Advanced IP Networking Series: Routing The Network of Networks Wayne M. Pecena, CPBE, CBNE

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1 Advanced IP Networking Series: Routing The Network of Networks Wayne M. Pecena, CPBE, CBNE Texas A&M University Office of Information Technology Educational Broadcast Services

2 Advanced IP Networking Series: Routing The Network of Networks Advertised Webinar Scope: Part 2 of Advanced IP Networking builds on the previous Network of Networks webinar by incorporating IP Layer 3 routing and selective access features utilizing Access Control Lists (ACL) to a VLAN-based layer 2 multiple network based infrastructure. Theoretical concepts of routing protocol choices and ACL implementation will be reinforced with real-world equipment configuration examples. Prerequisite Knowledge: Attendees should have knowledge of IP networking concepts that includes OSI Layers 1-3, Ethernet switching, IP routing, and VLAN principals. The Quick IP Networking Fundamentals Review The Routing Protocol Which Routing Protocol? Implementing Routing Access Control Lists The Layer 3 Switch Summary Q&A WEBINAR OUTLINE: 2

3 The Quick IP Networking Fundamentals Review 3

4 5 Things Required To Build a Network Send Host Receive Host Message or Data to Send Between Hosts Media to Interconnect Hosts Protocol to Define How Data is Transferred

5 Reference Models The OSI Model DoD Model TCP/IP Model Encapsulation 7 Application Service Provided to Applications 6 Presentation Provides Data Formatting 4 Application Application Data 5 Session Provides Conversation Control 4 Transport Provides Data Sequencing, Flow Control, Integrity 3 Transport TCP UDP Segments 3 Network Provides Logical Addressing, Fragmentation, End-End Delivery 2 Internetwork IP Packets 2 1 Data Link Physical LLC MAC Provides Physical Addressing, Error Correction Provides Media Interface, Topology 1 Network Access Network Interface Frames Bits 5

6 Another Look at the OSI Model Application 7 Presentation 6 Session 5 Transport 4 Network 3 Data Link 2 Physical 1 POP SMTP 25 RS-xxx WEB HTTP 80 TCP IPv4 PPP ISDN ADSL File Transfer FTP 20 / SNAP CAT 5 Directory DNS 53 UDP IPv6 Ethernet II Coax Net Mgmt SNMP 161 / 162 Fiber Application Layers Network Layers 6

7 Layer 2 Standards: Project 802 Ethernet Standards: Bridging Ethernet Wireless 7

8 Layer 3 Standards: Request for Comments RFC s The Standards Bible of the Internet Explains All Aspects of IP Networking 8

9 Layer 2 & Layer 3 Addressing Each Host on an Ethernet Based IP Network Has: An Unique MAC Address Layer 2 Physical Address (local network segment) An Unique IP Address Layer 3 Logical Address (global routed) Simplified Representation FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF 00:12:3F:8D:4D:A DATA Trailer Destination MAC Source MAC Source IP Destination IP IP Packet Ethernet Frame

10 Common Port Numbers RESERVED PORTS System Port Numbers Port 20 / 21 FTP File Transfer Protocol Port 23 TELNET Port 53 DNS Domain Name Service Port 80 HTTP Port 110 POP3 Post Office Protocol Port 123 NTP Network Time Protocol Port 161 SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (UDP) Port HTTPS REGISTERED PORTS User Port Numbers Port 1720 H.323 Video Call Setup Port 1812 RADIUS Authentication Port 2000 CISCO Skinny Port 3074 X-Box Live Port 4664 Google Desktop Port 5004 RTP Real Time Transport Protocol Port 5060 SIP Session Initiation Protocol Port 5631 PC Anywhere Port 8080 Alternate HTTP 10

11 Broadcast Domain Collision Domain

12 Layer 3 Routing Fundamentals 12

13 Key Terminology The Routed Protocol The Routing Protocol The Routing Table Contains: The Destination Network The Next-Hop Information Routing Metric & Administrative Distance The Router Looks at the Destination Address Determines Appropriate Interface 13

14 Routing Routing is Simply the Moving of Information Between Networks (Subnets or Broadcast Domains) OSI Model Layer 3 Process Routing Types: Static Routing Dynamic Routing Routing Protocol Classes: Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) Exterior Gateway Protocols (EGP) 14

