# 17.1 Reflection and Refraction

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 17.1 Reflection and Refraction How do we describe the reflection and refraction of light? Reflection and Refraction Investigation 17.1 We observe the law of reflection every day. Looking in a mirror, we see ourselves reversed left-to-right. Our sense of sight depends on light reflected from objects around us. Light rays can also bend when they cross an interface between two different materials. The bending of light rays by a boundary between materials is called refraction. Prisms and lenses use refraction to manipulate light in telescopes, binoculars, cameras, and even your eyes. In this investigation, you will: take a closer look at reflection. apply geometry to predict exactly where reflected light goes. determine the rules for how and to what degree light is refracted by glass and water Materials List From Optics kit: Laminated graph sheet Laser flashlight and holder Mirror Prism Miscellaneous: Water soluble marker Protractor Graph paper and pencil A Observing the law of reflection 1. Place your laminated graph sheet on a flat surface and align the laser so the beam follows one horizontal line across the paper. 2. Set the mirror on the laminated sheet so the light beam from the laser hits its shiny surface at an angle. Draw a line on the graph paper, marking the position of the front face of the mirror. 3. Use a fine point water soluble marker and an index card to trace the incident and reflected light rays from the laser. See the photos above and at right for clarification. 4. Repeat steps 1 3 with the mirror set at a different angle. Do the experiment for at least four different angles. Use different colored markers or label your incident and reflected rays so you don t get them confused. 129

2 Investigation 17.1 Reflection and Refraction B Thinking about what you observed A diagram showing how light rays travel is called a ray diagram. Lines and arrows on a ray diagram represent rays of light. The incident ray travels to the mirror, the reflected ray travels away from the mirror. a. For each ray diagram, draw a line perpendicular to the mirror surface at the point where the rays hit. This line is called the normal line. b. Use a protractor to measure the angle between the normal and the incident and reflected rays. Record your measurements in Table 1. c. Write down your own statement of the law of reflection, describing the relationship between the angles you measured. d. A laser shines at a mirror at an angle of incidence of 75 degrees. Predict its angle of reflection. After predicting, test your prediction. Were you right? Angle of incidence Angle of reflection Table 1: Angles of incidence and reflection Diagram #1 Diagram #2 Diagram #3 Diagram #4 C Refraction Refraction from air into glass Refraction from glass into air θ i Light ray Angle of incidence Normal line θ Angle r of refraction θ i Light ray Angle of incidence Normal line θ r Angle of refraction Air Glass Glass Air The normal line is also used to describe how refraction works. Remember, the normal is a line perpendicular to the surface. A light ray falling on a surface is called the incident ray. The light ray passing through the surface is called the refracted ray. You may assume these light rays move in straight lines except at the point where they cross the surface. Find the incident and refracted rays on the diagram above. 130

3 Reflection and Refraction Investigation 17.1 The angle of incidence is the angle between the incident ray and the normal line. The angle of refraction is the angle between the refracted ray and the normal line. Snell s law of refraction states the relationship between the angle of incidence and the angle of refraction. SNELL S LAW Index of refraction on incident side of boundary Angle of incidence (degrees) n i sinθ i = n r sinθ r Angle of refraction (degrees) Index of refraction on refracted side of boundary The incident and refracted rays are defined in terms of the direction the light is going as it crosses the surface between two materials. Going from air into glass, the incident ray is in air and the refracted ray is in glass. Going from glass into air, the incident ray is in glass, and the refracted ray in is air. D Tracing rays through the prism A prism is a solid piece of glass with polished surfaces. Prisms are useful for investigating how light bends when it crosses from one material into another. 1.Place the prism on a piece of graph paper as shown at left. Shine the laser so the beam comes out the opposite short side. The angle of incidence should be at least 25 degrees. 2.The beam is entering the prism from the air and passing through the prism into the air again. Using a sharp pencil and an index card, carefully trace the path of the laser beam as it enters and exits the prism. 3. Remove the laser and prism from the paper. 4. Draw the lines connecting the beam through the glass as shown at right. Now, identify the incident/refracted pair of rays involved when the beam passes from the air to the glass. Next, identify the incident/refracted pair of rays involved when the beam passes from the glass to air. E Finding the index of refraction The index of refraction is a property of a material that describes its ability to bend light rays. Air has an index of refraction of 1.0. The index of refraction for different types of glass ranges from 1.4 to 1.6. The higher the index of refraction, the more the material bends light. 131

4 Investigation 17.1 Reflection and Refraction a. Draw the normals to the two faces of the prism the beam passed through as shown at right. b. When light goes from a low-index (air) to a higher-index (glass) material, does it bend toward the normal or away from the normal? c. When light goes from a high-index (glass) to a low-index (air) material, does it bend toward the normal or away from the normal? d. Use the two normals and a protractor to determine the angles of incidence and refraction for both surfaces crossed by the light beam. Use Table 2 to record the angles. Table 2: Angles of incidence and refraction Angle/incidence Angle/refraction Going from air to glass Going from glass to air d. Apply Snell s law to the light ray entering the prism. The incident material is air (n = 1); the refracting material is glass (n = n g ). Calculate the sines of the angles of incidence and refraction. Use your calculation to determine the index of refraction of glass (n g ). e. Apply Snell s law to the light ray leaving the prism. Using the index of refraction for glass, predict what the angle of refraction should be when the laser beam goes from glass to air. f. Compare your predicted angle of refraction to the angle you measured. Comment on any differences between your prediction and your measurement. Do your observations support Snell s law? Your answer should be supported by your observations of the laser beam. F Another example of refraction If you shine a laser through a cup of water, the beam will show up if you put a drop of milk in the water. In this mini-experiment, you will see what happens when you shine the laser from air to water and back to air. 1. Fill a clear plastic cup about halfway with water. Add a drop of milk to the water. 2. Set the cup on the laminated graph sheet and trace around the base of the cup. 3. Shine the laser through the cup so it passes off-center, as shown in the photo. Use an index card and water soluble marker to find and mark the beam going into and out of the cup. 4. Remove the cup and laser. Connect the beam that passes through the cup. 132

