# Frequency Response of BJT & JFET

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Alexandria High Institute for Engineering & Technology Frequency Response of BJT & JFET Course ECE241- Chapter (2) Sameh Selim )1)

2 Logarithms To clarify the relationship between the variables of a logarithmic function, consider the mathematical equations: b is the base, x the power. If b = 10 and x = 2, a = b x = (10) 2 = 100 but x = log b a = log = 2 For the electrical/electronics industry, the base in the logarithmic equation is limited to 10 and the number e = Common logarithms: logarithms taken to the base 10. Natural logarithms: logarithms taken to the base e. The two are related by In calculators, the common logarithm is denoted by "log" key and the natural logarithm by the "ln" key. Example 1: Using the calculator, determine the logarithm of the following numbers to the indicated base: a) Log b) log e e 3 c) log d) log e e -1 )2)

3 Example 2: Using the calculator, determine the logarithm of the following numbers: a) Log b) log e 64 c) log d) log N.B. the logarithm of a number does not increase in the same linear fashion as the number. The following table shows how the logarithm of a number increases only as the exponent of the number. If the antilogarithm of a number is desired, the 10 x or e x calculator functions are employed. Example 3: Using a calculator, determine the antilogarithm of the following expressions: a) 1.6 = log 10 a. b) 0.04 = log e a. Some properties of common logarithms: )3)

4 Example 4: Using calculator, determine the logarithm of the following numbers: a) log 10 (0.5) b) ( ) c) ( ) The use of log scales can significantly expand the range of variation of a particular variable on the graph. The semilog scale graph paper appears as in Figure below: )4)

5 DECIBELS The term "bel" (B) (derived from Alexander Graham Bell) was defined by the following equation to relate power levels P 1 and P 2 Practically, so the decibel (db) was defined such that: For a specified terminal (output) power (P 2 ) there must be a reference power level (P 1 ). The reference level is generally accepted to be 1mW, with an associated resistance of 600 (the characteristic impedance of audio transmission lines). There exists a second equation for decibels. For the system shown, V i equal to some value V1,. If V i is changed to some other level, V 2, then. To determine the resulting difference in decibels between the power levels, One of the advantages of the logarithmic relationship is the manner in which it can be applied to cascaded stages. )5)

6 For example, the magnitude of the overall voltage gain of cascaded system is given by Applying the proper logarithmic relationship results in In words, the equation states that the decibel gain of cascaded system is simply the sum of the decibel gain of each stage, i.e. Example 5: Find the magnitude gain corresponding to a decibel gain of 100. Check Example 6: The I/p power to a device is 10,000 W at a voltage of 1000 V. The O/P power is 500 W, while the o/p impedance is 20. a) Find the power gain in decibels. ( db ) b) Find the voltage gain in decibels. ( - 20 db ) c) Explain why parts (a) and (b) agree or disagree.( Ri = 100 Ro) Example 7: An amplifier rated at 40-W O/P is connected to a 10- speaker. a) Calculate the I/P power required for full power O/P if the power gain is 25 db. ( mw) b) c) Calculate the I/P voltage for rated O/P if the amplifier voltage gain is 40 db. ( 200 mv ) )6)

7 General Frequency considerations The magnitudes of the gain response of an RC coupled amplifier system is provided in the following Figure. Note that the horizontal scale is a logarithmic scale to permit a plot extending from the low- to the high-frequency regions. There is a band of frequencies in which the magnitude of the gain is either equal or relatively close to the midband value. To fix the frequency boundaries of relatively high gain, A vmid was chosen to be the gain at the cutoff levels. The corresponding frequencies f 1 and f 2 are generally called the corner, cutoff, break, or half-power frequencies. The multiplier was chosen because at this level the O/P power is half the midband power O/P, that is, at midfrequencies, and at the half-power frequencies, and P OHPF = 0.5 P omid (16) The bandwidth (or passband) of the system is determined by f 1 and f 2, that is, Bandwidth (BW) = f 2 f 1 (17) )7)

8 For applications of communications nature (audio, video), a decibel plot of the voltage gain vs frequency is more useful than that appearing in the above Figure: the curve is generally normalized as in the following Figure. In this Figure, the gain at each frequency is divided by the midband value. Obviously the midband value is then 1 as indicated. At halfpower frequencies, the resulting level is =. A decibel plot can now be obtained by applying At midband frequencies, 20 log 10 1 = 0, and at the cutoff frequencies, 20 log 10 = -3 db. Both values are clearly indicated in the resulting decibel plot, as shown in the following Figure, Most amplifiers introduce a 180 o phase shift between I/P and O/P signals. In fact, this is the case only in the midband region. At low frequencies, there is a phase shift such that V o lags V i by an increased angle. At high frequencies, the phase shift will drop below 180 o. the following Figure is a standard phase plot for an RC coupled amplifier. )8)

9 Low Frequency Analysis-Bode Plot: In the low-frequency region of the single-stage BJT or FET amplifier, it is the R-C combination formed by the network capacitors C c, C E and C s and the network resistive parameters that determine the cutoff frequencies. The series RC combination, as shown, and the development of a procedure that will result in a plot of frequency response with minimum of time and effort. At high frequencies, and the short-circuit equivalent can be substituted for the capacitor. The result is that V o V i at high frequencies. At f = 0 Hz, and the open-circuit approximation can be applied, with the result that V o = 0 V. Between the two extremes, the ratio Av = V o /V i will vary as shown in )9)

