Section 14.1 Classification of the Elements. Chapter 14 Chemical Periodicity

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1 Chapter 14 Chemical Periodicity Adapted from notes by Stephen Cotton Section 141 Classification of the Elements OBJECTIVES: Explain why you can infer the properties of an element based on those of other elements in the periodic table Use electron configurations to classify elements as noble gases, representative elements, transition metals, or inner transition metals Mendeleev s Table Grouped elements in columns by similar properties in order of Found some inconsistencies - felt that the were more important than the mass, so switched order Also found some Must be elements Predicted their before they were found The modern table Elements are still grouped by Similar properties are in the same Order is by Added the noble gases Mendeleev didn t know about them because they didn t with anything orizontal rows are called Vertical columns called Also called Similar properties within a 1

2 The elements in the A groups are 8A 1A called the 0 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A7A outer filling The group B are called the Inner transition elements belong after element 57 and element 89 Group 1A are the Group 2A are the Group 7A are called the Group 8A are the Why are there similar properties within a group of elements? The outermost orbital(s) electron configuration The properties of atoms repeat because the physical and chemical properties of an atom depend primarily upon the 1 3 Na 11 K 19 Rb 37 Cs 55 Fr 87 2

3 e 2 10 Ar 18 Kr 36 Xe 54 Rn 86 s 1 S- block s 2 Alkali metals all end in Alkaline earth metals all end in Really should include, but it fits better later e has similar properties as Transition Metals -d block The P-block p 1 p 2 p 3 p 4 p 5 p 6 d 1 d 2 d 3 d 5 d 5 d 6 d 7 d 8 d 10 d 10 s 1 s 1 F - block f 1 f 2 f 3 f 4 f 5 f 6 f 7 f 8 f 9 f 10 f 11 f 12 f 13 f 14 Section 142 Periodic Trends OBJECTIVES: Interpret group trends in atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energies, and electronegativities Interpret period trends in atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energies, and electronegativities 3

4 Atomic Radius } Radius Atomic Radius = Trends in Atomic Size Influenced by three factors: 1 Energy Level 2 Charge on nucleus 3 Shielding effect Shielding The electron on the outermost energy level has to look through all the other energy levels to see the Results in less from the nucleus Which then results in the expansion of the Group trends As you go down a each atom has another, so the atoms get Na K Rb Rb Periodic Trends As you go across a, the radius gets 1 more e - and 1 more p + Outermost electrons pulled Atomic Radius (nm) Na K Overall Ar Kr Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar 10 Atomic Number 4

5 Trends in Ionization Energy IE the amount of energy required to completely remove an from a gaseous atom The energy required to remove the electron is called the first ionization energy Ionization Energy The second IE is the energy required to remove the electron Always greater than IE The IE is the energy required to remove a third electron Table 141, p 402 Symbol First 1312 Second Third e Be B C N O F Symbol First 1312 Second Third e Be B C N O F Trends in Electron Affinity The energy change associated with to a gaseous atom Easiest to add to group Gets them to full Increases Decreases Trends in Ionic Size Cations form by electrons Cations are than the atom they come from 5

6 Ionic size Anions form by electrons Anions are than the atom they come from Configuration of Ions Ions usually have e - configurations Na: Na 1+ : F: F 1- : Size of Isoelectronic ions Iso Iso electronic ions have the same # of Al 3+ Mg 2+ Na 1+ F 1- O 2- and N 3- all have electrons all have the configuration: Size of Isoelectronic ions Positive ions that have more protons would be smaller due to more on the electrons gative ions have more electrons so more forces Electronegativity The tendency for an atom to electrons to itself when it is with another element ow fair is the sharing? Big electronegativity means it the electron it Group Trend The further down a group, the the outermost electron is, and the electrons an atom has More willing to electrons electronegativity 6

7 Periodic Trend are at the left of the table They let their electrons go electronegativity At the right end are the They want electrons Try to take them away from electronegativity Ionization energy, electronegativity, and electron affinity Atomic size and ionic size 7

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