5 Reflection and Refraction Investigation 17.1 G refraction, air or water? The critical angle of refraction a.draw the normal lines to the surface of the cup at the points where the light ray enters and exits the cup. b.when the light is going from air into water, does the ray bend away from the normal or toward the normal? c.when the light is going from water back into air, does the ray bend away from the normal or toward the normal? d.based on your answers to the previous questions, which as a higher index of When light is going from a high-index material into a lower-index material, the ratio n i /n r is greater than one. That means the angle of refraction (θ r ) must be greater than the angle of incidence (θ i ). When the angle of refraction becomes greater than 90 degrees, it becomes reflection! The critical angle is the angle of incidence that makes the angle of refraction exactly 90 degrees. When the angle of incidence exceeds the critical angle, light is reflected because the angle of refraction becomes greater than 90 degrees. Scientists and engineers use the term total internal reflection to describe light reflecting back into a high-index material from a boundary with a low-index material. 1. Shine the laser into the long side of the prism. Observe what happens as you change the angle of incidence by rotating the prism. For some angles, the laser is reflected and exits the prism to the left. For other angles, the laser comes out on the right. 2. Try to identify the angle at which the laser beam makes the transition between refracting and reflecting when it reaches the boundary between glass and air. a. You already experimented with the prism s critical angle of refraction, in investigation 16.1, part 2. You created a small card with the letters A and B on each half. You then looked at the card through the prism and noticed that the letter you could see changed as you changed your viewing angle. Explain what was happening in that experiment, using what you now know about the critical angle of refraction. b. Fiber optics is an important tool in optical technology. A fiber optic is like a wire for light. You can bend a fiber optic and the light will still come through! The basis for the conduction of light by fiber optics is total internal reflection. Do some research on how fiber optics work. How is critical angle important to this technology? What are fiber optics used for? 133

7 Mirrors, Lenses, and Images Investigation Move the laser so the beam passes over the tip of your arrow from a different angle, but still hits the mirror. Trace this second beam as you did in step 3. 5.Remove the mirror and use a ruler to extend the two reflected rays. They should meet in a point on the other side of the line from where the real arrow is. The meeting point for the reflected rays is where you see the image of the tip of the arrow. The image forms where all rays that leave the same point on an object meet together again. Safety Tip: Never look directly into a laser beam. Some lasers can cause permanent damage to your eyes. B Refracting light through a lens Like a prism, a converging lens bends light. Because the shape of a lens is curved, rays striking different places along the lens bend different amounts. The laser allows us to follow the path of the incident and refracted rays. Rays that approach a lens parallel to the axis meet at a point called the focal point. The distance between the center of the lens and the focal point is called the focal length. 135

8 Investigation 17.2 Mirrors, Lenses, and Images 1. Divide your laminated graph sheet in half horizontally. You will use the top half to experiment with the light blue lens, and the bottom half will be reserved for the dark blue lens. 2. Place the laser on the edge of the laminated graph sheet and shine the laser so it follows a horizontal grid line across the paper. 3. Place the light blue lens 10 cm to the right of the laser with the slot facing up. Line the lens up vertically using the grid lines on the graph paper. It is important that the beam is perpendicular to the lens. Make sure the beam of the laser is lined up with the middle of the lens. There are lines on the side of each lens indicating the middle of the lens. 4. Trace around the base of the lens so it can be removed and put back in place in case you need to move it to complete ray tracing. 5. Shine the laser through the lens so the beam passes off-center, almost at the very outer edge of the lens. 6. Trace the incident and refracted rays. Be sure to always carefully mark the points that the beam exits the laser, enters the lens, exits the lens, and then hits the block. Connect all these points to see the path of the beam. 7. Realign the laser with a different horizontal grid line parallel to the original beam and closer to the center of the lens. Again, trace the path of the beam before and after it passes through the lens. 8. Realign the beam so it passes directly through the center and trace the beam again. 9. Trace two more beams passing through the lens on the other side of the center of the lens for a total of five beams. Label the beams 1 5 on both sides of the lens. 10. Repeat steps 2 8 with the dark blue lens using the bottom half of your graph paper. 136