10 the following Figure. As the frequency increases, the capacitive reactance decreases and more of the input voltage appears across the O/P terminals. The O/P and I/P voltages are related by the voltage-divider rule as With magnitude of V o determined by For the special case where X C = R, And The level of which is indicated in on Figure above. In other words, at the frequency of which X C = R, the O/P will be 70.7% of the I/P for the RC network shown before. The frequency at which this occurs is determined from and in terms of logs, )11)

11 While at Av = Vo/Vi = 1 or Vo = Vi (the maximum value) If the gain equation is written as For the magnitude when f = f 1 In logarithmic form, the gain in db is For frequencies For where f f1 or (f1/f) 2 1, the equation above can be approximated by And finally, )11)

12 Ignoring the condition f f1 for the moment, a plot of the last equation on a frequency log scale will yield a result of a very useful nature for future decibel plots. The piecewise linear plot of the asymptotes and associated breakpoints is called a Bode Plot of magnitude vs frequency. The piecewise linear plot of the asymptotes and associated breakpoints is called a Bode plot of the magnitude versus frequency. Notes: A change in frequency by a factor of 2, i.e. one octave, results in 6-dB change in ratio, as shown by the gain change from f 1 /2 to f 1. A change in frequency by a factor of 10, i.e. one decade, results in 20- db change in ratio, as shown by the gain change from f 1 /10 to f 1. )12)

13 Steps for Bode plot: 1) Find f1 from the circuit parameters. 2) Sketch 2 asymptotes: one along the 0-dB and the other drawn thro' f1 sloped at 6 db/octave or 20 db/decade. 3) Find the 3-dB point corresponding to f1 and sketch the curve. Example 8: For the network shown in Figure: 1. Determine the break frequency. 2. Sketch the asymptotes and locate the -3 db point. 3. Sketch the frequency response curve. The Frequency response of the gain A v (db) for the R-C circuit is shown in Figure. The gain at any frequency can be determined from the frequency plot in the following manner: )13)

14 Check: Av(dB) = -3 db, Av = 0.707, and Av(dB) = - 1 db, (at f = 2f 1 ), Av = The phase angle is determined from f f 1, = 90 o f 1 = 100 f, = 89.4 o f = f 1, = 45 o f f 1, = 0 o f = 100 f 1, = o The phase response for the R-C circuit is shown. Low-Frequency Response (BJT) Amplifier In the analysis of the voltage-divider BJT, it will simply be necessary to find the appropriate equivalent resistance for the RC combination. Capacitors C s, C c, C E will determine the low-frequency response. We will examine the impact of each independently. Effect of Cs: the general form of the R-C configuration is established by the network of the following Figure. The total resistance is R s + R i. )14)

15 The cutoff frequency: At mid or high frequencies: The reactance of the capacitor will be short circuit approximate. The voltage V i is related to V s by: At f Ls, the voltage V i will be 70.7% of the value determined by this eqn., assuming that C s is the only capacitive element controlling the low frequency response. The ac equivalent for the i/p section of BJT amplifier: The value of R i is determined by: R i = R 1 //R 2 // r e The voltage V i applied to the i/p of the active device can be calculated using the voltage-divider rule: Effect of C C : Since the coupling capacitor is normally connected between the O/P of the active device and the applied load, the R-C configuration that determines the low cutoff frequency due to C C appears in the following Figure. The total series resistance is now R O + R L and the cutoff frequency due to C C is determined by: ( ) )15)

16 Ignoring the effects of C S and C E the O/P voltage V o will be 70.7% of its midband value at f LC. For the network of the loaded BJT amplifier, the ac equivalent network for the O/P section with V i = 0 V appears in the following Figure. The resulting value of R o in the equation of f LC is then simply R o = R C //r o Effect of C E : To determine f LE, the network seen by C E must be determined as shown in the Figure below. Once the level of Re is established, the cutoff frequency due to CE can be determined using the following equation: For the BJT network, the ac equivalent as seen by C E appears in the following Figure. The value of R e is therefore determined by Where ( ) The effect of C E on the gain is best described by recalling that the gain for the configuration )16)

17 of the shown Figure is given by: The maximum gain is obviously available where R E is zero ohms. The higher f L will be the predominant factor in determining the lowfrequency response for the complete system. Example: For the network shown in Figure with the following parameters: Cs = 10 F, CE = 20 F, Cc = 1 F, Rs = 1 K, R1 = 40 K, R2 = 10 K, RE = 2 K, Rc = 4 K, RL = 2.2 K, = 100, ro =, Vcc = 20 V a) Determine r e b) Find A Vmid = V o /V i c) Calculate Z i. d) Find A Vmid = V o /V s. e) Determine f Ls, f Lc, and f LE. f) Determine the lower cutoff frequency. g) Sketch the asymptotes of the Bode plot defined by the cutoff frequencies. h) Sketch the low-frequency response for the amplifier using results of (f). a) Determine re for dc conditions: R E = (100)(2 K ) = 200 K >> 10 R 2 = 100 K, check V B = 4 V, I E = 1.65 ma, re )17)

18 And r e = 100 (15.76 ) = 1576 = K b) Midband gain, check -90 c) = 40K//10K//1.576K 1.32 K d) From the Figure shown: So that ( )( ) e) Effect of C s R i = R 1 //R 2 // r e, check Ri = 1.32 K Effect of C C ( ), check 6.86 Hz ( ), check Hz Effect of C E = 1 K// 40 K // 10 K = K ( ) = ( )( )( ) 327 Hz f) f L = 327 Hz )18)

