Module 2. Data Communication Fundamentals. Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur

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1 Module 2 Data Communication Fundamentals

2 Lesson 6 Digital Data, Analog Signals

3 Specific Instructional Objective On completion, the students will be able to: Explain the basic concepts of Digital data to Digital signal conversion Explain different aspects of ASK, FSK, PSK and QAM conversion techniques Explain bandwidth and power requirement Introduction Quite often we have to send digital data through analog transmission media such as a telephone network. In such situations it is essential to convert digital data to analog signal. Basic approach is shown in Fig This conversion is accomplished with the help of special devices such as modem (modulator-demodulator) that converts digital data to analog signal and vice versa. Since modulation involves operations on one or more of the three characteristics of the carrier signal, namely amplitude, frequency and phase, three basic encoding or modulation techniques are available for conversion of digital data to analog signals as shown in Fig The three techniques, referred to as amplitude shift keying (ASK), frequency shift keying (FSK) and phase shift keying (PSK), are discussed in the following sections of this lesson. There are many situations where ASK and PSK techniques are combined together leading to a modulation technique known as Quardrature Amplitude Aodulation (QAM). In this lesson, these modulation techniques are introduced. Figure Conversion of digital data to analog signal

4 Figure Types of digital-to-analog modulation Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) In ASK, two binary values are represented by two different amplitudes of the carrier frequency as shown in the Fig The unmodulated carrier can be represented by e c (t) = E c cos 2πfct The modulated signal can be written as s(t) = k e m cos 2πf c t s(t) = A 1 cos 2πf c t for 1 s(t) = A 2 cos 2πf c t for 0 Special case: On/Off Keying (OOK), the amplitude A 2 = 0 ASK is susceptible to sudden gain changes and OOK is commonly used to transmit digital data over optical fibers. Frequency Spectrum: If Bm is the overall bandwidth of the binary signal, the bandwidth of the modulated signal is B T = N b, where N b is the baud rate. This is depicted in Fig

5 Figure Amplitude shift-keying Fig Frequency spectrum of the ASK signal This method is very much susceptible to noise and sudden gain changes and hence it is considered as an inefficient modulation technique Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK) In this case two binary values are represented carrier frequency as shown in Fig by two different frequencies near the

6 Figure Frequency Shift-Keying In FSK two carrier frequencies f1 and f2 are used to represent 1 and 0 as shown in the above figure. Here s(t) = A cos 2πf c1 t for binary 1 And s(t) = A cos 2πf c2 t for binary 0 This method is less susceptible to errors than ASK. It is mainly used in higher frequency radio transmission. Frequency spectrum: FSK may be considered as a combination of two ASK spectra centered around f c1 and f c2, which requires higher bandwidth. The bandwidth = (f c2 - f c1 ) + N b as shown in Fig Figure Frequency Spectrum of the FSK signal

7 2.6.4 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) In this method, the phase of the carrier signal is shifted by the modulating signal with the phase measured relative to the previous bit interval. The binary 0 is represented by sending a signal of the same phase as the preceding one and 1 is represented by sending the signal with an opposite phase to the previous one as shown in Fig Figure Phase-shift keying In 2-PSK the carrier is used to represent 0 or 1. s(t) = A cos (2πf c t + π) for binary 1 s(t) = A cos (2πf c t) for binary 0 The signal set can be shown geometrically in Fig This representation is called a constellation diagram, which provides a graphical representation of the complex envelope of each possible symbol state. The x-axis of a constellation diagram represents the in-phase component of the complex envelope, and the y-axis represents the quadrature component of the complex envelope. The distance between signals on a constellation diagram indicates how different the modulation waveforms are, and how well a receiver can differentiate between all possible symbols in presence of noise. Figure Constellation diagram for 2-PSK signal

8 M-ary Modulation: Instead of just varying the phase, frequency or amplitude of the RF signal, modern modulation techniques allow both envelope (amplitude) and phase (or frequency) of the RF carrier to vary. Because the envelope and phase provide two degrees of freedom, such modulation techniques map baseband data into four or more possible RF carrier signals. Such modulation techniques are known as M-ary modulation. In M-ary modulation scheme, two or more bits are grouped together to form symbols and one of possible signals S 1 (t), S 2 (t),, S m (t) is transmitted during each symbol period T s. Normally, the number of possible signals is M = 2 n, where n is an integer. Depending on whether the amplitude, phase or frequency is varied, the modulation is referred to as M-ary ASK, M-ary PSK or M-ary FSK, respectively. M-ary modulation technique attractive for use in bandlimited channels, because these techniques achieve better bandwidth efficiency at the expense of power efficiency. For example, an 8-PSK technique requires a bandwidth that is log 2 8 = 3 times smaller than 2-PSK (also known as BPSK) system. However, M-ary signalling results in poorer error performance because of smaller distances between signals in the constellation diagram. Several commonly used M-ary signalling schemes are discussed below. QPSK: For more efficient use of bandwidth Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) can be used, where s(t) = A cos (2πf c t) for 00 = A cos (2πf c t + 90) for 01 = A cos (2πf c t + 180) for 10 = A cos (2πf c t + 270) for 11 Here ph ase shift occurs in multiple of 90 as shown in constellation diagram of Fig Figure Constellation diagram for Quadrature PSK (QPSK) signal 8-PSK: The idea can be extended to have 8-PSK. Here the phase is shifted by shown in Fig as

9 Figure Constellation diagram for 8-PSK signal QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation): Ability of equipment to distinguish small differences in phase limits the potential bit rate. This can be improved by combining ASK and PSK. This combined modulation technique is known Quardrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). It is possible to obtain higher data rate using QAM. The constellation diagram of a QAM signal with two amplitude levels and four phases is shown in Fig It may be noted that M-ary QAM does not have constant energy per symbol, nor does it have constant distance between possible symbol values. Figure Constellation diagram for a QAM signal Bit rate and Baud rate: Use of different modulation techniques lead to different baud rates (number of signal elements per second) for different values of bit rates, which represents the numbers of data bits per second. Table shows how the same baud rate allows different bit rates for different modulation techniques. The baud rate, in turn, implies the bandwidth requirement of the medium used for transmission of the analog signal.

10 Table Bit rate for the same bit rate for different modulation techniques Review Questions Q1. What are the possible digital-to-analog modulation techniques? Ans: Three possible digital-to-analog modulation techniques are: Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Q2. Why PSK is preferred as the modulation technique in modems? Ans: In PSK scheme it is possible to send a signal having more than one digital value. The approach is known as Quadrature PSK. Q3. Out of the three digital-to-analog modulation techniques, which one requires higher bandwidth? Ans: For a given transmission bandwidth, higher data rate can be achieved in case of PSK. In other words, in PSK higher channel capacity is achieved although the signaling rate is lower.

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