Legal Duties of a Nonprofit Board

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1 Legal Duties of a Nonprofit Board According to nonprofit corporation law, a board member should meet certain standards of conduct and attention to his or her responsibilities to the organization. These are referred to as the Duty of Obedience, the Duty of Care, and the Duty of Loyalty. Duty of Obedience Obedience to the organization's central purposes must guide all decisions. The board must also ensure that the organization functions within the law, both the "law of the land" and its own bylaws and other policies. Duty of Care Board members must exercise due care in all dealings with the organization and its interest. This includes careful oversight of financial matters and reading of minutes, attention to issues that are of concern to the organization and raising questions whenever there is something that seems unclear or questionable. Duty of Loyalty Conflicts of interest, including the appearance of conflicts of interest, must be avoided. This includes personal conflicts of interest or conflicts with other organizations with which a board member is connected. New Thinking on Legal Duties Duty of Transparency In addition to the above three traditional duties, boards have an obligation to ensure that their organization is appropriately transparent in its operations. For most nonprofits, this entails the filing of IRS form 990 or 990-PF and other appropriate informational and tax returns which are required to be made public. Adapted from BoardSource 2005 Edyth Bush Institute for Philanthropy & Nonprofit Leadership Page 1

2 Basic Responsibilities of Nonprofit Boards 1. Determine the organization's mission and purpose. A statement of mission and purposes should articulate the organization's goals, means, and primary constituents served. It is the board's responsibility to create the mission statement and. review it periodically for accuracy and validity. Each individual board member should fully understand and support it. 2. Select the chief executive. Boards must reach consensus on the chief executive s job description and undertake a careful search to find the most qualified individual for the position. 3. Support the chief executive and review his or her performance. The board should ensure that the chief executive has the moral and professional support he or she needs to further the goals of the organization. The chief executive, in partnership with the entire board, should decide upon a periodic evaluation of his or her performance. 4. Ensure effective organizational planning. As stewards of the organization, boards must actively participate with the staff in an overall planning process and assist in implementing the plan's goals. 5. Ensure adequate resources. One of the board's foremost responsibilities is to provide adequate resources for the organization to fulfill its mission. The board should work in partnership with the chief executive and development staff, if any, to raise funds from the community. 6. Manage resources effectively. The board, in order to remain accountable to its donors and the public, and to safeguard its tax-exempt status, must assist in developing the annual budget and ensuring that proper financial controls are in place. 7. Determine, monitor, and strengthen the organization's programs and services. The board's role in this area is to determine which programs are the most consistent with the organization's mission, and to monitor their effectiveness. 8. Enhance the organization's public standing. An organization's primary link to the community, including constituents, the public, and the media, is the board. Clearly articulating the organization's mission, accomplishments, and goals to the public, as well as garnering support from important members of the community, are important elements of a comprehensive public relations strategy. 9. Ensure legal and ethical integrity and maintain accountability. The board is ultimately responsible for ensuring adherence to legal standards and ethical norms. Solid personnel policies, grievance procedures, and a clear delegation to the chief executive of hiring and managing employees will help ensure proper decorum in this area. The board must establish pertinent policies, and adhere to provisions of the organization's bylaws and articles of incorporation. 10. Recruit and orient new board members and assess board performance. All boards have a responsibility to articulate and make known their needs in terms of member experience, skills, and many other considerations that define a balanced" board composition. Boards must also orient new members to their responsibilities and the organization's history, needs, and challenges. By evaluating its performance in fulfilling its responsibilities, the board can recognize its achievements and reach consensus and which areas need to be improved. Adapted from The Board Building Cycle by Hughes, Lakey & Bobowick, 2003 Edyth Bush Institute for Philanthropy & Nonprofit Leadership Page 2

3 Mission Principles of Governance: Key Responsibilities Ensure that your organization has a clear, succinct written mission statement that expresses its core values and reason for being. Tie the organization to the spirit of the sector and to the major issues facing the organization's field and community. Revisit the mission statement annually in light of internal and external change, and revise it if necessary. Ask other organizations and similar organizations for copies of their mission statements and compare how they describe their vision and values. Seek internal and external feedback - from staff and from members or constituents -- about the organization's mission. Make the organization's mission widely known by promoting it in the community. Oversight Engage in regular strategic planning as an integral part of effective leadership and management. Commission a periodic organizational assessment that examines, in detail, the organization's programs and services, as well as its management, structure,. and capacity. Adopt and regularly review a code of ethics and conflict of interest policy for board and staff. Understand and respect the relationship between board and staff. Select the chief executive carefully, and provide a clear description of duties and relationships. Support and strengthen the chief executive and the board - CPO relationship through a regular performance evaluation. Ensure high quality executive leadership. Make board self-assessment a routine part of the board's work. Resources Formulate a fund-raising strategy, including a case statement that expresses the rationale for financial support. Expect each board member to make an annual contribution to the organization according to his or her means, and take an active role in raising money. Cultivate board members with expertise in finance. Approve and monitor the annual operating budget. Review regular financial reports from staff. Require an annual audit by an independent accountant. Outreach Listen to the needs and interests of current and potential stakeholders. Be active community ambassadors, promoting the organization's mission, service, and achievements as well as bringing community perspectives to the attention of the board and staff. Ensure that the organization has a marketing and public relations strategy to support outreach. Seek out key leaders in business, government, education, and the media to inform them about the organization. Develop policies that support and encourage outreach activities. Adapted from Meeting the Challenge: An Orientation to Nonprofit Board Service (video) BoardSource, 1998 Edyth Bush Institute for Philanthropy & Nonprofit Leadership Page 3