19 g), h) The low frequency plot for the network: Low-Frequency Response (FET) Amplifier The analysis is quite similar to that of the BJT amplifier. There are again capacitors C G, C C, and C S. The following Figure is used to establish the fundamental equations. Effect of C G : The ac equivalent network for the coupling capacitor between the source and the active device is shown in the following Figure. The cutoff frequency determined by CG will be: ( ) For the above network, )19)

20 Typically R G >> R sig and the lower cutoff frequency will be determined primarily by R G and C G. Effect of C C : For the coupling capacitor between the active device and the load the network of following Figure will result. The resulting cutoff frequency is For the given network, ( ) Effect of C S : For the source capacitor C S the resistance level of importance is defined by the following Figure. The cutoff frequency will be defined by For the above network, the resulting value of R eq ( ) ( ) Which for r d becomes Example: (a) Determine the lower cutoff frequency for the network of the above Fig, using the following parameters: C G = 0.01 F, C C = 0.5 F, C s = 2 F R sig = 10 k, R G = 1 M, R D = 4.7 k, R s = 1 k, R L = 2.2 k, g m = 2 ms I DSS = 8 ma, V P = -4 V, r d =, V DD = 20 V. (b) Sketch the frequency response using Bode plot. )21)

21 (a) Effect of C G : Using R sig =10 K, R i = R G = 1 M, check f LG 15.8 Hz Effect of C C : Using R O = R D //r d = 4.7 K, R L = 2.2 K, check f LC Hz Effect of C C : Using R eq = R S //(1/g m ), check R eq = ,and f Ls = Hz (b) The midband gain is determined by: ( ), check A Vmid -3. Using the midband gain to normalize the response will result in the frequency plot of Figure. )21)

22 Miller Effect Capacitance: In high-frequency region, the capacitive elements of importance are the inter-electrode (between terminals) capacitances internal to the active device and the wiring capacitance between leads of the network. For inverting amplifiers, the I/P and O/P capacitance is increased by a capacitance level sensitive to the inter-electrode capacitance between the I/P and O/P terminals of the device and the gain of the amplifier. In Figure, this "feedback" capacitance is defined by C f. Miller I/P Capacitance: Applying KCL: I i = I 1 + I 2 Using Ohm's law: Substituting, we obtain Establishing the equivalent network shows that the I/P impedance includes R i with the addition of a feedback capacitor magnified by the )22)

23 gain of the amplifier. In general the Miller effect I/P capacitance is defined by C Mi = (1 - A v )C f This shows that: For any inverting amplifier, the I/P capacitance will be increased by a Miller effect capacitance sensitive to the gain of the amplifier and the inter-electrode (parasitic) capacitance between the I/P and O/P terminals of the active device. The reason for the constraint that the amplifier be of the inverting type is now more apparent when you examine the equation of C MI. A positive A v would result in a negative capacitance (for A v > 1). Miller O/P Capacitance: Applying KCL: I o = I 1 + I 2 Using Ohm's law: The resistance R o is usually sufficiently large to permit ignoring I 1,, substituting V i = V o /A v will result in Or Resulting in the Miller O/P capacitance: ( ) )23)

24 For the usual situation where A v >> 1, this equation reduces to C MO = C f High-Frequency Response (BJT) Amplifier: Network Parameters: In the high-frequency region, the RC network of concern has the configuration appearing in Figure, the general form of A v : ( ) This results in a magnitude plot that drops off at 6 db/ octave with increasing frequency. The high-frequency model for the network of the following Figure appears in the next Figure. (BJT network with capacitors that affect the high frequency response) )24)

25 In fact, most specification sheets provide levels of C be and C bc and do not include C ce. Determining the Thevenin equivalent circuit for the I/P and O/P networks of the above Figure will result in the configuration of the following Figures. For the I/P network, the -3 db frequency is defined by With And ( ) At very high frequencies, the effect of C i is to reduce the total impedance of the parallel combination of R 1, R 2, Ri and C i, which results in a reduced level of voltage across C i, a reduction in I b, and gain of the system. )25)

26 For the O/P network, And At very high frequencies, C o will decrease reducing the total impedance of the O/P parallel branches of the equivalent model. The net result is that V o will also decline toward zero as the reactance X C becomes smaller. The frequencies f Hi and f Ho will each define a -6 db/octave asymptote. )26)

27 Example For the network shown in the Figure with the following parameters: R s = 1 K, R 1 = 40 K, R 2 = 10 K, R E = 2 K, R C = 4 K, R L = 2.2 K, C S = 10 F, C C = 1 F, C E = 20 F, C be = 36 pf, C bc = 4 pf, C Ce = 1 pf, C Wi = 6 pf, C Wo = 8 pf, = 100, r o =, V CC = 20 V. a) Find the I/P resistance R i b) Find the voltage gain A vmid. c) Determine the Thevenin equivalent I/P resistance R thi. d) Determine the Thevenin equivalent O/P resistance R tho. e) Find the input capacitance C i. f) Find the output capacitor C o. g) Determine f Hi and f Ho. a) Get V B, check V B = 4 V, get r e = r e = K, R i = R 1 //R 2 // r e, check Ri = 1.32 K b), check -90 c) R thi = R s // R 1 // R 2 // R i, check K d) R tho = R C // R L, check R tho = K )27)