15 Routing Types Static Routing Appropriate for Small & Simple Networks Minimal Router CPU/Memory No Routing Update Overhead Appropriate for Stable Networks Often Used in Stub Networks Human Intervention / Administration Required Yy Dynamic Routing Appropriate for Changing Topology Environments Automatically Adapts to Changes Desirable When Multiple Paths Exist More Scalable Hardware More Complex Less Configuration Error Prone 15

16 Dynamic Routing Categories Distance Vector Routing Protocol Periodic Routing Table Updates Distance Used as a Metric Neighbors Trust Neighbors Slow Convergence Link State Routing Protocol Maintains Neighbor, Topology, & Shortest-Path Tables Each Router Updates From All Others Cost Used as a Metric 16

17 Routing Metrics & Administrative Distance Determines The Best Path to Target Host Cost Metrics: Hop Count The Number of Routers in a Path Bandwidth Throughput (bps) Load Traffic Flowing Through a Router Delay Network Latency (distance or congestion) Reliability Amount of Downtime of a Network Path Administrative Distance Indicates Believability of the Route Often Used When Multiple Protocols Are Used Often Used to Prefer A Certain Path When Multiple Paths Exist Routing Protocols Have Default Administrative Distances Smaller Metrics = Best Route Lower Administrative Distance = More Believed 17

18 The Administrative Distance The Administrative Distance Determines Which Route to Trust Route Source: Direct 0 Administrative Distance (default) Used When Multiple Routes Exist Static 1 EIGRP 90 OSPF 110 RIP 120 Unknown

19 Hop Count May Not Be The Best Metric! 19

20 The Routing Protocol 20

21 The Routing Protocol Learn the route to each subnet in the internetwork (build routing table) Determine the best route (one route) Remove routes that are no longer valid Update routing table to reflect changes Perform updates quickly Prevent routing loops

22 Routing Fundamentals 22

23 Distance-Vector Routing Protocols Routing by Rumor The Overall Network is Unknown, Only Directly Connected Neighbors Are Known by Each Router Routing Decision Based Upon a Distance or Metric and Direction or Vector to Describe the Next-Hop 23

24 Link-State Routing Protocols Network Topology Information is Flooded Throughout the Network Each Router Determines its Own Best Path 24

25 Which Routing Protocol? 25

26 IGP and EGP Protocols Exterior Gateway Protocol RIP IGRP EIGRP OSPF IS-IS BGP RIP IGRP EIGRP OSPF Interior Gateway Protocol Interior Gateway Protocol 26

27 Routing Protocol Choices Most Popular Interior Distance Vector Interior Link State Exterior Path Vector Classful RIP IGRP EGP Classless RIP v2 EIGRP OSPF v2 IS-IS BGP v4 IPv6 RIPng EIGRP v6 OSPF v3 IS-IS v6 BGP v4 Our Focus 27

28 Practical Routing Protocol Choices Common IGP Protocols VLSM Support RIP v2 EIGRP (Cisco) OSPF v2 Type: Distance Vector Hybird Link-State Metric: Hop Count Bandwidth/Delay Cost Administrative Distance: Hop Count Limit: None Convergence: Slow Fast Fast Updates: Full Table Every 30 Seconds Send Only Changes When Change Occurs Send Only When Change Occurs, But Refreshed Every 30m RFC Reference: RFC 1388 N/A RFC

29 Advantages: RIP v2 Routing Information Protocol RFC 1388 Simple Easy to Configure Low Maintenance General Understanding Of Disadvantages: Higher Router CPU Utilization High Bandwidth Use for Routing Updates No Knowledge of Link Bandwidth Slow Convergence Limited Network Size (hop count = 15) 29

30 OSPF v2 Open Shortest Path First RFC 2328 Advantages: Fast Convergence Routing Updates Are Small Scales to Varying Network Sizes Considers Link Bandwidth Into Metric Calculation Disadvantages: More Knowledge Required A lot of Options Complex to Configure 30