9 C Thinking about what you observed Mirrors, Lenses, and Images Investigation 17.2 a. Feel the glass surface with your fingers and note the shape of the lenses. How are they different? b. Draw a quick sketch of the shape of each lens itself with no stand from a side view. Label each lens. c. Describe the paths of the rays before and after they traveled through the light blue lens. Include the words refract, converge, and diverge in your description. d. What is the focal point of a lens? Mark the focal point on the light blue lens ray diagram. e. What is the focal length of the lens? Measure the focal length of the light blue lens. f. Describe the paths of the rays before and after they traveled through the dark blue lens. Include the words refract, converge, and diverge in your description. g. One lens is referred to as a diverging lens, and the other a converging lens. They are also sometimes referred to as convex or concave. Research these terms and explain which is which. D The image from a single lens The image from a distant light source forms at a place that is one focal length away from a single lens. This provides a convenient way to measure the focal length. 1. Find a wall at least 3 or 4 meters away from a lamp or sunlit window. Tape a piece of white paper to the wall to create a screen for seeing the image. 2. Get the light blue lens. Hold the lens at different distances from your screen. Try distances between 10 and 20 centimeters. 3. You will see a sharp image of the lamp or window on the screen when your lens is exactly one focal length away from the wall. Use this technique to determine the focal length for the lens. 4. Images can be smaller or larger than the object that created them. Images can also be right side up or inverted. a. Was the image created by a single lens smaller or larger than the object? b. Was the image right side up or was it inverted? c. What is the focal length of the light blue lens, using this method? d. How does the focal length you found in this part of the investigation compare to the focal length you found from your ray diagram for the light blue lens in part 3? 137

10 Investigation 17.3 Optical Systems 17.3 Optical Systems How are the properties of images determined? Geometric optics describes a way to use scale drawings and geometry to analyze optical systems. Rays of light are represented by lines. Virtual rays are represented by dotted lines. Images form where the rays leaving a point on the object come together again. The images are real when actual light rays meet and virtual when virtual rays meet. In this investigation, you will: predict where images form with lenses. use the thin-lens formula to predict how and where images are formed by a single convex lens. Materials List From Optics kit: Flashlight and holder Clear filter with letter F Light blue lens Dark blue lens Laminated sheet Miscellaneous: Water soluble marker Ruler or straight-edge A Projecting an image with a lens You can think about a lens as collecting a cone of light from each point on an object. For a perfect lens, all the light in the cone is bent so it comes together at a point again to make the image. This is how movie projectors take an image on film and project it onto a screen Shine the flashlight (with the letter F filter attached) horizontally on the laminated sheet. 2. Set the light blue lens about 35 cm away from the light. 3. Shine the light at a distant wall at least 5 meters away. If one is not available, affix a piece of white paper to the wall as your projection screen. Slowly move the lens toward the light until you see a sharp image of the F on the wall or screen. Have one group member check the projected image closely while the lens is slowly moved to find the exact place the lens needs to be to make it come into focus. 4. When you have the image in sharp focus, measure the object distance and image distance and record them in Table 1. The object distance is measured from the front of the light to the middle of the lens. The image distance is measured from the middle of the lens to the front of the screen. 5. Fill in the rest of Table 1. For image orientation, record whether the image is inverted. For image height, measure the height of the image with a ruler to the nearest millimeter. The magnification is the image height divided by the object height (the height of the letter F on the filter cap is the object height).

11 Optical Systems Investigation Next, try projecting the image at a wall or screen that is farther away. Go even farther away for a third trial. (Hint: You will only be able to get a clear image if the separation between the lens and the screen is more than four times the focal length of the lens.) Record your data in Table 1. Object dist. (cm) Table 1: Projecting an image with a lens Image dist. (cm) Image orientation Image height (mm) Magnification B Analyzing what you observed The image forms in a very specific place that depends on the lens and also on the location of the object relative to the lens. Tracing rays using geometric optics will show you what is happening. You will make a scale ray diagram out of the first row of data in Table 1. Once you complete the ray diagram, you can compare your theoretical (diagram) values with your measured values from Table Using the laminated graph sheet and a fine-point, water-soluble marker, make a scale drawing showing the positions of the object and lens from the first trial in Table 1. Measure and mark the near and far focal point of the light blue lens (you found this value in the previous investigation). 2. Draw an arrow for an object (you pick the height; 6 cm for example) at an object distance that corresponds to your first trial in Table 1. Your drawing should look like the diagram below. You must decide how many cm each box on your grid will equal, then keep that value throughout the exercise. 3. Draw three rays from the tip of the arrow using these rules: A ray parallel to the axis is bent to pass through the far focal point. A ray passing through the near focal point emerges parallel to the axis. A ray passing through the center of the lens is not deflected at all. 139

12 Investigation 17.3 Optical Systems 4. Where the rays meet is where the image forms. 5. Measure the image distance from your drawing, and the height of the image (length of the image arrow from the optical axis to the tip). Record your measurements in Table 2. Object dist. (cm) Table 2: Results from ray diagrams Image dist. (cm) Image orientation Image height (mm) Magnification a. How do your ray-tracing predictions compare with your actual measured images? Write one or two sentences comparing measured and calculated data. C The thin-lens formula Geometric optics are useful for understanding how lenses work, but there are much faster mathematical ways to predict the locations of objects and images. The thin-lens equation provides a way to calculate where images form given the positions and focal lengths of all objects and/or lenses in the system. The thin-lens equation is a good approximation as long as the object and image distances are much greater than the thickness of the lens. When using the thin-lens equation, distances are either positive or negative depending on a sign convention. The equation is written assuming that light goes from left to right. When the object and image appear like the diagram above, all distances are positive Object distances are positive to the left of the lens and negative to the right of the lens. 2. Image distances are positive to the right of the lens and negative to the left of the lens. 3. Negative image distances (or object distances) mean virtual images (or objects). The image from one lens becomes the object for the next lens. In this manner, the thin-lens equation can also be used to analyze multiple-lens systems.