28 e) ( ), check C i = 406 pf f) = 8 pf + 1 pf + [1 (-1/90)]4 pf = pf g), check f Hi = KHz h), check f Ho = 8.6 MHz In general, the lowest of the upper-cutoff frequencies defines a maximum possible bandwidth for the system. )28)

29 High-Frequency Response FET Amplifier The shown network is an inverting amplifier, so Miller effect capacitance will appear in the high-frequency ac equivalent network. Thevenin's i/p circuit Thevenin's o/p circuit For the i/p circuit f Hi = 1/2 R thi C i R thi = R sig //R G C i = C wi + C gs + C Mi C Mi = (1 A v )C gd For the o/p circuit f Ho = 1/2 R tho C o R tho = R D //R L //r d C o = C wo + C ds + C Mo C Mo = (1 1/A v )C gd )29)

30 Example: Determine the high cutoff frequency for the network of the above Fig, using the following parameters: C G = 0.01 F, C C = 0.5 F, C s = 2 F R sig = 10 k, R G = 1 M, R D = 4.7 k, R s = 1 k, R L = 2.2 k, g m = 2 ms I DSS = 8 ma, V P = -4 V, r d =, V DD = 20 V. Cgd = 2 pf, Cgs = 4 pf, Cds = 0.5 pf, Cwi = 5 pf, Cwo = 6 pf. A v = -g m (R D //R L ), check A v = -3. R thi = R sig //R G = 9.9 K. C i = C wi + C gs + (1-A v )C gd, check = 17 pf. f Hi = 1/(2 R thi C i ) = KHz R tho = R D //R L 1.5 K C o = C wo + C ds + C MO, check = 9.17 pf f Ho = 1/(2 )(1.5K )(9.17pF) = MHz From which it is noticed that the i/p capacitance with its Miller capacitance will determine the upper cutoff frequency. )31)

### R f. V i. ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response

ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response Objective: Design a practical differentiator circuit using common OP AMP circuits. Test the frequency response

### ELECTRONIC DEVICES CIRCUITS (EDC) LABORATORY MANUAL FOR II / IV B.E (ECE) : I - SEMESTER

ELECTRONIC DEVICES CIRCUITS (EDC) LABORATORY MANUAL FOR II / IV B.E (ECE) : I - SEMESTER DEPT. OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING SIR C.R.REDDY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ELURU 534 007 ELECTRONIC

### S-DOMAIN ANALYSIS: POLES, ZEROS, AND BODE PLOTS

S-DOMAIN ANAYSIS: POES, ZEROS, AND BODE POTS The main objectiveis to find amplifier voltage gain as a transfer function of the complex frequency s. In this s-domain analysis a capacitance С is replaced

### Frequency response of a general purpose single-sided OpAmp amplifier

Frequency response of a general purpose single-sided OpAmp amplifier One configuration for a general purpose amplifier using an operational amplifier is the following. The circuit is characterized by:

### FILTER CIRCUITS. A filter is a circuit whose transfer function, that is the ratio of its output to its input, depends upon frequency.

FILTER CIRCUITS Introduction Circuits with a response that depends upon the frequency of the input voltage are known as filters. Filter circuits can be used to perform a number of important functions in

### EXPERIMENT 1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF OP-AMP

1.17 EXPERIMENT 1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF OPAMP 1.2.1 OBJECTIVE 1. To sketch and briefly explain an operational amplifier circuit symbol and identify all terminals 2. To list the amplifier stages in a typical

### 11: AUDIO AMPLIFIER I. INTRODUCTION

11: AUDIO AMPLIFIER I. INTRODUCTION The properties of an amplifying circuit using an op-amp depend primarily on the characteristics of the feedback network rather than on those of the op-amp itself. A

### Common Base BJT Amplifier Common Collector BJT Amplifier

Common Base BJT Amplifier Common Collector BJT Amplifier Common Collector (Emitter Follower) Configuration Common Base Configuration Small Signal Analysis Design Example Amplifier Input and Output Impedances

### Common Emitter BJT Amplifier Design Current Mirror Design

Common Emitter BJT Amplifier Design Current Mirror Design 1 Some Random Observations Conditions for stabilized voltage source biasing Emitter resistance, R E, is needed. Base voltage source will have finite

### Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier

Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier 12.1: Introduction to Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp) Operational amplifiers (op-amps) are very high gain dc coupled amplifiers with differential inputs; they are used

### Part I: Operational Amplifiers & Their Applications

Part I: Operational Amplifiers & Their Applications Contents Opamps fundamentals Opamp Circuits Inverting & Non-inverting Amplifiers Summing & Difference Amplifiers Integrators & Differentiators Opamp

### Objectives: to get acquainted with active filter circuits and parameters, design methods, build and investigate active LPF, HPF and BPF.

