Design and Implementation of Wireless Sensor Network and Protocol for Smart Energy Meter

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1 2011 International Conference on Circuits, System and Simulation IPCSIT vol.7 (2011) (2011) IACSIT Press, Singapore Design and Implementation of Wireless Sensor Network and Protocol for Smart Energy Meter Somchai Thepphaeng and Chaiyod Pirak The Sirindhorn International Thai-German Graduate School of Engineering (TGGS) King Mongkut s University of Technology North Bangkok 1518 Pibulsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800, Thailand Abstract. In this paper we design and implement a wireless sensor network and protocol for smart energy meter applications. The system consists of a digital energy meter, a ZigBee coordinator and a management program. A ZigBee module from Atmel was adopted as a communication unit. The designed system is capable of automatically reading the unit and sending a terminal and a cover alarm to the management program. The system can support up to 100 energy meters, 10-hop network depth and automatically detect a new energy meter. The experimental results show that the system proposed in this paper is feasible to implemented in practical applications for automatic meter reading. Keywords: ZigBee, wireless sensor network, AMR, Wireless energy meter 1. Introduction The electricity system is one of the most important infrastructures in the modern society because it is the electrical power source of the electrical machines, e.g. motors and generators, used in the factory and also for the electrical appliances and lighting in households. Recently, an automation system has been applied to many basic infrastructures such as electricity, gas, and water systems in order to facilitate the routine work such as a manual control and a unit recording operation. Nowadays, the unit recording has to be done by human before the end of each month. Since the unit recording was done by human, the human error becomes the major problem of system. Recently, the smart meter concept has been popularly adopted by many leading electricity companies in USA and EUROPE in order to overcome the problem of human error in the unit recording as well as provide the automatic procedure to report the energy meter impairment and the tampering activity of misbehaved subscribers by using the advance wireless and wired communication technologies. To improve the efficiency and accuracy of metering systems, Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) system has been discussed and used for a long time. AMR is the technology of automatically collecting data from energy metering devices (water, gas, electricity) and transferring the data to a central database for billing and/or analyzing. This means that billing can be based on actual consumption rather than an estimate based on previous consumption, giving customers a better control of their use of electric energy, gas usage, or water consumption. In this paper, a design and implementation of wireless sensor network and protocol for smart energy meter is proposed. This paper is organized as follows. In section 2, the proposed system is described. In section 3, the implementation of the proposed system is examined. Next the experimental results is described in section 4, and a conclusion is in section The Proposed System ZigBee technology is a low data rate, low power consumption and low cost wireless networking protocol [1]. The ZigBee application profile includes home automation, industrial plant monitoring, 144

2 commercial building automation, automatic meter reading, telecom services/e-commerce, wireless sensor networks, personal home and hospital care and so on [2-3]. ZigBee network supports three types of network topologies : a star topology, a peer-to-peer topology and a cluster tree[2-3]. In a star network, the coordinator node is responsible for forming a network and controlling all devices in the network. Fig. 1: A system architecture of the proposed automatic meter reading system. End device nodes can communicate with each other node through a coordinator node. A cluster tree network is basically multiple star networks organized by coordinator. The coordinator is responsible for starting the network and for choosing certain key network parameters. End device nodes communicate not only with the coordinator but also communicate with every router nodes. However, the router nodes process a routing function cannot directly communicate with other node, they can only communicate with the coordinator. A mesh network provides high reliability networks. The router node in the mesh network not only perform a routing function but also communicate with other nodes. Fig. 1 shows the system architecture of the proposed automatic energy meter reading system. The system can be divided into two parts: the ZigBee-based energy meter and the rear-end processing system. The ZigBee-based energy meter is composed of a digital energy meter model EMS12C 15(45A) from Energy Max International Co., Ltd and ZigBee device model MNZB-24-A2/B0 from Atmel Corporate Co., Ltd, which is composed of Atmel MCU and Atmel RF front end. The digital energy meter is responsible for accumulating a power consumption data and storing it in the internal memory. The duty of ZigBee device is to read out the power consumption form the digital energy meter via UART communication and to communicate with the ZigBee coordinator. The rear-end processing system is composed of a ZigBee coordinator and the software designed for the proposed automatic energy meter. The ZigBee coordinator is responsible for initiating and maintaining the ZigBee devices on the network. The software of the proposed rear-end processing system is responsible for configuring the ZigBee network, correcting data from the ZigBee network, and storing data in the database system. 3. Implementation Fig. 2: An automatic enegy meter reading system network 145

