Chapter 9 Spread Spectrum

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1 CEN 342 Introduction to Data Transmission Chapter 9 Spread Spectrum Dr. Mostafa Hassan Dahshan Computer Engineering Department College of Computer and Information Sciences King Saud University Spread Spectrum Important form of encoding for wireless communications Analog or digital data analog signal Initially designed for military Jamming, interception more difficult

2 Concept of Spread Spectrum Input fed to channel encoder Produce analog signal, narrow bandwidth Modulated using spreading sequence / code Generated using pseudorandom number Effectively increase bandwidth significantly Spread spectrum of signal to be transmitted Receiver demodulate with same sequence Signal fed into channel decoder recover data Concept of Spread Spectrum

3 Advantages Signal gains immunity from noise multipath distortion jamming Security, hide and encrypt signal can only be recovered knowing spreading code Same higher bandwidth can be used by many users with little interference e.g. CDM/CDMA in cellular telephony Thus, spectrum not wasted Pseudorandom Numbers (PN) Generated by algorithm using initial seed Deterministic, not actually random Same seed produces same number However, good algorithm pass many reasonable tests for randomness Unless algorithm and seed are known number (sequence) cannot be predicted Only receiver can decode signal

4 Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) Signal broadcast over (seemingly) random series of radio frequencies Hop from freq to another over fixed intervals Receiver follow same freq series, intervals Eavesdropper hear unintelligible blips Jamming one freq only damage few bits FHSS Basic Approach Number of channels allocated for FH signal 2 k carrier frequencies, one for each channel Channel width related to input bandwidth Frequencies sorted as permuted table PN used to index frequencies table Binary data modulated FSK or PSK Result centered on some base frequency

5 FHSS Basic Approach Each interval, k bits of PN select frequency This freq is modulated with FSK/PSK signal Produce signal centered on new carrier

6 FHSS Using MFSK MFSK commonly used with FHSS For one signal element MFSK ( ) ( π ) s t = A cos 2 f t, 1 i M i f i = f c + (2i 1 M) f d f c = carrier frequency f d = difference frequency (between f c and f i ) M = number of different signal elements = 2 L L = number of bits per signal element FHSS Using MFSK MFSK signal modulated with FHSS carrier Translated to new channel every T c sec For data rate R bit duration T = 1/R sec signal element duration T s = LT Slow FHSS T c T s Fast FHSS T c < T s

7 Example M = 4 frequencies encode 2 bits at a time MFSK bandwidth W d = 2M f d Using FHSS with k = 2, 2 k = 4 channels Each channel with bandwidth Wd Total bandwidth for FHSS: W s = 2 k W d Slow FHSS: T c = 2 T s = 4 T b channel held for duration of two signal elements Fast FHSS: T s = 2 T c = 2 T b signal element represented in two channels Example Slow FHSS

8 Example Fast FHSS FHSS Performance For MFSK E b / N j = (E b W d ) / S j W d = bandwidth of MFSK signal N j = jamming noise per hertz S j = jamming power (N j = S j / W d in this case) E b = signal energy per bit

9 FHSS Performance FHSS: jammer must jam all 2 k frequencies Jamming power reduced to S j / 2 k Gain in S/N (processing gain) G p = 2 k = W s / W d Ws = FHSS signal bandwidth FHSS has strong resistance to jamming Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) Each input bit represented by multiple bits Spreading code spreads signal wider band Freq band proportional to number of bits 10-bit spreading code 10 times > bandwidth Input combined with spread code by XOR input 0: spreading code unchanged input 1: spreading code inverted

10 DSSS Example (4 bit code) DSSS Using BPSK BPSK signal d ( ) ( ) cos( 2π ) s t Ad t f t = d ( t) To produce DSSS signal multiply c(t) = PN sequence (0 = 1, 1 = 1) ( ) = ( ) ( ) cos( 2π ) s t Ad t c t f t receiver multiply again by c(t): (c(t) c(t) = 1) c c 1 binary 1 = 1 binary 0 ( ) ( ) = ( ) ( ) ( ) ( π ) = ( ) s t c t Ad t c t c t cos 2 f ct sd t

11

12 DSSS Performance Gain in signal to noise ratio G p = T b / T c W s / W d Ws = FHSS signal bandwidth Tb = duration of 1 bit of input signal Tc = duration of 1 bit of spreading code Jamming resistance very close to FHSS Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Multiplexing technique with spread spectrum Start with data signal with rate D Break bit into k chips using fixed pattern Pattern unique for each user (user code) New channel rate = kd chips/s

13 CDMA Example User A code c A = <1, -1, -1, 1, -1, 1> User B code c B = <1, 1, -1, -1, 1, 1> User C code c C = <1, 1, -1, 1, 1, -1> If A wants to send bit 1: transmit chip code <1, -1, -1, 1, -1, 1> If A wants to send bit 0: transmit chip code <-1, 1, 1, -1, 1, -1> i.e. 1 s complement (1, -1 inverted)

14 CDMA Example Decoding function for user u on receiver S S u (d) = d 1 c 1 +d 2 c 2 +d 3 c 3 +d 4 c 4 +d 5 c 5 +d 6 c 6 If A sends 1 d = <1, -1, -1, 1, -1, 1> S A = 1 1+(-1-1)+(-1-1)+1 1+(-1-1)+1 1= 6 If A sends 0 d = <-1, 1, 1, -1, 1, -1> S A = = -6 CDMA Example If user B send 1, receiver using S A d=<1, 1, -1, -1, 1, 1> c A = <1, -1, -1, 1, -1, 1> S A <1, 1, -1, -1, 1, 1> = = 0 Same result if B sends 0

15 Orthogonal Codes If A, B transmit same time, S A is used only A signal is received, B is ignored If A, B transmit same time, S B is used only B signal is received, A is ignored S A (c B ) = S B (c A ) = 0 Codes of A, B are called orthogonal Orthogonal Codes Orthogonal codes are not always available More commonly, S X (c Y ) is small if X Y Thus, can distinguish when X = Y, X Y In the previous example S A (c C ) = S C (C A ) = 0 S B (c C ) = S C (c B ) = 2 signal makes small contribution instead of 0 Receiver can identify signal of user even if other users transmitting at same time

16

17 CDMA Limitations Receiver can filter unwanted users either 0 or low-level noise However, system will break down if many users compete for channel signal power from some users is too high because some users are very near to receiver CDMA for DSSS

18 CDMA for DSSS n users, each using different PN sequence For each user, data d i (t) modulated BPSK Produce signal with bandwidth W d Multiplied by spreading code c i (t) CDMA for DSSS All signals + noise received by receiver Multiplied by spread code of user 1: c 1 (t) BW of user 1 narrowed to original BW of other users Ws + noise not narrowed Unwanted signal energy remains spread Wanted signal concentrated Recovered by demodulator, band-pass filter

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