1 Differentiating Language Development in Elementary Schools Promoting Oral Language Development and Reading Comprehension
2 Language precedes thought. Abstract thought requires words as vehicles for thinking. Language enables us to link with the thinking and experiences of other human beings, generate new ideas and concepts, and transcend and expand on our own thoughts. Jerome Bruner
3 # of Words Research on Vocabulary Development: Impact of Poverty Reading Component: Vocabulary Recorded Vocabulary Size Preschool Children Parents Parent Child 0 Professional Working Class Welfare Hart and Risley, 1995 Colorado Reading First 3-8
4 Research on Vocabulary Development: Impact of Poverty Reading Component: Vocabulary New Words Per Grade Level Middle Class Disadvantaged Grade 1 Grade 2 Colorado Reading First Grade 3 Baker, Simmons, & Kame'enui,
5 Research on Vocabulary Development: Impact of Poverty By the age of 3, the average child of a professional has heard about 500,000 encouragements and 80,000 discouragements. By the age of 3, the average low-income child had heard about 75,000 encouragements and 200,000 discouragements. Hart & Risley
6 Discuss at Tables Thinking about the earlier article on the needs of ELLs and this research on the language development of students of poverty, What are the implications for schools?
7 Oral Language and Reading Oral comprehension typically places an upper limit on reading comprehension; if you don t recognize and understand the word when you hear it, you also won t be able to comprehend it when reading. Oral comprehension needs to be developed in our youngest students if we want them to be good readers. Thomas Sticht
8 Concerns Students in early grades are moving up reading levels, but their language isn t expanding. Students reach a plateau in reading, and their progress stalls. Students are able to word call, but they aren t able to retell or talk about what they read.
9 Elementary Curriculum Resources Avenues Program Oral Language Assessment Let s Talk About It
10 Avenues English Language Development Program Builds basic and academic vocabulary by including: Paired fiction and nonfiction literature Connections with science and social studies content Language-Rich Resources All English Language Learners receive ELD instruction 45 minutes every day Sheltered instruction throughout the day
11 Oral Language Assessment
12 Oral Language Assessment Assesses student s receptive language by having student repeat sentences of increasing grammatical difficulty Student must get whole sentence correct to get a point. Student must have control of language structures in order to repeat them. Offers teachers a quick way to evaluate the student s receptive language and to plan for next steps for instruction.
13 OLA: Oral Language Assessment Score Diagnosis 0-5 This student has a limited control over the structures of oral English and would be unable to follow simple instructions or a story read in class. Guided reading is not effective for this student. Needs intensive oral language development in small groups If this student is in Grade 1, he or she is at risk and requires intensive small-group intervention. May begin guided reading with this student If this student is in Grade 2 or beyond, he or she is at risk and requires intensive small-group intervention. Continue guided reading as well. Minimum standards: End of Kindergarten: 7 sentences Mid First Grade: 15 sentences
14 Oral Language Assessment Wake-up call for teachers Raised questions around: Teacher instructional language Selection of texts to use with students Using small groups to support more oral language opportunities for students Need for assessing oral language of Spanish-speaking students
16 Administering the OLA with Eric (Grade 1, Mid-Year) Task Listen to Eric on the video and mark the OLA form the way you code a running record. Score the form with a partner. Evaluate the Eric s language and types of errors.
17 Analyzing Eric s Performance What do you notice about Eric? What strengths does he have? What needs does he have? Look at the K-2 ELD Indicators for Speaking and Listening At what stage of language development does he seem to be functioning?
18 What about Expressive Language? All grade 1-2 teachers were given a copy of Balancing Reading and Language Learning with their literacy resources for Planning Guides. The Appendix has forms for evaluating students expressive language as you converse with them.
19 Differentiating in the Classroom How can we ensure that students like Eric have opportunities in the classroom To have comprehensible instruction To interact with others To do higher order thinking To build academic language and vocabulary Select one of these issues to discuss. We ll chart you ideas in the PowerPoint.