Laboratory of the circuits and signals Laboratory work No. 4 ACTIVE FILTERS Objectives: to get acquainted with active filter circuits and parameters, design methods, build and investigate active LPF, HPF

### Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers Introduction The operational amplifier (op-amp) is a voltage controlled voltage source with very high gain. It is a five terminal four port active element. The symbol of the op-amp

### LAB 12: ACTIVE FILTERS

A. INTRODUCTION LAB 12: ACTIVE FILTERS After last week s encounter with op- amps we will use them to build active filters. B. ABOUT FILTERS An electric filter is a frequency-selecting circuit designed

### Frequency Response of Filters

School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II Laboratory Experiment 2 Frequency Response of Filters 1 Introduction Objectives To

### EXERCISES in ELECTRONICS and SEMICONDUCTOR ENGINEERING

Department of Electrical Drives and Power Electronics EXERCISES in ELECTRONICS and SEMICONDUCTOR ENGINEERING Valery Vodovozov and Zoja Raud http://learnelectronics.narod.ru Tallinn 2012 2 Contents Introduction...

### Chapter 8:Field Effect Transistors (FET s)

Chapter 8:Field Effect Transistors (FET s) The FET The idea for a field-effect transistor (FET) was first proposed by Julius Lilienthal, a physicist and inventor. In 1930 he was granted a U.S. patent for

### TWO PORT NETWORKS h-parameter BJT MODEL

TWO PORT NETWORKS h-parameter BJT MODEL The circuit of the basic two port network is shown on the right. Depending on the application, it may be used in a number of different ways to develop different

### SERIES-PARALLEL DC CIRCUITS

Name: Date: Course and Section: Instructor: EXPERIMENT 1 SERIES-PARALLEL DC CIRCUITS OBJECTIVES 1. Test the theoretical analysis of series-parallel networks through direct measurements. 2. Improve skills

### Lecture 23: Common Emitter Amplifier Frequency Response. Miller s Theorem.

Whites, EE 320 ecture 23 Page 1 of 17 ecture 23: Common Emitter mplifier Frequency Response. Miller s Theorem. We ll use the high frequency model for the BJT we developed the previous lecture and compute

### Class A Amplifier Design

Module 2 Amplifiers Introduction to Amplifier Design What you ll learn in Module 2. Basic design process. Section 2.0 Introduction to Amplifier Design. Section 2.1 DC Conditions. Design a BJT class A common

### CHAPTER 6 Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance

ELECTRICAL CHAPTER 6 Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance 1. State the fundamental concepts of Fourier analysis. 2. Determine the output of a filter for a given input consisting of sinusoidal

### Common-Emitter Amplifier

Common-Emitter Amplifier A. Before We Start As the title of this lab says, this lab is about designing a Common-Emitter Amplifier, and this in this stage of the lab course is premature, in my opinion,

### EAC215 Homework 4. Page 1 of 6

EAC215 Homework 4 Name: 1. An integrated circuit (IC) op-amp has (a) two inputs and two outputs (b) one input and one output (c) two inputs and one output 2. Which of the following characteristics does

### LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER OBJECTIVES 1. To understand how to amplify weak (small) signals in the presence of noise. 1. To understand how a differential amplifier rejects noise and common

### Unit/Standard Number. High School Graduation Years 2010, 2011 and 2012

1 Secondary Task List 100 SAFETY 101 Demonstrate an understanding of State and School safety regulations. 102 Practice safety techniques for electronics work. 103 Demonstrate an understanding of proper

### Understanding Power Impedance Supply for Optimum Decoupling

Introduction Noise in power supplies is not only caused by the power supply itself, but also the load s interaction with the power supply (i.e. dynamic loads, switching, etc.). To lower load induced noise,

### Transistor Amplifiers

Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 1999 Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to develop a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must accept input

### Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment

3 class days 1. Differential Amplifier Source: Hands-On chapter 8 (~HH 6.1) Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment Difference amplifier. The parts of the pot on either side of the slider serve as R3 and R4. The

### Experiment EB1: FET Amplifier Frequency Response

EEE106 Electronics II: : FET Amplifier Frequency Response earng Outcome O4: Analyze the operation of JFET, MOSFET and BJT amplifiers and switchg circuits 1.0 Apparatus Equipment required Components required

### CIRCUITS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 3. AC Circuit Analysis

CIRCUITS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 3 AC Circuit Analysis 3.1 Introduction The steady-state behavior of circuits energized by sinusoidal sources is an important area of study for several reasons. First, the

### 30. Bode Plots. Introduction

0. Bode Plots Introduction Each of the circuits in this problem set is represented by a magnitude Bode plot. The network function provides a connection between the Bode plot and the circuit. To solve these

### Fig6-22 CB configuration. Z i [6-54] Z o [6-55] A v [6-56] Assuming R E >> r e. A i [6-57]

Common-Base Configuration (CB) The CB configuration having a low input and high output impedance and a current gain less than 1, the voltage gain can be quite large, r o in MΩ so that ignored in parallel

### Chapter 10. RC Circuits ISU EE. C.Y. Lee

Chapter 10 RC Circuits Objectives Describe the relationship between current and voltage in an RC circuit Determine impedance and phase angle in a series RC circuit Analyze a series RC circuit Determine

### Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation

Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation To be performed during Week 9 (Oct. 20-24) and Week 10 (Oct. 27-31) Due Week 11 (Nov. 3-7) 1 Pre-Lab This Pre-Lab should be completed before attending your regular

### BJT AC Analysis 1 of 38. The r e Transistor model. Remind Q-poiint re = 26mv/IE

BJT AC Analysis 1 of 38 The r e Transistor model Remind Q-poiint re = 26mv/IE BJT AC Analysis 2 of 38 Three amplifier configurations, Common Emitter Common Collector (Emitter Follower) Common Base BJT

### TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS AET 8. First Transistor developed at Bell Labs on December 16, 1947

