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1 Earth s Major Biomes Primary biomes: 1. tropical rain forest 2. Tropical dry forest 3. savanna 4. desert 5. temperate rain forest 6. temperate forest 7. temperate grassland 8. chaparral 9. Tundra 10.Coniferous forest or Taiga

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3 Quick Video:

4 Weather and Climate Weather is the day-to-day condition of Earth s atmosphere. Climate refers to average conditions over long periods and is defined by year-afteryear patterns of temperature and precipitation.

5 Carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor control earth s temperature. The Greenhouse effect is how these substances trap heat in the atmosphere. Earth is not the only planet

6

7 Earth s polar areas annually receive less intense solar energy, and therefore heat, from the sun. The difference in heat distribution creates three different climate zones: tropical, temperate, and polar.

8 The unequal distribution of heat across the globe creates wind and ocean currents. Earth has winds because warm air is less dense and rises, and cool air is more dense and sinks. Heat Transport in the Biosphere

9 Lesson 6.1 Defining Biomes Biomes and Net Primary Production Primary production: The rate at which primary producers undergo photosynthesis (or chemosynthesis).

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11 Primary biomes: Earth s Major Biomes 1. tropical rain forest 2. Tropical dry forest 3. savanna 4. desert 5. temperate rain forest 6. temperate forest 7. temperate grassland 8. chaparral 9. Tundra 10. Coniferous forest or Taiga

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13 Tropical Rain Forest Year-round warm temperatures and at least 2 m (6.6 ft) precipitation a year Soil generally nutrient-poor Enormous variety of plants. Supports more animal species than any other biome! Country of Gabon in Africa.

14 Gabon

15 Savanna Less rain than tropical dry forests, more than deserts; rainy seasons. Tree growth limited by fires and winds. Most trees are deciduous they lose their leaves and cease photosynthesis part of the year. Many animals migrate to find water, or burrow when water is scarce. Kruger National Park, South Africa

16 Kruger NP

17 Desert Receives less than 25 cm (9.8 in.) of precipitation per year Temperatures vary widely from day to night. Plants tend to have thick, leathery leaves,, and shallow roots. Animals tend to be nocturnal. Chihuahuan desert, Mexico

18 Desert

19 Temperate Rain Forest Moderate temperatures and heavy rainfall Conifers tall evergreen trees that produce seed-bearing cones. Forest floor is shaded, damp, covered in moss. Animals that require moisture, such as amphibians, thrive here. Olympic National Park, Washington State, USA

20 Olympic National Park

21 Temperate Forest Precipitation throughout the year with varied temperatures. Plants tend to be deciduous. Soil is enriched with nutrients from annual leaf drop. Animals may migrate, hibernate, or store food to survive cold conditions. Bialowieza Forest, Poland

22 Poland

23 Temperate Grassland (Prairie) Moderate seasonal precipitation, extreme seasonal temperatures Grasses, no trees. Animals are adapted to deal with lack of cover. Soil tends to be rich in nutrients = farmland! Wyoming, USA

24 Wyoming

25 Chaparral Mild, wet winters and warm, dry summers with droughts and fires common. Plants are droughtresistant; many have thick, waxy leaves or leaves that trap moisture Many animals burrow or are nocturnal to avoid heat. Baja California, USA

26 Baja

27 Boreal Forest (Taiga) Long, cold winters; short, cool summers Nutrient-poor soil and low species diversity Coniferous trees with waxy needles and adapted to harsh, snowy conditions. Animals feed, breed, and care for young mostly during short warm season. Kolyma, Russia

28 Kolyma

29 Tundra Extremely cold, dark winters and cool summers Found at very high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere Harsh winds, nutrient-poor soil, and freezing temperatures limit plant growth; no tall trees; mosses and lichens common Characterized by permafrost (underground soil that is frozen yearround) Northeast Greenland National Park

30 Northeast

31 Polar Ice Not classified as a biome No land under polar ice in Northern Hemisphere; ice sits atop Antarctica in Southern Hemisphere Very few plants; most life is in surrounding ocean North Pole Antarctica

32 North Pole Antarctica

33 Separating Biomes Primary biomes: 1. tropical rain forest 2. Tropical dry forest 3. savanna 4. desert 5. temperate rain forest 6. temperate forest 7. temperate grassland 8. chaparral 9. Tundra 10. Coniferous forest or Taiga Pick two defining features that is unique to that biome.

34 Question 1 Which of the following terms describes the net amount of organic matter that an ecosystem or biome produces? a. gross production b. net productivity c. photosynthetic mass d. net primary production

3 Temperate and Polar Zones

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