13 D The image from a single lens Optical Systems Investigation 17.3 Use the thin-lens formula and the light blue lens to predict the image distance for four different known object distances. 1. For each of the object distances listed in Table 3, use the known focal length for the light blue lens, and plug the values into the thin-lens equation to predict the distance at which an image should form. 2. Place the screen at the predicted image distances and locate the image. How close were your predictions? Record the measured image distance for each trial in Table 3. Table 3: Using the thin-lens equation to predict image distances Object distance (cm) Focal length (cm) Predicted image distance (cm) Measured image distance (cm) a. How close did your prediction of the image come to the actual image? Answer with a percentage. b. Challenge: Use the dark blue lens and the thin-lens equation to predict some image distances. You will need to find the focal length of the dark blue lens. One way to find this is explained in Investigation 17.2, part 5. (Hint: The dark blue lens is a diverging lens. Instead of looking for the projected image in front of the object, you will have to look for the projected image behind the object!) 141

### Geometric Optics Converging Lenses and Mirrors Physics Lab IV

Objective Geometric Optics Converging Lenses and Mirrors Physics Lab IV In this set of lab exercises, the basic properties geometric optics concerning converging lenses and mirrors will be explored. The

### 1 of 9 2/9/2010 3:38 PM

1 of 9 2/9/2010 3:38 PM Chapter 23 Homework Due: 8:00am on Monday, February 8, 2010 Note: To understand how points are awarded, read your instructor's Grading Policy. [Return to Standard Assignment View]

### EXPERIMENT 6 OPTICS: FOCAL LENGTH OF A LENS

EXPERIMENT 6 OPTICS: FOCAL LENGTH OF A LENS The following website should be accessed before coming to class. Text reference: pp189-196 Optics Bench a) For convenience of discussion we assume that the light

### It bends away from the normal, like this. So the angle of refraction, r is greater than the angle of incidence, i.

Physics 1403 Lenses It s party time, boys and girls, because today we wrap up our study of physics. We ll get this party started in a bit, but first, you have some more to learn about refracted light.

### PROPERTIES OF THIN LENSES. Paraxial-ray Equations

PROPERTIES OF THIN LENSES Object: To measure the focal length of lenses, to verify the thin lens equation and to observe the more common aberrations associated with lenses. Apparatus: PASCO Basic Optical

### Lenses. Types of Lenses (The word lens is derived from the Latin word lenticula, which means lentil. A lens is in the shape of a lentil.

Lenses Notes_10_ SNC2DE_09-10 Types of Lenses (The word lens is derived from the Latin word lenticula, which means lentil. A lens is in the shape of a lentil. ) Most lenses are made of transparent glass

### GEOMETRICAL OPTICS. Lens Prism Mirror

GEOMETRICAL OPTICS Geometrical optics is the treatment of the passage of light through lenses, prisms, etc. by representing the light as rays. A light ray from a source goes in a straight line through

### LIGHT SECTION 6-REFRACTION-BENDING LIGHT From Hands on Science by Linda Poore, 2003.

LIGHT SECTION 6-REFRACTION-BENDING LIGHT From Hands on Science by Linda Poore, 2003. STANDARDS: Students know an object is seen when light traveling from an object enters our eye. Students will differentiate

### Procedure: Geometrical Optics. Theory Refer to your Lab Manual, pages 291 294. Equipment Needed

Theory Refer to your Lab Manual, pages 291 294. Geometrical Optics Equipment Needed Light Source Ray Table and Base Three-surface Mirror Convex Lens Ruler Optics Bench Cylindrical Lens Concave Lens Rhombus

### Geometric Optics Physics 118/198/212. Geometric Optics

Background Geometric Optics This experiment deals with image formation with lenses. We will use what are referred to as thin lenses. Thin lenses are ordinary lenses like eyeglasses and magnifiers, but

### Thin Lenses Drawing Ray Diagrams

Drawing Ray Diagrams Fig. 1a Fig. 1b In this activity we explore how light refracts as it passes through a thin lens. Eyeglasses have been in use since the 13 th century. In 1610 Galileo used two lenses

### Convex Mirrors. Ray Diagram for Convex Mirror

Convex Mirrors Center of curvature and focal point both located behind mirror The image for a convex mirror is always virtual and upright compared to the object A convex mirror will reflect a set of parallel

### Chapter 23. The Refraction of Light: Lenses and Optical Instruments

Chapter 23 The Refraction of Light: Lenses and Optical Instruments Lenses Converging and diverging lenses. Lenses refract light in such a way that an image of the light source is formed. With a converging

### Basic Optics System OS-8515C

40 50 30 60 20 70 10 80 0 90 80 10 20 70 T 30 60 40 50 50 40 60 30 C 70 20 80 10 90 90 0 80 10 70 20 60 50 40 30 Instruction Manual with Experiment Guide and Teachers Notes 012-09900B Basic Optics System

### Thin Lenses. Physics 102 Workshop #7. General Instructions

Thin Lenses Physics 102 Workshop #7 Name: Lab Partner(s): Instructor: Time of Workshop: General Instructions Workshop exercises are to be carried out in groups of three. One report per group is due by

