UNIT 4: SUSTAINABILITY OF ECOSYSTEMS Worksheet #11: BIOMES

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1 SCIENCE 1206 UNIT 4: SUSTAINABILITY OF ECOSYSTEMS Worksheet #11: BIOMES There are two major types of ecosystems: Aquatic Terrestrial Each can be subdivided further based upon the predominant vegetation, such as grasses or trees, etc. Biome is a large geographical regionthat has a particular type of climax community. In the case of terrestrial (land) biomes, the climax community is defined by the dominant plant species. The key to the concept is to realize that the different lines of latitude receive different amounts of solar radiation, which affects temperature and precipitation. As one moves over lines of latitude, changes in climate occur that impact the types of organisms to be found in any given biome Terrestrial Biomes Terrestrial biome are land ecosystems. They are defined by factors such as plant structures, plant spacing, leaf types and climate. Climatic factors such as latitude and humidity affect the distribution of terrestrial biome. 1

2 1. TUNDRA (marshy plain) South of the ice caps of the Arctic extending across North America Low average temperature. Average yearly precipitation of cm. Due to low evaporation, the region is wet with ponds and bogs during the short, warm summer (poor drainage Short growing season of about 60 days The tundra plants include Mosses,lichens (reindeer moss),grasses, Sedges, Shrubs. The Animals include Musk oxen, Caribou, Wolves, Arctic hares Arctic fox, Lemmings Snowy owl Permafrost (permanently frozen soil) is present. This makes the growth of large plants impossible. The soil depth ranges from a few centimeters to a few meters. 2. BOREAL CONIFEROUS FOREST (TAIGA) South of the tundra extending across North America. Newfoundland is considered part of the boreal forest biome. Cold winters with the ground covered in snow and warm summers causing the ground to thaw completely. Average precipitation of cm. Growing season is about 120 days. plants include Conifers (pine, fir, spruce) Deciduous conifers (tamarack), Some deciduous trees (birch, maple),blueberry & cranberry shrubs, Ferns, Mosses Forest Animals include Moose, Bears, Marten (Pine martin), Lynx, Snowshoe hares, Foxes, Beavers A deep litter layer and slow decomposition. Acidic and mineral deficient, due to large amounts of water moving through the soil. 3. TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST South of the boreal forest. Cold winters with hot summers. Average precipitation of 75 to 150 cm. Growing season is about 180 days Deciduous trees (maple, birch, chestnut, hickory, beech, oak) Well developed and diversified shrubs, ferns, moss, etc Temperate Deciduous Forest Animals include White-tailed deer, Black bear Gray fox, Squirrels, Chipmunks, Skunk, Racoons, Mice Brown forest soils. Thin surface litter layer due to rapid decomposition, earthworms being active. Upper soil is mildly acidic due to the litter layer. Acidity decreases with depth. More fertile than Taiga soils because of high levels of nitrates and other soil nutrients held by clays 4. GRASSLANDS Interior of North America. Usually referred to in Canada as the Prairies. Very cold winters with hot summers. Average precipitation of 25 to 75 cm. Growing season is about 180 days. Plants include Grasses, Wild flowers, Trees are limited to low valleys and low mountains. Animals include Snakes, Badgers, prairie dogs, ground squirrel (burrowers), Bison were once numerous.antelope, elk, coyote, wolves. Soil is deep and rich (fertile) causing this biome to become the most productive farmland on Earth. chernozem soils, or black earths, organic matter accumulates in the upper portion of the soil, making it dark. Neutral or slightly alkaline soil. 2

3 PART 1: MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. What is a biome? A living plant or animal. A kind of large ecosystem such as grasslan or tundra. The study of biology The land surrounding a lake or ocean 2. What do biomes with similar climates also share? similar plants and animals similar land masses similar people similar forests 3. What are biomes made up of? ecosystems communities populationss species 4. When biomes have similar plants, what else might they share? climate consumers soils variations 5. This has mild summers and cold winters, moderate precipitation, rich topsoil over clay, hardwood trees, and many mammals and other animals. This biome is the 6. This biome occurs in the interiors of continents, hot in summer and cool in winter, moderate to low precipitation, mostly grasses and small shrubs, and can have large mammals or a variety of smaller ones 7. This occurs in the higher latitudes such as northern America or Russia. It has very cold winters and cool summers with moderate to low precipitation, mostly evergreen trees and a variety of animals in the summer. Which biome is this 3

4 8. This biome is in the far northern latitudes where there are harsh winters and cool summers. It has poor soil with permafrost beneath the surface. Plants include grasses and wildflowers, and animals might include caribou foxes and rodents, among others. 9. Taiga is a term applied to the 10 Which biome is the coldest? 11. This biome is known for it different types of evergreen trees? Taiga 12. What is permafrost? An area of soil frozen only during the winter An area where polar bears live Thick layer of ice just below the soil surface Special treat from Dairy Queen 13. Which factor prevents trees from growing in the tundra? poor soil fertility too windy permafrost too hot 14. Which Canadian biome has the greatest biodiversity? tundra grassland boreal forest 15. Which represents Canada's most fragile biome? tundra grassland boreal forest 4

5 16. Which Canadian biome has undergone the greatest degree of change from its original form? tundra grassland boreal forest 17. Which animal is most representative of the tundra biome? cattle deer lemmings frogs 18. Which factor has the least effect on the distribution of biomes in Canada? climate latitude longitude sunlight 19. Which of the following is NOT an abiotic factor in a biome? kinds of birds amount of rainfall sunlight soil 20. What role does a woodpecker have in a? carnivore decomposer omnivore producer 5

6 1. Using figure 1 on page 88, colour and label the different Terrestrial biomes found in Canada 2. Name two biomes found in newfoundland and Labrador 3. List two (2) abiotic and two (2) biotic feature for each of the biomes in Canada: Canadian Biome Abiotic Feature Biotic Feature 6

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