Outline: Introduction

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1 Outline: Introduction Last class recap a. Internet is made up of hosts (end systems), communication links, and packet switches). Hosts and packet switches run various networking protocols and work together to provide a communication infrastructure to run distributed (networking) application. Communication Link: provide connectivity among hosts and packet switches The field of communication engineering focuses on various techniques for transmitting digital signal on various physical media. b. Concept: protocol, define format, order of msgs sent and received among network entities, and actions taken on msg transmission, receipt e.g., IP protocol defines the format of IP address, the Internet s way of identifying each host and router. TCP protocol has both flow control and congestion control functionalities. c. From Network Edge to Network Core i. Residential access networks: DSL, Cable, Fiber ii. Typical home network d. Early history of Internet: packet switching idea Continue on Introduction to Internet 1. Network Edge a. Typical enterprise access network: Ethernet b. Physical media used: bandwidth and shared/dedicated c. Explained: A host (end system) transmits a packet

2 2. Network Core a. Key Idea: Packet Switching (data is packaged into packets, which is transmitted by network hop by hop, takes full transmission capacity of each link, store and forward) b. Queuing delay and loss at a packet switch No prior resource reservation under packet switch c. Packet Switching: how the route (path) from the source and destination for a packet is decided? IP address: 32bits or 64 bits address that uniquely identify a host or router End-to-end routing: hop-by-hop decision. Each node uses forwarding table, configured by routing protocols (automatically), to decide next node to forward the packet to d. Alternative: circuit switch Pros and Cons of packet switch and circuit switch e. Internet structure: A network of networks to connect access ISPs 3. Delay, Loss and Throughput in Packet-Switched Networks a. Different types of delay experienced by packets (Node) Processing delay: (Node) Queuing delay (Link) Transmission delay (Link) Propagation delay D nodal = d proc + d queue + d trans + d prop

3 Practice: Suppose you would like to urgently delivery 40 terabytes data from Boston to Los Angeles. You have available a 100 Mbps dedicated link for data transfer. Would you prefer to transmit the data via this link or instead use FedEx over-night delivery? a. Queuing delay and Loss: depends on nature of incoming traffic b. End-to-end Delay: delay from the source (host) to the destination host d end-end = d nodal1 +d nodal2 + + d nodaln Practice: Consider a packet of length L which begins at end system A and travels over three links to a destination end system. These three links are connected by two packet switches. Let d i, s i, and R i denote the length, propagation speed, and the transmission rate of link i, for i=1, 2, 3. The packet switch delays each packet by d proc. Assuming no queuing delays, in terms of d i, s i, R i (i=1,2,3), and L, what is the total end-to-end delay for the packet? Demo: traceroute command and traceroute.org How does traceroute work? c. (End-to-end) Throughput: the rate at which the receiver (host) receives data (a large file) a. Instantaneous versus average throughput b. Bottleneck link along the end-to-end route/path decides the throughput. c. Usually the bottleneck link is the access network (at the server or client side), unless simultaneous transmissions share a common link in the core, making it a bottleneck link. 2. Protocol Layers and Service Model a. The concept of layering and the benefits

4 b. Network Protocol Layering: multiple layers form a protocol stack Each layer use services provided by the layer underneath it Each player provides some services to the layer above it Example of services: datagram service (like ordinary mail service), end-to-end in-order reliable delivery, reliable delivery over one link c. Internet protocol stack i. Different names for packet of information exchanged at different layer of protocol ii. Application layer: network applications and application layer protocols. Web applications File transfer Domain name look up HTTP protocol FTP SMTP DNS Application-layer protocols are run by applications running on different end systems (for example, web browser on client, and the server running on server), they exchange (application-layer) message. iii. Transport layer: exchange application-layer messages between end systems TCP and UDP protocols iv. Network Layer: moving network-layer packets (datagrams) from one host to another. IP Protocol: header fields of datagrams, and how end systems and routers act on them Many routing protocols: determine how packets are routed from the source host to the destination host v. Link Layer: move a packet (network layer datagram) from one node to the next node, i.e., a single hop in the route. Ethernet, WiFi (802.11), vi. Physical Layer: move individual bits from one node to the next One protocol for each physical medium d. ISO/OSI reference model: presentation layer and Session Layer e. The concept of encapsulation Note: difference between switch and router

5 3. Network Security Problems Internet designed for a group of mutually trusting users attached to a transparent network. a. Malware: self-replicating viruses (user interactions) and worms (without user interactions) b. Attack on servers and network infrastructure: DoS, DDoS c. Packet Sniffing on wireless devices, or Ethernets d. Spoofing: IP spoofing, spoofing The need for secure communications: Confidentiality: against eavesdropping Message integrity: against modification, insertion or deletion of message End-point authentication: confirm the identity of sender and receiver Operational security: intrusion detection

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