4 The Board/Staff Partnership Characteristics of an Effective Board-Staff Partnership Common Expectations Where We Are Going? Cooperative Planning Why? Open & Honest Communications How We Will Get There? Respect Mutual Evaluation result in a clear and common understanding of How Will We Know We Have Arrived? Factors Conducive to an Effective Board-Staff Partnership Organizational health depends on an effective and flexible partnership between the board and the chief executive. It... Requires clarity and agreement about roles and responsibilities Requires regular and open communication between the board chair and the chief executive, as well as an agreement about how to work together Requires a willingness on everyone's part to clarify their own and each other s assumptions Benefits from regular and systematic feedback and assessment May need to be redefined as the organization develops in size and complexity Adapted from Critical Components of Effective Governance, BoardSource 2000 Edyth Bush Institute for Philanthropy & Nonprofit Leadership Page 4

5 The Board/Staff Partnership The Board Authorized by the state and the organization's supporters, the board governs the life of the organization. Establishes mission and direction, ensures the necessary resources, and develops guiding principles. Retains ultimate responsibility and power. Is accountable to the public trust and to the organization's constituencies. The Chief Executive Authorized by the board, the chief executive manages the daily affairs of the organization. Supports the board with strategic information, ideas, and connections. Manages the affairs of the organization by ensuring appropriate planning, coordination and implementation of the program established by the board to support the mission. Retains immediate, or operational, responsibility and power. The Partnership Organizational health depends on an effective partnership between the board and chief executive, which: Requires regular and open communication between the board chair and chief executive, Requires willingness on everyone's part to examine assumptions, Benefits from regular and systematic feedback and assessment, and Requirements for an Effective Partnership Clarity of roles Division of Responsibilities Attention to Working Relationships May need redefinition as the organization grows in size and complexity. Adapted from Critical Components of Effective Governance, BoardSource 2000 Edyth Bush Institute for Philanthropy & Nonprofit Leadership Page 5

6 Sharing Nonprofit Leadership The following are examples of typical board and staff leadership roles in nonprofits: The board takes the lead, for example, when it: Articulates the guiding values of the organization through policies that put the organization's mission into action; Hires, supports, and evaluates the chief executive; Opens the doors to fund raising in the community; Monitors fiscal management, approves the annual budget, and assures that there is an annual audit; and Selects, recruits, and orients new trustees. The chief executive takes the lead when he or she: Develops and proposes policy questions for the board's consideration; Hires, supervises, and motivates staff; and Develops and implements programs. The board, board chair, chief executive, and staff share the lead when they: Develop a strategic plan; Create a fund-raising plan and strategies; Initiate and implement periodic organizational evaluations; and Prepare for board meetings. Adapted from Critical Components of Effective Governance, BoardSource 2000 Edyth Bush Institute for Philanthropy & Nonprofit Leadership Page 6

7 Who Does What? Listed below are responsibilities typically carried out in most nonprofit organizations. If the responsibility is carried out primarily by the board, indicate that by writing "board" in the space provided. If the responsibility is carried out primarily by the staff, indicate that by writing "staff" in the space provided. If the responsibility is carried out by both the board and the staff, indicate that by writing "both" in the space provided. Hires, supports, and evaluates the chief executive Develops and implements programs Makes a personal, financial contribution to the organization Prepares for board meetings Develops and proposes policy questions about undertaking new programs Identifies, recruits, orients, and involves new board members Ensures that adequate financial controls are in place Creates a fund-raising plan and strategies Develops and monitors adherence to personnel policies Approves the annual budget reflecting the organization's goals and policies Promotes the organization in the community Reviews the organization's policies, procedures, and bylaws Develops a strategic plan and monitors the organization's initiatives against it Determines the organization's mission and purpose Monitors income and expenses on a daily basis Serves as a liaison and provides information to board committees Adapted from Critical Components of Effective Governance, BoardSource 2000 Edyth Bush Institute for Philanthropy & Nonprofit Leadership Page 7