3 In the proposed system, the automatic enegy meter reading system is equipped with a ZigBee coordinator, ZigBee routers and ZigBee end devices. The mesh ZigBee network is employed. In the network configuration, the network depth is 10 hops and the total number of the ZigBee-based enegy meter is 100 devices. The firmware designed in ZigBee client node can be divided into two parts : 1) network subroutine ; 2) enegy meter reading subroutine. As on example, figure 2 shows the network construction of automatic energy meter reading system with 3 hops depth and 6 ZigBee-based enegy meter devices. Figure 3 shows the operation flowchart of the ZigBee coordinator which is connected to computer via USB port. In Figure3, it can be seen that the ZigBee coordinator will form the network first, then initialize UART and synchronize with computer. While a new ZigBee-based enegy meter is detected by the ZigBee coordinator, the coordinator will execute the connection procedures to let the meter join the ZigBee network and then maintain the network for other ZigBee-base enegy meter devices. The second task of the coordinator is to communicate with the computer for getting commands from the user and sending data to the database system. The last task of coordinator is to control the ZigBee-base enegy meter for reading out data. Figure 4 describes the task of ZigBee-based enegy meter devices. The first task is to find a network setup by the ZigBee coordinator, and then try to join the network. If the network is an automatic enegy meter reading system, it will join the network. The next task is a power consumption reading from enegy meters. As soon as the ZigBee-base enegy meter received a command to read data, it will read data and then send to the ZigBee coordinator. Figure 3. The operation flowchart of the ZigBee coordinator Figure 4. The operation flowchart of the ZigBee device In the proposed system, the transmission data format can be categorized into two groups. Group 1 is a data transmission format between a management software and a ZigBee coordinator, shown in Table 1. The meter ID is a hardware identification of the energy meter. The command includes reading data and synchronizing to networks. Group 2 is a data format between ZigBee client and ZigBee coordinator, shown in Table 2 the data packet consists of start byte 0x02, Node Type which means a router or an end device, ZigBee ID is a ZigBee short address, Channel is a working channel of the network, LQI is a certain numeric value defined within the range to measure the link quality in which larger values mean better link, while values close to zero indicate poor connection. RSSI indicates link s current condition. The RSSI resolution is 3 dbm. 146

4 Table 1. Data transmission format between rear-end processing system and ZigBee coordinator Start Meter ID Command Stop 1 byte 11 bytes 3 bytes 1 byte Table 2. Data transmission format between ZigBee client and ZigBee coordinator Start Node type ZigBee ID Channel LQI RSSI Parent ID Meter ID Data Cover Alarm Terminal Alarm Stop (byte) Experiment Results In this section, we demonstrate the experimental results of the proposed system.the objective of the testing is to determine a transmission range of the wireless digital energy meter. In addition we observe units, a link quality indicator (lqi), a received signal strange indicator (rssi) being display by a management program. Conditions of the testing include 2 conditions : an indoor condition and an outdoor condition Indoor Condition Fig. 5. A floor plan of an indoor condition Figure 5 illustrated a floor plan of the office rooms and wireless meters installation which consists of 6 meters, namely M1, M2, M3, M4, M5, M6 and C (Coordinator). Furthermore, M1, M2, and M3 are installed at the same place because they are bundled in the same stand, but M4, M5, and M6 are installed in different place with different placement distance ordered by 12 metres, 19 metres, 29 metres, respectively away from the coordinator. A Network topology of this testing is displayed in figure 6. The measurement result of this testing is shown in Table 3. From Table 3, M1, M2, and M3 have a link quality and a received signal strength higher than M4, M5, and M6 because they are close to the coordinator. Table 3 The measurement results of the indoor condition. Meter ID Zigbee ID Units (kw/hr) lqi (0-255) rssi (0-255)

5 Fig. 6. A wireless energy meter network topology for indoor condition Program 4.2. Outdoor Condition The outdoor testing condition is set on a deck of the building, the measurement results is show in Table 4. Table 4 The result of wireless meter outdoor testing. Meter ID Zigbee ID Units(kW/hr) lqi (0-255) rssi (0-255) Conclusion ZigBee technology is a new wireless technology that is widely used various applications because of its excellent performance in reliability, capability, flexibility and cost. In this paper, we designed and implemented wireless sensor network and protocol for smart energy meter applications. The results show that the system is able to automatically read the unit, the terminal alarm and the cover alarm of energy meter and can be implement practical applications. 6. References [1] IEEE Std : Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low- Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs),2003 [2] ZigBee Specification, ZigBee Alliance, ZigBee Document r17, January [3] ZigBee Alliance, ZigBee Specification v1.0, 2004 [4] BitCloud Software 1.2 Serial Bootloader User's Guide : Meshnetics [5] BitCloud Developer's Guide : Meshnetics [6] BitCloud Stack Documentation : Meshnetics [7] ZigBit Development Kit 2.3 User s Guide : Meshnetics [8] ZigBit OEM Modules ZDM-A1281-A2/B0 (MNZB-24-A2/B0) Ultra-Compact 2.4GHz [9] /ZigBee Modules for Wireless Networking Applications : Meshnetics [10] ZigBit Amp OEM Modules ZDM-A1281-PN/PN0 (MNZB-A24-UFL/U0) REVISION 2.2 [11] Ultra-Compact 2.4GHz /ZigBee Modules with Power Amplifier for Wireless [12] Networking Applications : Meshnetics [13] Electricity metering - Data exchange for meter reading, tariff and load control -Part 21: Direct local data exchange. 148

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