Multiplexing. Chapter 8 Multiplexing. Frequency Division Multiplexing. Frequency Division Multiplexing. Frequency-Division Multiplexing

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1 hapter 8 Multiplexing Multiplexing Frequency-Division Multiplexing Synchronous Time-Division Multiplexing The higher the data rate, the more cost-eective the trans. acility (a) (b) MUX Trunk group DMUX Statistical Time-Division Multiplexing symmetric Digital Subscriber Line Frequency Division Multiplexing number o signals are carried simultaneously on the same medium. Each signal is modulated to a dierent carrier requency Useul bandwidth o medium should exceed required bandwidth o channels arrier requencies separated so signals do not overlap (guard bands) e.g. FM radio, TV hannel allocated even i no data W W Frequency Division Multiplexing Individual signals occupy W Hz W The transmission channel bandwidth is divided into a number o requency slots, each o which can accommodate the signal o an individual connection; Multiplexer assigns a requency slot to each connections and uses modulation to place the signal o the connection in the appropriate slot

2 FDM System Transmitter: st Modulate -> Multiplex -> 2 nd Modulate Receiver: st Demodulate->Demultiplex ->2 nd Demodulate FDM (on t) T&T analog carrier system used a hierarchy o FDM schemes Group -2 voice channels (4kHz each) = 48kHz -Range 60kHz to 08kHz Supergroup - 60 channel - FDM o 5 group signals on carriers between 32kHz and 552kHz Mastergroup -0 supergroups : 2.52MHZ bandwidth between 564KHz and 3084 khz Synchronous Time Division Multiplexing Time Division Multiplexing Data rate o medium exceeds data rate o digital signals to be transmitted Multiple digital signals interleaved in time Interleaving can be at: bit level; blocks o bytes level; or larger quantities level Time slots preassigned to sources and ixed Time slots allocated even i no data Time slots do not have to be evenly distributed amongst sources -> TDM can handle source with dierent data rate. TDM FDM With FDM, each channel continuously gets a raction o the bandwidth. With TDM, each channel gets all o the bandwidth periodically during brie intervals o time. 2

3 TDM System Transmitter: uer->multiplex ->Modulate Receiver: Demodulate-> Demultiplex -> uer Synchronous TDM Link ontrol No headers and tailers or the TDM rame needed Data link control protocols are not needed or the overall TDM link, why? Flow control Data rate o multiplexed line is ixed I one channel receiver can not receive data, the others must carry on. This leaves empty slots Data link control protocol can be used on a per-channel basis Error control Errors are detected and handled by individual channel systems Framing Pulse Stuing No lag or SYN characters bracketing TDM rames Must provide rame synchronization mechanism dded digit raming One control bit added to each TDM rame Looks like another channel - control channel Identiiable bit pattern used on control channel: e.g. alternating 0000 unlikely on a data channel To synchronize, a receiver compares incoming bits o one rame position to the expected sync pattern Problem - Synchronizing various data sources locks in dierent sources driting Data rates rom dierent sources not related by simple rational number Solution - Pulse Stuing Outgoing data rate (excluding raming bits) higher than sum o incoming rates Stu extra dummy bits or pulses into each incoming signal until it matches local clock Stued pulses inserted at ixed locations in the multiplexer rame ormat, and identiied/removed at demultiplexer 3

4 Digital arrier Systems: T- arrier Digital Hierarchy o TDM US/anada/Japan use this TDM structure o various capacities ITU-T use a similar (but dierent) system US system based on DS- ormat Multiplexes 24 channels Each rame has 8 bits per channel plus one raming bit 93 bits per rame MUX T- arrier System digital Telephone speech signal is obtained by sampling a speech waveorm 8000 times/sec and by representing each sample with 8 bits. T- system uses a transmission rame that consists o 24 slots o 8 bits each. Each slot carries one PM sample or a single connection. DS: (+24x8) bits/rame x 8000 rames/sec =.544 Mbps 24 b b rame MUX Primary Multiplex e.g. Digital Switch 24 chan PM 28 T- arrier System (on t) Higher-level multiplexing achievable by interleaving bits rom DS- inputs -> DS2 (6.32 Mbps), DS3 (44.736Mbps) Digital Signal M2 M23 DS.544 Mbps Multiplex DS Mbps Multiplex DS Mbps x4 M3 Multiplex DS Mbps x7 SONET/SDH: n example o TDM Synchronous Optical Network by ellore (NSI) Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (ITU-T) Signal Hierarchy SONET: Synchronous Transport Signal level () or Optical arrier level (O-): 5.84Mbps an carry DS-3 or a group o lower rate signals (DS DS DS2) plus ITU-T rates (e.g Mbps) SDH: lowest rate is 55.52Mbps (STM-) SONET uses a rame structure with the same 8khz repetition rate as traditional TDM system Multiple combined into STS-N signal 4

5 SONET Frame Format SONET Multiplexing Section Overhead Line Overhead 3rows 6rows 90 bytes 87 Inormation Payload 9 Rows Transport 25 µs overhead Section overhead is used to provide raming, error monitoring, and other section-related management unctions. Line overhead is used to provide synchronization and multiplexing or the path layer, as well as protection-switching capacity The irst two bytes o the line overhead are used as a pointer that indicates the byte within the inormation payload where the SPE begins DS DS2 EPT- DS EPT TM 50 Mbps Low-Speed Medium Speed High- Speed High- Speed 5.84 Mbps STS-3c STS-3c Mux STS-n Scrambler O-n E/O SONET Overhead Octets Statistical TDM In Synchronous TDM many slots are wasted Statistical TDM allocates time slots dynamically based on demand -> Sequence o data packets rom multiple users does not have ixed pattern as FDM & TDM Data rate on output line lower than aggregate rates o input lines -> higher acility utilization; however, the need or address and data length causes big overhead May cause problems during peak periods uer inputs Keep buer size limited to reduce delay Statistical TDM is the base or Packet Switching. While FDM and Synchronous TDM belong to ircuit Switching 5

6 symmetrical Digital Subscriber Line DSL hannel oniguration Explore the potential capacity o the installed twisted pair (0-MHz) symmetric Digital Subscriber Line Greater capacity downstream than upstream Supported by Frequency division multiplexing Lowest 25kHz or voice: plain old telephone service (POTS) The region above 25kHz is used or data transmission Upstream: 64kbps to 640kbps Downstream:.536Mbps to 6.44Mbps Discrete Multitone (DMT) xdsl ITU-T G.992. standard or DSL uses DMT DMT divides available bandwidth into # o subchannels 4kHz or each subchannels The binary bits are distributed among the subchannel, each o which use QM (using two copies o the carrier requency, one shited by 90 0) More bits eed to subchannels with high SNR, less bits to subchannels with poor SNR urrent DSL: 256 downstream subchannels (.5 to 9Mbps). High data rate DSL (HDSL): deliver T data (.544Mbps) over two twisted pair lines -> replace T lines.544 or Mbps Single line DSL (SDSL): echo cancellation used Very high data rate DSL: 3 to 52 Mbps downstream 6

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