AET 8 First Transistor developed at Bell Labs on December 16, 1947 Objective 1a Identify Bipolar Transistor Amplifier Operating Principles Overview (1) Dynamic Operation (2) Configurations (3) Common Emitter

### Operational Amplifiers - Configurations and Characteristics

Operational Amplifiers - Configurations and Characteristics What is an Op Amp An Op Amp is an integrated circuit that can be used to amplify both DC and AC signals. One of the most common Op Amps available

### Lecture 24: Oscillators. Clapp Oscillator. VFO Startup

Whites, EE 322 Lecture 24 Page 1 of 10 Lecture 24: Oscillators. Clapp Oscillator. VFO Startup Oscillators are circuits that produce periodic output voltages, such as sinusoids. They accomplish this feat

### The output signal may be of the same form as the input signal, i.e. V in produces V out

What is an amplifier? Operational Amplifiers A device that takes an input (current, voltage, etc.) and produces a correlated output Input Signal Output Signal Usually the output is a multiple of the input

### ENGR 210 Lab 11 Frequency Response of Passive RC Filters

ENGR 210 Lab 11 Response of Passive RC Filters The objective of this lab is to introduce you to the frequency-dependent nature of the impedance of a capacitor and the impact of that frequency dependence

### COMMON-SOURCE JFET AMPLIFIER

EXPERIMENT 04 Objectives: Theory: 1. To evaluate the common-source amplifier using the small signal equivalent model. 2. To learn what effects the voltage gain. A self-biased n-channel JFET with an AC

### Bharathwaj Muthuswamy EE100 Active Filters

Bharathwaj Muthuswamy EE100 mbharat@cory.eecs.berkeley.edu 1. Introduction Active Filters In this chapter, we will deal with active filter circuits. Why even bother with active filters? Answer: Audio.

### Figure 1: Op amp model.

An Op Amp Tutorial (Based on material in the book Introduction to Electroacoustics and Audio Amplifier Design, Second Edition - Revised Printing, by W. Marshall Leach, Jr., published by Kendall/Hunt, c

### UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Experiment No. 5 - Gain-Bandwidth Product and Slew Rate Overview: In this laboratory the student will explore

### Lecture 260 Buffered Op Amps (3/28/10) Page 260-1

Lecture 260 Buffered Op Amps (3/28/0) Page 260 LECTURE 260 BUFFERED OP AMPS LECTURE ORGANIZATION Outline Introduction Open Loop Buffered Op Amps Closed Loop Buffered Op Amps Use of the BJT in Buffered

### Bode Diagrams of Transfer Functions and Impedances ECEN 2260 Supplementary Notes R. W. Erickson

Bode Diagrams of Transfer Functions and Impedances ECEN 2260 Supplementary Notes. W. Erickson In the design of a signal processing network, control system, or other analog system, it is usually necessary

### DC Circuits: Operational Amplifiers Hasan Demirel

DC Circuits: Operational Amplifiers Hasan Demirel Op Amps: Introduction Op Amp is short form of operational amplifier. An op amp is an electronic unit that behaves like a voltage controlled voltage source.

### University of Technology Laser & Optoelectronics Engineering Department Communication Engineering Lab.

OBJECT: To establish the pass-band characteristic. APPARTUS: 1- Signal function generator 2- Oscilloscope 3- Resisters,capacitors 4- A.V.O. meter. THEORY: Any combination of passive (R, L, and C) and/or

### PH 210 Electronics Laboratory I Instruction Manual

PH 210 Electronics Laboratory I Instruction Manual Index Page No General Instructions 2 Experiment 1 Common Emitter (CE) Amplifier 4 Experiment 2 Multistage amplifier: Cascade of two CE stages 7 Experiment

### BIASING MMIC AMPLIFIERS (e.g., ERA SERIES) (AN )

Introduction BIASING MMIC AMPLIFIERS (e.g., ERA SERIES) (AN-60-010) The Mini-Circuits family of microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) Darlington amplifiers offers the RF designer multi-stage performance

### Experiment #11: LRC Circuit (Power Amplifier, Voltage Sensor)

Experiment #11: LRC Circuit (Power Amplifier, Voltage Sensor) Concept: circuits Time: 30 m SW Interface: 750 Windows file: RLC.SWS EQUIPMENT NEEDED Science Workshop Interface Power Amplifier (2) Voltage

### LCR Parallel Circuits

Module 10 AC Theory Introduction to What you'll learn in Module 10. The LCR Parallel Circuit. Module 10.1 Ideal Parallel Circuits. Recognise ideal LCR parallel circuits and describe the effects of internal

### Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997

Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997 1 Purpose To measure and understand the common emitter transistor characteristic curves. To use the base current gain

### Analog Electronics II Laboratory Exercise 2 Cascade amplifier with BJT

Analog Electronics II Laboratory Exercise 2 Cascade amplifier with BJT Aim of the exercise The aim of this laboratory exercise is to become familiar with the operation of the cascade connection of the

### PIEZO FILTERS INTRODUCTION

For more than two decades, ceramic filter technology has been instrumental in the proliferation of solid state electronics. A view of the future reveals that even greater expectations will be placed on

### In a stereo, radio, or television, the input signal is small. After several. stages of voltage gain, however, the signal becomes large and uses the

chapter 12 Power Amplifiers In a stereo, radio, or television, the input signal is small. After several stages of voltage gain, however, the signal becomes large and uses the entire load line. In these