### Lesson 26: Reflection & Mirror Diagrams

Lesson 26: Reflection & Mirror Diagrams The Law of Reflection There is nothing really mysterious about reflection, but some people try to make it more difficult than it really is. All EMR will reflect

### Three Lasers Converging at a Focal Point : A Demonstration

Three Lasers Converging at a Focal Point : A Demonstration Overview In this activity, students will see how we can use the property of refraction to focus parallel rays of light. Students will observe

### Lesson 29: Lenses. Double Concave. Double Convex. Planoconcave. Planoconvex. Convex meniscus. Concave meniscus

Lesson 29: Lenses Remembering the basics of mirrors puts you half ways towards fully understanding lenses as well. The same sort of rules apply, just with a few modifications. Keep in mind that for an

### Chapter 17: Light and Image Formation

Chapter 17: Light and Image Formation 1. When light enters a medium with a higher index of refraction it is A. absorbed. B. bent away from the normal. C. bent towards from the normal. D. continues in the

### Law of Reflection. The angle of incidence (i) is equal to the angle of reflection (r)

Light GCSE Physics Reflection Law of Reflection The angle of incidence (i) is equal to the angle of reflection (r) Note: Both angles are measured with respect to the normal. This is a construction line

### Reflection and Refraction

Equipment Reflection and Refraction Acrylic block set, plane-concave-convex universal mirror, cork board, cork board stand, pins, flashlight, protractor, ruler, mirror worksheet, rectangular block worksheet,

### 9/16 Optics 1 /11 GEOMETRIC OPTICS

9/6 Optics / GEOMETRIC OPTICS PURPOSE: To review the basics of geometric optics and to observe the function of some simple and compound optical devices. APPARATUS: Optical bench, lenses, mirror, target

### Determination of Focal Length of A Converging Lens and Mirror

Physics 41- Lab 5 Determination of Focal Length of A Converging Lens and Mirror Objective: Apply the thin-lens equation and the mirror equation to determine the focal length of a converging (biconvex)

### Lab 9. Optics. 9.1 Introduction

Lab 9 Name: Optics 9.1 Introduction Unlike other scientists, astronomers are far away from the objects they want to examine. Therefore astronomers learn everything about an object by studying the light

### Science In Action 8 Unit C - Light and Optical Systems. 1.1 The Challenge of light

1.1 The Challenge of light 1. Pythagoras' thoughts about light were proven wrong because it was impossible to see A. the light beams B. dark objects C. in the dark D. shiny objects 2. Sir Isaac Newton

### Experiment 3 Lenses and Images

Experiment 3 Lenses and Images Who shall teach thee, unless it be thine own eyes? Euripides (480?-406? BC) OBJECTIVES To examine the nature and location of images formed by es. THEORY Lenses are frequently

### C) D) As object AB is moved from its present position toward the left, the size of the image produced A) decreases B) increases C) remains the same

1. For a plane mirror, compared to the object distance, the image distance is always A) less B) greater C) the same 2. Which graph best represents the relationship between image distance (di) and object

### RAY OPTICS II 7.1 INTRODUCTION

7 RAY OPTICS II 7.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter presents a discussion of more complicated issues in ray optics that builds on and extends the ideas presented in the last chapter (which you must read first!)

### How Do Lenses and Mirrors Affect Light?

Essential Question How Do Lenses and Mirrors Affect Light? What reflective surfaces do you see in your classroom? What are the different properties of these surfaces that make some reflections better than

### Light and its effects

Light and its effects Light and the speed of light Shadows Shadow films Pinhole camera (1) Pinhole camera (2) Reflection of light Image in a plane mirror An image in a plane mirror is: (i) the same size

### Chapter 36 - Lenses. A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University

Chapter 36 - Lenses A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University 2007 Objectives: After completing this module, you should be able to: Determine

### SNC 2D Grade 10 Science, Academic Unit: Light and Geometric Optics

Page 1 SNC 2D Grade 10 Science, Academic Unit: Light and Geometric Optics The Big Ideas: Light has characteristics and properties that can be manipulated with mirrors and lenses for a range of uses. Society

### AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light

AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light Name: Period: Date: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Reflection,

### waves rays Consider rays of light from an object being reflected by a plane mirror (the rays are diverging): mirror object

PHYS1000 Optics 1 Optics Light and its interaction with lenses and mirrors. We assume that we can ignore the wave properties of light. waves rays We represent the light as rays, and ignore diffraction.

### Rutgers Analytical Physics 750:228, Spring 2016 ( RUPHY228S16 )

1 of 13 2/17/2016 5:28 PM Signed in as Weida Wu, Instructor Help Sign Out Rutgers Analytical Physics 750:228, Spring 2016 ( RUPHY228S16 ) My Courses Course Settings University Physics with Modern Physics,

### Solution Derivations for Capa #14

Solution Derivations for Capa #4 ) An image of the moon is focused onto a screen using a converging lens of focal length (f = 34.8 cm). The diameter of the moon is 3.48 0 6 m, and its mean distance from

### Chapter 22: Mirrors and Lenses

Chapter 22: Mirrors and Lenses How do you see sunspots? When you look in a mirror, where is the face you see? What is a burning glass? Make sure you know how to:. Apply the properties of similar triangles;

### Lenses and Telescopes

A. Using single lenses to form images Lenses and Telescopes The simplest variety of telescope uses a single lens. The image is formed at the focus of the telescope, which is simply the focal plane of the

