identify the force that propels a rocket. 11. How does a helicopter get its lifting force? 13. When can two kicks on a soccer ball produce a net force of zero on the ball? 14. Why don t the enormous number of interatomic forces inside a baseball accelerate the baseball? 18. If you hit a wall with a force of 200 N, how much force does the wall exert on you? 21. Three sets of double boxes rest on a table. Rank the following from greatest to least. a. the normal force that the table exerts on the sets b. the normal force exerted by the bottom block on the top block 22. A van exerts a force on trailers of different masses m. All velocities v are constant. Compared with the force exerted on the trailer, rank the magnitude of force the trailer exerts on the van. Or are all pairs of forces equal in magnitude? 25. Your weight is the result of the gravitational force of Earth on your body. What is the corresponding reaction force? 28. If you walk on a log that is floating in the water, the log moves backward. Why? 29. Why is it easier to walk on a carpeted floor than on a smooth, polished floor? (Explain in terms of action/reaction forces) 36. A small car bumps into a van at rest in a parking lot. Upon which vehicle is the force of impact greater? Which vehicle undergoes the greater change in acceleration? Defend your answer.

5 45. Your teacher challenges you and your best friend to each pull on a pair of scales attached to the ends of a horizontal rope, in tug-of-war fashion, so that the readings on the scales will differ. Can this be done? Explain. Extra Credit Problems. Do these on this page or on a separate sheet of paper. SHOW YOUR WORK TO GET CREDIT 1. What will be the acceleration of recoil when a 60-kg person on rollerskates pushes against a wall with a force of 30 N? 2. Two people attempt a tug-of-war on lowfriction ice. One person has four times the mass of the other. Relative to the acceleration of the heavier person, what will be the acceleration of the lighter person? 3. What is the net force on a falling 100-N barrel hitting a pavement with 5000 N of force? 4. A 70-kg skydiver is falling at her terminal speed. Show that she exerts a 700-N downward force on the air as she falls.

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