### Impedance Matching and Matching Networks. Valentin Todorow, December, 2009

Impedance Matching and Matching Networks Valentin Todorow, December, 2009 RF for Plasma Processing - Definition of RF What is RF? The IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms defines

### Measurement of Capacitance

Measurement of Capacitance Pre-Lab Questions Page Name: Class: Roster Number: Instructor:. A capacitor is used to store. 2. What is the SI unit for capacitance? 3. A capacitor basically consists of two

### Homework Assignment 03

Question 1 (2 points each unless noted otherwise) Homework Assignment 03 1. A 9-V dc power supply generates 10 W in a resistor. What peak-to-peak amplitude should an ac source have to generate the same

### Lecture-6 Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT) Part-I Continued

1 Lecture-6 Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT) Part-I Continued 1. Modes of Operation: Each junction in the BJT can be forward biased, or reverse-biased independently. Thus we have four modes of operation

### Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 13, 2006

Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 13, 2006 1 Purpose To measure and understand the common emitter transistor characteristic curves. To use the base current gain

### Transistor Tuned Amplifiers

5 Transistor Tuned Amplifiers 389 Transistor Tuned Amplifiers 5. Tuned Amplifiers 5. Distinction between Tuned Amplifiers and other Amplifiers 5.3 Analysis of Parallel Tuned Circuit 5.4 Characteristics

### ε: Voltage output of Signal Generator (also called the Source voltage or Applied

Experiment #10: LR & RC Circuits Frequency Response EQUIPMENT NEEDED Science Workshop Interface Power Amplifier (2) Voltage Sensor graph paper (optional) (3) Patch Cords Decade resistor, capacitor, and

### Basic Electronics Prof. Dr. Chitralekha Mahanta Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati

Basic Electronics Prof. Dr. Chitralekha Mahanta Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Module: 2 Bipolar Junction Transistors Lecture-2 Transistor

### CHAPTER 10 OPERATIONAL-AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS

CHAPTER 10 OPERATIONAL-AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS Chapter Outline 10.1 The Two-Stage CMOS Op Amp 10.2 The Folded-Cascode CMOS Op Amp 10.3 The 741 Op-Amp Circuit 10.4 DC Analysis of the 741 10.5 Small-Signal Analysis

### Ver 3537 E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2014) E1.1 Circuit Analysis. Problem Sheet 1 (Lectures 1 & 2)

Ver 3537 E. Analysis of Circuits () Key: [A]= easy... [E]=hard E. Circuit Analysis Problem Sheet (Lectures & ). [A] One of the following circuits is a series circuit and the other is a parallel circuit.

### Electronics Prof. D.C. Dube Department of Physics Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi

Electronics Prof. D.C. Dube Department of Physics Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi Module No. #06 Power Amplifiers Lecture No. #01 Power Amplifiers (Refer Slide Time: 00:44) We now move to the next

### RLC Resonant Circuits

C esonant Circuits Andrew McHutchon April 20, 203 Capacitors and Inductors There is a lot of inconsistency when it comes to dealing with reactances of complex components. The format followed in this document

### School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1 School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:223 Principles of Electrical Engineering I Laboratory Experiment #4 Title: Operational Amplifiers 1 Introduction Objectives

### Design of a TL431-Based Controller for a Flyback Converter

Design of a TL431-Based Controller for a Flyback Converter Dr. John Schönberger Plexim GmbH Technoparkstrasse 1 8005 Zürich 1 Introduction The TL431 is a reference voltage source that is commonly used

### Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers

Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 2005 Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to construct a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must

### BJT AC Analysis. by Kenneth A. Kuhn Oct. 20, 2001, rev Aug. 31, 2008

by Kenneth A. Kuhn Oct. 20, 2001, rev Aug. 31, 2008 Introduction This note will discuss AC analysis using the beta, re transistor model shown in Figure 1 for the three types of amplifiers: common-emitter,

### FEEDBACK INTRODUCTION

FEEDBACK INTRODUCTION Most physical systems incorporate some form of feedback. Feedback can be either negative (degenerative) or positive (regenerative). In amplifier design, negative feedback is applied

### Op Amp Bandwidth and Bandwidth Flatness. OPEN LOOP GAIN db. Figure 1: Frequency Response of Voltage Feedback Op Amps

TUTORIAL Op Amp Bandwidth and Bandwidth Flatness BANDWIDTH OF VOLTAGE FEEDBACK OP AMPS The open-loop frequency response of a voltage feedback op amp is shown in Figure 1 below. There are two possibilities:

### Operational Amplifiers: Part 2. Non-ideal Behavior of Feedback Amplifiers DC Errors and Large-Signal Operation

Operational Amplifiers: Part 2 Non-ideal Behavior of Feedback Amplifiers DC Errors and Large-Signal Operation by Tim J. Sobering Analog Design Engineer & Op Amp Addict Summary of Ideal Op Amp Assumptions

### UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT BERKELEY College of Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences. EE105 Lab Experiments

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT BERKELEY College of Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences EE15 Lab Experiments Bode Plot Tutorial Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Bode Plots Basics

### The Class-D Amplifier

The Class-D Amplifier (From the book Introduction to Electroacoustics and Audio Amplifier Design, Second Edition - Revised Printing, by W. Marshall Leach, Jr., published by Kendall/Hunt, c 2001.) A class-d

### In modern electronics, it is important to be able to separate a signal into different

Introduction In modern electronics, it is important to be able to separate a signal into different frequency regions. In analog electronics, four classes of filters exist to process an input signal: low-pass,

### Part 2: Receiver and Demodulator

University of Pennsylvania Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering ESE06: Electrical Circuits and Systems II Lab Amplitude Modulated Radio Frequency Transmission System Mini-Project Part : Receiver

### Designing Stable Compensation Networks for Single Phase Voltage Mode Buck Regulators

Designing Stable Compensation Networks for Single Phase Voltage Mode Buck Regulators Technical Brief December 3 TB47. Author: Doug Mattingly Assumptions This Technical Brief makes the following assumptions:.