### Geometrical Optics - Grade 11

OpenStax-CNX module: m32832 1 Geometrical Optics - Grade 11 Rory Adams Free High School Science Texts Project Mark Horner Heather Williams This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative

### 7.2. Focusing devices: Unit 7.2. context. Lenses and curved mirrors. Lenses. The language of optics

context 7.2 Unit 7.2 ocusing devices: Lenses and curved mirrors Light rays often need to be controlled and ed to produce s in optical instruments such as microscopes, cameras and binoculars, and to change

### LIGHT REFLECTION AND REFRACTION

QUESTION BANK IN SCIENCE CLASS-X (TERM-II) 10 LIGHT REFLECTION AND REFRACTION CONCEPTS To revise the laws of reflection at plane surface and the characteristics of image formed as well as the uses of reflection

### Page 1 Class 10 th Physics LIGHT REFLECTION AND REFRACTION

Page 1 LIGHT Light is a form of energy, which induces the sensation of vision in our eyes and makes us able to see various things present in our surrounding. UNITS OF LIGHT Any object which has an ability

### Mirror, mirror - Teacher Guide

Introduction Mirror, mirror - Teacher Guide In this activity, test the Law of Reflection based on experimental evidence. However, the back-silvered glass mirrors present a twist. As light travels from

### Light and Sound. Pupil Booklet

Duncanrig Secondary School East Kilbride S2 Physics Elective Light and Sound Name: Pupil Booklet Class: SCN 3-11a - By exploring the refraction of light when passed through different materials, lenses

### 1. You stand two feet away from a plane mirror. How far is it from you to your image? a. 2.0 ft c. 4.0 ft b. 3.0 ft d. 5.0 ft

Lenses and Mirrors 1. You stand two feet away from a plane mirror. How far is it from you to your image? a. 2.0 ft c. 4.0 ft b. 3.0 ft d. 5.0 ft 2. Which of the following best describes the image from

### 2) A convex lens is known as a diverging lens and a concave lens is known as a converging lens. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Var: 1 Page Ref: Sec.

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 4e (Giancoli) Chapter 33 Lenses and Optical Instruments 33.1 Conceptual Questions 1) State how to draw the three rays for finding the image position due to a thin

### Teaching Time: Two 50-minute periods

Lesson Summary In this lesson, students will build an open spectrograph to calculate the angle the light is transmitted through a holographic diffraction grating. After finding the desired angles, the

### Lecture 17. Image formation Ray tracing Calculation. Lenses Convex Concave. Mirrors Convex Concave. Optical instruments

Lecture 17. Image formation Ray tracing Calculation Lenses Convex Concave Mirrors Convex Concave Optical instruments Image formation Laws of refraction and reflection can be used to explain how lenses

### P R E A M B L E. Facilitated workshop problems for class discussion (1.5 hours)

INSURANCE SCAM OPTICS - LABORATORY INVESTIGATION P R E A M B L E The original form of the problem is an Experimental Group Research Project, undertaken by students organised into small groups working as

### OPTICAL IMAGES DUE TO LENSES AND MIRRORS *

1 OPTICAL IMAGES DUE TO LENSES AND MIRRORS * Carl E. Mungan U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD ABSTRACT The properties of real and virtual images formed by lenses and mirrors are reviewed. Key ideas are

### Experiment 8. Thin Lenses. Measure the focal length of a converging lens. Investigate the relationship between power and focal length.

Experiment 8 Thin Lenses 8.1 Objectives Measure the focal length of a converging lens. Measure the focal length of a diverging lens. Investigate the relationship between power and focal length. 8.2 Introduction

### b. In Laser View - click on wave. Pose an explanation that explains why the light bends when it enters the water.

Sierzega/Ferri: Optics 5 Observation Experiments: Light Bending Go to: http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation /bending-light You have a laser beam (press the button to turn it on!) that is shining from

### Physics 25 Exam 3 November 3, 2009

1. A long, straight wire carries a current I. If the magnetic field at a distance d from the wire has magnitude B, what would be the the magnitude of the magnetic field at a distance d/3 from the wire,

### Galileoscope Optics Activity Guide

Galileoscope Optics Activity Guide Robert T. Sparks and Stephen M. Pompea National Optical Astronomy Observatory Tucson, Arizona USA Version 1.1 NOAO is operated by the Association of Universities for

### Image Formation Principle

Image Formation Principle Michael Biddle Robert Dawson Department of Physics and Astronomy The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (Dated: December 8, 2015) The aim of this project was to demonstrate

### Lecture Notes for Chapter 34: Images

Lecture Notes for hapter 4: Images Disclaimer: These notes are not meant to replace the textbook. Please report any inaccuracies to the professor.. Spherical Reflecting Surfaces Bad News: This subject

### WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT - DIFFRACTION GRATING

PURPOSE In this experiment we will use the diffraction grating and the spectrometer to measure wavelengths in the mercury spectrum. THEORY A diffraction grating is essentially a series of parallel equidistant

### EXPERIMENT O-6. Michelson Interferometer. Abstract. References. Pre-Lab

EXPERIMENT O-6 Michelson Interferometer Abstract A Michelson interferometer, constructed by the student, is used to measure the wavelength of He-Ne laser light and the index of refraction of a flat transparent