20 What can teachers do to make their instruction comprehensible for our student?
21 What can teachers do to offer our student opportunities to interact with others?
22 What can teachers do to offer our student opportunities to do higher order thinking?
23 What can teachers do to build our student s academic language and vocabulary?
24 Comprehensibile Input for all Interaction Higher Order Thinking Academic Language and Vocabulary Beginning Advanced Intermediate Englishspeaking students with limited language
25 Let s Talk About It This Eskimo builds his home out of ice. It is called an igloo. This Eskimo has made the igloo from blocks of ice. The ice house will keep him warm
26 LTAI as part of Literacy Resources Let s Talk About It purchased for all classrooms, Grades ECE-2nd. Written into Planning Guides as one option for small group instruction. Critical for students scoring at a level indicating they re not ready yet for guided reading Some professional development offered (district classes; Response to Intervention Core Instruction classes for RtI schools)
27 Why Let s Talk About It? Provides students with the two most important elements of oral language development: comprehensible input and social interaction. Provides a safe environment that values students approximations Allows students to move into reading and writing using their own language Builds students increasingly sophisticated vocabulary and language structure.
28 Session 1 Generate a Discussion Set norms for conversation. Reveal the picture. Have students share their thoughts and reactions. Encourage students to take turns sharing and listening. Use open-ended prompts and wait time. What I think, I can say.
29 Teacher Moves To Encourage Accountable Talk Keeping the channels open: What did Maria just say? Maria, can you say that again so everyone can hear? Keeping everyone together: Can you repeat what Tyrone just said in your own words? Linking contributions: Who wants to add on to what Kelly said? Who agrees or disagrees with that? Verifying and clarifying: So, are you saying? Recapping or summarizing: So what we have been talking about is. To recap, we seem to have reached an agreement that.
30 Session 2 Record their thoughts Return to their ideas from Session 1. Help students to shape their ideas orally. Record their ideas on chart paper. Individual ideas Combined Could use interactive writing Read the chart and encourage students to read with you. What I think, I can say. What I say, I can write. What I write, I can read.
31 Findings Reported by Teachers Focusing on Oral Language Development Students initially had difficulty with listening and having a conversation - it needs to be taught. At times, it s important to group students at similar language levels if you want to focus on the opportunity to meet the needs of students with lower language levels. As students participated in small group oral language development instruction, they gained in both their language and their literacy.
32 Findings (continued) OLA worked reliably to determine language dominance at the beginning of school for bilingual students. Examining data from different sources with the OLA supported differentiation. DRA2 Text Reading DRA2 Word Analysis Tasks (Letter I.D., Concepts of Print, High Frequency Words, Phonological Awareness)
33 Findings (continued) OLA was an important first lens in grouping students for differentiation because the DRA2 Text Level sometimes didn t correlate with the OLA. Students actually needed lower level texts. Why? Texts for guided reading needed to be analyzed in terms of language structures, not just text and concept features.
34 Oral Language and Reading Comprehension Books for guided reading need to align and support the students oral language It is important for teachers to take students language proficiency into consideration when selecting books. A good professional development activity is to have teachers look at a student s language level and their reading books and discuss which books seem most appropriate for them.
35 One more interesting finding Let s Talk About It can also be effective with older students who are transitioning from Spanish to English.
36 In closing From the earliest ages, reading is much more than decoding. From the start, reading is also accessing and further acquiring language knowledge and domain knowledge. This means that instruction and practice in fluency of decoding need to be accompanied by instruction and practice in vocabulary and domain knowledge
37 If we want to raise later achievement and avoid the fourth-grade slump, we need to combine early instruction in the procedures of literacy with early instruction in the content of literacy, specifically: vocabulary, conventions of language, and knowledge of the world.
38 Discuss: How are teachers in your school using Avenues and Let s Talk About It to build students oral language? Do you see development of vocabulary occurring in your schools? How can you support your school to ensure that all students have opportunities to increase their language and literacy skills?
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