### Technical Note #3. Error Amplifier Design and Applications. Introduction

Technical Note #3 Error Amplifier Design and Applications Introduction All regulating power supplies require some sort of closed-loop control to force the output to match the desired value. Both digital

### Noise Specs Confusing

Noise Specs Confusing It s really all very simple once you understand it Then here s the inside story on noise for those of us who haven t been designing low noise amplifiers for ten years You hear all

### BJT Amplifier Circuits

JT Amplifier ircuits As we have developed different models for D signals (simple large-signal model) and A signals (small-signal model), analysis of JT circuits follows these steps: D biasing analysis:

### Since any real component also has loss due to the resistive component, the average power dissipated is 2 2R

Quality factor, Q Reactive components such as capacitors and inductors are often described with a figure of merit called Q. While it can be defined in many ways, it s most fundamental description is: Q

### LM 358 Op Amp. If you have small signals and need a more useful reading we could amplify it using the op amp, this is commonly used in sensors.

LM 358 Op Amp S k i l l L e v e l : I n t e r m e d i a t e OVERVIEW The LM 358 is a duel single supply operational amplifier. As it is a single supply it eliminates the need for a duel power supply, thus

### Microelectronic Devices and Circuits Lecture 18 - Single Transistor Amplifier Stages - Outline Announcements Exam Two Results -

6.012 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits Lecture 18 Single Transistor Amplifier Stages Outline Announcements Exam Two Results Exams will be returned tomorrow (Nov 13). Review Biasing and amplifier metrics

### BIASING OF CONSTANT CURRENT MMIC AMPLIFIERS (e.g., ERA SERIES) (AN-60-010)

BIASING OF CONSTANT CURRENT MMIC AMPLIFIERS (e.g., ERA SERIES) (AN-60-010) Introduction The Mini-Circuits family of microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) Darlington amplifiers offers the RF designer

### Amplifier Teaching Aid

Amplifier Teaching Aid Table of Contents Amplifier Teaching Aid...1 Preface...1 Introduction...1 Lesson 1 Semiconductor Review...2 Lesson Plan...2 Worksheet No. 1...7 Experiment No. 1...7 Lesson 2 Bipolar

### Chapter 16. Active Filter Design Techniques. Excerpted from Op Amps for Everyone. Literature Number SLOA088. Literature Number: SLOD006A

hapter 16 Active Filter Design Techniques Literature Number SLOA088 Excerpted from Op Amps for Everyone Literature Number: SLOD006A hapter 16 Active Filter Design Techniques Thomas Kugelstadt 16.1 Introduction

### Application Note AN10174-01. A Low Impedance PIN Diode Driver Circuit with Temperature Compensation

Application Note AN74- A Low mpedance PN Diode Driver Circuit with Temperature Compensation Two Philips BAP5 PN diodes are used in an RF attenuator with a low impedance driver circuit to significantly

### CHAPTER 16 OSCILLATORS

CHAPTER 16 OSCILLATORS 16-1 THE OSCILLATOR - are electronic circuits that generate an output signal without the necessity of an input signal. - It produces a periodic waveform on its output with only the

### Tutorial Problems: Bipolar Junction Transistor (Basic BJT Amplifiers)

Tutorial Problems: Bipolar Junction Transistor (Basic BJT Amplifiers) Part A. Common-Emitter Amplifier 1. For the circuit shown in Figure 1, the transistor parameters are β = 100 and V A =. Design the

### AN105. Introduction: The Nature of VCRs. Resistance Properties of FETs

Introduction: The Nature of s A voltage-controlled resistor () may be defined as a three-terminal variable resistor where the resistance value between two of the terminals is controlled by a voltage potential

### The 2N3393 Bipolar Junction Transistor

The 2N3393 Bipolar Junction Transistor Common-Emitter Amplifier Aaron Prust Abstract The bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is a non-linear electronic device which can be used for amplification and switching.

### Diploma in Applied Electronics

DUBLIN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY KEVIN STREET, DUBLIN 8 Diploma in Applied Electronics YEAR II SUMMER EXAMINATIONS 1999 ELECTRIC CIRCUITS MR. P. Tobin MR. C. Bruce DATE Attempt FIVE questions with a maximum

### Op amp DC error characteristics and the effect on high-precision applications

Op amp DC error characteristics and the effect on high-precision applications Srudeep Patil, Member of Technical Staff, Maxim Integrated - January 01, 2014 This article discusses the DC limitations of

### Op Amp Circuits. Inverting and Non-inverting Amplifiers, Integrator, Differentiator

M.B. Patil, IIT Bombay 1 Op Amp ircuits Inverting and Non-inverting Amplifiers, Integrator, Differentiator Introduction An Operational Amplifier (Op Amp) is a versatile building block used in a variety