### Chapter 23. The Reflection of Light: Mirrors

Chapter 23 The Reflection of Light: Mirrors Wave Fronts and Rays Defining wave fronts and rays. Consider a sound wave since it is easier to visualize. Shown is a hemispherical view of a sound wave emitted

### Chapter 27 Optical Instruments. 27.1 The Human Eye and the Camera 27.2 Lenses in Combination and Corrective Optics 27.3 The Magnifying Glass

Chapter 27 Optical Instruments 27.1 The Human Eye and the Camera 27.2 Lenses in Combination and Corrective Optics 27.3 The Magnifying Glass Figure 27 1 Basic elements of the human eye! Light enters the

### Physics 6C. Cameras and the Human Eye

Physics 6C Cameras and the Human Eye CAMERAS A typical camera uses a converging lens to focus a real (inverted) image onto photographic film (or in a digital camera the image is on a CCD chip). (Picture

### 1051-232 Imaging Systems Laboratory II. Laboratory 4: Basic Lens Design in OSLO April 2 & 4, 2002

05-232 Imaging Systems Laboratory II Laboratory 4: Basic Lens Design in OSLO April 2 & 4, 2002 Abstract: For designing the optics of an imaging system, one of the main types of tools used today is optical

### 2/16/2016. Reflection and Refraction WHITEBOARD WHITEBOARD. Chapter 21 Lecture What path did the light follow to reach the wall?

Chapter 21 Lecture What path did the light follow to reach the wall? Reflection and Refraction Represent the path from the laser to the wall with an arrow. Why can t you see the beam of light itself but

### Optics and Geometry. with Applications to Photography Tom Davis tomrdavis@earthlink.net http://www.geometer.org/mathcircles November 15, 2004

Optics and Geometry with Applications to Photography Tom Davis tomrdavis@earthlink.net http://www.geometer.org/mathcircles November 15, 2004 1 Useful approximations This paper can be classified as applied

### 3.14 understand that light waves are transverse waves which can be reflected, refracted and diffracted

Light and Sound 3.14 understand that light waves are transverse waves which can be reflected, refracted and diffracted 3.15 use the law of reflection (the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection)

### Your Comments. Also, that 30/60/90 triangle prism question on the last homework...holy geometry batman!

Your Comments Also, that 30/60/90 triangle prism question on the last homework...holy geometry batman! o thats why I'm always up side down when I look at the inside o my cereal spoon, regardless o how

### Alignement of a ring cavity laser

Alignement of a ring cavity laser 1 Introduction This manual describes a procedure to align the cavity of our Ti:Sapphire ring laser and its injection with an Argon-Ion pump laser beam. The setup is shown

### 12.1 What is Refraction pg. 515. Light travels in straight lines through air. What happens to light when it travels from one material into another?

12.1 What is Refraction pg. 515 Light travels in straight lines through air. What happens to light when it travels from one material into another? Bending Light The light traveling from an object in water

### Unit 8 Angles, 2D and 3D shapes, perimeter and area

Unit 8 Angles, 2D and 3D shapes, perimeter and area Five daily lessons Year 6 Spring term Recognise and estimate angles. Use a protractor to measure and draw acute and obtuse angles to Page 111 the nearest

### How do you measure voltage and current in electric circuits? Materials

20A Electricity How do you measure voltage and current in electric circuits? Electricity Investigation 20A We use electricity every day, nearly every minute! In this Investigation you will build circuits

### Understanding astigmatism Spring 2003

MAS450/854 Understanding astigmatism Spring 2003 March 9th 2003 Introduction Spherical lens with no astigmatism Crossed cylindrical lenses with astigmatism Horizontal focus Vertical focus Plane of sharpest

### Measure the Distance Between Tracks of CD and DVD

University of Technology Laser & Optoelectronics Engineering Department Laser Eng Branch Laser application Lab. The aim of work: Experiment (9) Measure the Distance Between Tracks of CD and DVD 1-measure

### Physics 101 HW#10 Solutions Koskelo

Physics 101 HW#10 Solutions Koskelo 1.) a.) Light slows down when it enters a material. What is actually going on (on a microscopic scale) that causes this to happen? The light is actually passed from

### Study Guide for Exam on Light

Name: Class: Date: Study Guide for Exam on Light Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is used

### ELECTRIC FIELD LINES AND EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES

ELECTRIC FIELD LINES AND EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES The purpose of this lab session is to experimentally investigate the relation between electric field lines of force and equipotential surfaces in two dimensions.

### Physics 223/224 ~ Experiment 26 Optics of the Eye

Physics 223/224 ~ Experiment 26 Fig. 26-1 Eye Model, Lenses, Light Source EQUIPMENT Cenco Eye Model Set of Lenses Object Box (Light Source) Meter Stick Eye Chart Video on the Eye 1 Flashlight/person Lens

### The purposes of this experiment are to test Faraday's Law qualitatively and to test Lenz's Law.

260 17-1 I. THEORY EXPERIMENT 17 QUALITATIVE STUDY OF INDUCED EMF Along the extended central axis of a bar magnet, the magnetic field vector B r, on the side nearer the North pole, points away from this

### Experiment 5: Magnetic Fields of a Bar Magnet and of the Earth

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Physics 8.02 Spring 2005 Experiment 5: Magnetic Fields of a Bar Magnet and of the Earth OBJECTIVES 1. To examine the magnetic field associated with a