8 Stage I Organizations Organizational Development Founders dominate Board Limited sources of funding Board involved with day to day operation and program delivery Lack of clear Board expectations Often personality driven Directors who serve as grass-roots volunteers Lack of future vision Modest or no expectation for Board to fund raise Boards that operate as a committee of the of the whole Directors who represent constituencies Stage II Organizations Diversified funding base Board primarily involved in fund development, stewardship & advocacy Clear Board expectations that are enforced Staff driven programs Focused future vision Functioning nominating procedure Boards that depend on effective standing committees and task forces Directors chosen on merit, background, skills Directors who are selected "at large" Board focuses on critical issues Edyth Bush Institute for Philanthropy & Nonprofit Leadership Page 8

9 Sample Board Member Expectation Statement General Expectations 1) Support the Foundation's mission, purposes, goals, policies, and programs, while knowing its strengths and needs. 2) Suggest possible nominees to the board who are men or women of achievement who can make significant contributions to the work of the board and the progress of the Foundation. 3) Serve actively on committees as requested by the President. 4) Provide input and feedback to the President on the performance of staff members. 5) Attend activities and events sponsored by the Foundation whenever possible. Meetings 1) Prepare for and participate in board and committee meetings, including appropriate organizational activities. 2) Ask timely and substantive questions at board and committee meetings consistent with personal conscience and convictions, while supporting the majority decision on issues decided by the board. 3) Maintain confidentiality of the board's executive sessions, and speak for the board or the Foundation only when authorized to do so. 4) Suggest agenda items periodically for board and committee meetings to ensure that significant policy-related matters are addressed. Avoiding Conflicts 1) Serve the Foundation as a whole rather than any special interest group or constituency. 2) Avoid even the appearance of a conflict of interest that might embarrass the board or the Foundation, and disclose any possible conflicts to the board in a timely fashion. 3) Never accept (or offer) favors or gifts from (or to) anyone who does business with the Foundation. Fiduciary Responsibility 1) Exercise prudence with the board in the control and transfer of funds. 2) Faithfully read and understand the Foundation's financial statements and otherwise help the board fulfill its fiduciary responsibility. Edyth Bush Institute for Philanthropy & Nonprofit Leadership Page 9

10 Fund Raising 1) Make an annual gift to the Foundation according to personal means, but no less than the minimum amount established by the board for its members, and with the realization of the-leadership role the board must play in fund development. 2) Assist the Foundation by implementing fund raising strategies through personal influence with others. 3) Participate actively in all Foundation fund raising special events, programs, and activities. Edyth Bush Institute for Philanthropy & Nonprofit Leadership Page 10

11 Statement Example Conflict of Interest Policy No Director or employee of XXX shall use his or her position, or the knowledge gained there from, in such a manner that a conflict between the interest of the organization or any of its affiliates and his or her personal interests arises. Each Director and employee has a duty to place the interest of XXX foremost in any dealings with XXX, and has a continuing responsibility to comply with the requirements of this policy. The conduct of personal business between any Director, employee, or committee member and XXX and any of its affiliates is prohibited unless first fully disclosed and then only if approved by the board. Board members, committee members, or employees may not obtain for themselves, their relatives, or their friends a material interest of any kind from their association with XXX. If a Director, employee, or committee member has an interest in a proposed transaction with XXX in the form of a significant personal financial interest in the transaction, or in any organizations involved in the transaction, or holds a position as trustee, director, or officer in any such organization, he or she must make full disclosure of such interest before any discussion or negotiation of such transaction. Any Director, employee, or committee member who is aware of a potential conflict of interest with respect to any matter coming before the board, or any committee, is obligated to disclose such a conflict of interest to the entire board. Disclosure To implement this policy, board members, employees, and committee members of XXX will submit annual reports on a form approved by the board, and if not previously disclosed, will disclose any conflict or potential conflict before any additional board or committee action is taken. These annual reports will be reviewed by the officers of the board, who will attempt to resolve any actual or potential conflict(s) and, in the absence of resolution, refer all such matters to the full Board of Directors. Edyth Bush Institute for Philanthropy & Nonprofit Leadership Page 11

12 Example Potential Conflict of Interest Statement I have read the statement of policy regarding conflicts of interest. To the best of my knowledge and belief, except as disclosed herewith, neither I nor any person with whom I have or had a personal or business relationship is engaged in any transaction or activity or has any relationship that may represent a potential competing or conflicting interest, as defined in the statement of policy. Further, to the best of my knowledge and belief, except as disclosed herewith, neither I nor any person with whom I have or had a personal, business, or compensated professional relationship intends to engage in any transaction, to acquire any interest in any organization or entity, or to become the recipient of any substantial gifts or favors that might be covered by the statement of policy regarding conflicts of interest. Without exception Except as described in the attached statement Date: Signature: Name (please print): Edyth Bush Institute for Philanthropy & Nonprofit Leadership Page 12

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