### Size Of the Image Nature Of the Image At Infinity At the Focus Highly Diminished, Point Real and Inverted

CHAPTER-10 LIGHT REFLECTION AND REFRACTION Light rays; are; electromagnetic in nature, and do not need material medium for Propagation Speed of light in vacuum in 3*10 8 m/s When a light ray falls on a

### Area of Parallelograms, Triangles, and Trapezoids (pages 314 318)

Area of Parallelograms, Triangles, and Trapezoids (pages 34 38) Any side of a parallelogram or triangle can be used as a base. The altitude of a parallelogram is a line segment perpendicular to the base

### 15 Imaging ESSENTIAL IDEAS. How we see images. Option C. Understanding the human eye

Option C 15 Imaging ESSENTIAL IDEAS The progress of a wave can be modelled using the ray or the wavefront. The change in wave speed when moving between media changes the shape of the wave. Optical microscopes

### Refraction of Light at a Plane Surface. Object: To study the refraction of light from water into air, at a plane surface.

Refraction of Light at a Plane Surface Object: To study the refraction of light from water into air, at a plane surface. Apparatus: Refraction tank, 6.3 V power supply. Theory: The travel of light waves

Eighth Grade Electromagnetic Radiation and Light Assessment 1a. Light waves are the only waves that can travel through. a. space b. solids 1b. Electromagnetic waves, such as light, are the only kind of

### Physics 41, Winter 1998 Lab 1 - The Current Balance. Theory

Physics 41, Winter 1998 Lab 1 - The Current Balance Theory Consider a point at a perpendicular distance d from a long straight wire carrying a current I as shown in figure 1. If the wire is very long compared

### Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect

Objectives: PS-7.1 Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect Illustrate ways that the energy of waves is transferred by interaction with

### MD5-26 Stacking Blocks Pages 115 116

MD5-26 Stacking Blocks Pages 115 116 STANDARDS 5.MD.C.4 Goals Students will find the number of cubes in a rectangular stack and develop the formula length width height for the number of cubes in a stack.

### SilverFast Resolution Target (USAF 1951)

SilverFast Resolution Target (USAF 1951) Content 1. Introduction 2 2. Resolution of a Scanner 2.1 dpi, what exactly is that? 2 2.2 How a scanner is structured 2 2.3 Sharpness at high Resolution 3 2.4 Higher

### The light. Light (normally spreads out straight... ... and into all directions. Refraction of light

The light Light (normally spreads out straight...... and into all directions. Refraction of light But when a light ray passes from air into glas or water (or another transparent medium), it gets refracted

### Light Energy. Countdown: Experiment 1: 1 tomato paste can (without top or bottom) table lamp white poster board, 7 x 9

Light Energy Grade Level: 5 Time Required: 1-2 class periods Suggested TEKS: Science - 5.8 Suggested SCANS: Information. Acquires and evaluates information. National Science and Math Standards Science

### Physics 116. Nov 4, 2011. Session 22 Review: ray optics. R. J. Wilkes Email: ph116@u.washington.edu

Physics 116 Session 22 Review: ray optics Nov 4, 2011 R. J. Wilkes Email: ph116@u.washington.edu ! Exam 2 is Monday!! All multiple choice, similar to HW problems, same format as Exam 1!!! Announcements

### Lab 2L Mirrors and Lenses

Lab 2L Mirrors and Lenses Euiment Not all of the euiment shown above will be used during the activities outlined in this rocedure. Image Formation in a Plane Mirror Place the light source, slit late (mounted

### Explain the role of blood and bloodstain patterns in forensics science. Analyze and identify bloodstain patterns by performing bloodstain analysis

Lab 4 Blood Learning Objectives Explain the role of blood and bloodstain patterns in forensics science Analyze and identify bloodstain patterns by performing bloodstain analysis Introduction Blood, a

### Question 2: The radius of curvature of a spherical mirror is 20 cm. What is its focal length?

Question 1: Define the principal focus of a concave mirror. ANS: Light rays that are parallel to the principal axis of a concave mirror converge at a specific point on its principal axis after reflecting

### Interference. Physics 102 Workshop #3. General Instructions

Interference Physics 102 Workshop #3 Name: Lab Partner(s): Instructor: Time of Workshop: General Instructions Workshop exercises are to be carried out in groups of three. One report per group is due by

### Handy Pinhole Camera (Latin Camera Obscura) to observe the transit of Venus, eclipses and other phenomena occurring on the Sun

Lech Mankiewicz Centre for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Global Intelligent Robotic Telescopes Network GLORIA http://www.gloria-project.eu/ Paweł Rudawy Astronomical Institute,

### Name Class Date Laboratory Investigation 4B Chapter 4: Cell Structure

Name Class Date Laboratory Investigation 4B Chapter 4: Cell Structure The Microscope: A Tool of the Scientist You may refer to pages 66-67, 72-73 in your textbook for a general discussion of microscopes.

### Lab O3: Snell's Law and the Index of Refraction

O3.1 Lab O3: Snell's Law and the Index of Refraction Introduction. The bending of a light ray as it asses from air to water is determined by Snell's law. This law also alies to the bending of light by

### CHARGE TO MASS RATIO OF THE ELECTRON

CHARGE TO MASS RATIO OF THE ELECTRON In solving many physics problems, it is necessary to use the value of one or more physical constants. Examples are the velocity of light, c, and mass of the electron,