31 EIGRP v4 Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol CISCO Proprietary Advantages: Fast Convergence No OSPF Area Assignments = Less Complex Complex Cost Metric: Bandwidth Delay Reliability Utilization Disadvantages: More Knowledge Required A lot of Options Need Cisco Environment 31

32 Implementing Routing 32

33 VLAN Example from Part 1 Switch Port Type Configuration: Access Link Member of One VLAN Only Connects to a Host Trunk Link Carries Traffic From Multiple VLANS Between Switches 33

34 Switch Interface Configuration 34

35 No Connectivity Exists Between Broadcast Domain, Networks, or Subnets! 35

36 Add Connectivity Between Broadcast Domains Add Router 36

37 Router Configuration: Assign Network to an Interface: Blue Network: /24 Green Network: /24 Red Network: /24 interface ge0 ip address no shutdown interface ge1 ip address no shutdown interface ge2 ip address no shutdown Enable RIP Routing: router rip network network network Configuration Disclaimer: Exact configuration commands may vary based upon specific equipment models and software version. Generic Cisco commands utilized for illustration purposes. 37

38 Add Connectivity Between Broadcast Domains Sub-Interface Created on Router GE1 Interface 38

39 Access Control Lists The ACL 39

40 The ACL Rules: Simply a Set of Rules That Provides a Permit or Deny Based Upon: Layer 3 IP Address Layer 4 Port Number An ACL is: A Table (with explicit DENY) Applied to a Specific Router Interface 40

41 The ACL Rules continued.. ACL s can be Numbered or Named Numbered ACL s Structure: 1-99 IP Standard Access List IP Extended Access List Protocol Access List IP Standard Access List-Expanded IP Extended Access List-Expanded Named ACL Structure: Standard Named Extended Named 41

42 The ACL Rules continued.. Standard Access List Can Only Permit or Deny The Source Host IP Address Placed Closest to Destination Host Extended Access List Can Permit or Deny Based Upon: Source IP Address Destination IP Address TCP Port # UDP Port # TCP/IP Protocol Placed Closest to Source Network 42

43 The ACL Rules continued.. One ACL per Interface per Direction Ingress Egress An ACL Only Acts of IP Traffic Passing Through Router Organize Structure of ACL: More specific statements placed first Process Sequentially ACL Example(s): access-list 110 deny ip any host access-list 123 deny ip any host eq 23 43

44 ACL Structure Create an Access-List: access-list [number] [deny permit] [host] [source ip] [wildcard] Apply Access-List to Interface: ip access-group [number] [in out] Logical Operators Can Be Used: lt gt eq neq range Less Than Greater Than Equal To Not Equal To port number range 44

45 Wild Card Mask Inverse of the Subnet Mask The Subnet Mask: Network / 24 or mask The Inverse Mask: Match Host Don t Care 45

46 Standard IP List Example #1: Prevent Host from Accessing Host Create Access List on Router 1: access list access-list 101 permit any Apply Access List to Interface: interface E1 ip access-group 101 in Configuration Disclaimer: Exact configuration commands may vary based upon specific equipment models and software version. Generic Cisco commands utilized for illustration purposes. 46

47 Extended IP List Example: Allow Only http Access to Host from /24 Create Access List on Router 2: Access-list 101 permit tcp host eq 80 access-list 101 permit ip any any Apply Access List to Interface: interface E0 ip access-group 101 in Configuration Disclaimer: Exact configuration commands may vary based upon specific equipment models and software version. Generic Cisco commands utilized for illustration purposes. 47

48 A Practical ACL Example Block External Users From Pinging Inside Hosts Create Access List on Router 1: access list 101 deny icmp any any access-list 101 permit ip any any Apply Access List to Interface: interface E1 ip access-group 101 in Configuration Disclaimer: Exact configuration commands may vary based upon specific equipment models and software version. Generic Cisco commands utilized for illustration purposes. 48

49 The Layer 3 Switch 49

50 What Is A Layer 3 Switch? Marketing Terminology Applied to a One Box Solution: Layer 2 Switching Layer 3 Routing Layer 3 Switch Performs Both! Multilayer Switch Port Types: Switchport: Layer 2 Port MAC Addresses Learned Layer-3 Port: Routing Port Switched Virtual Interface: VLAN Virtual Interface Not for All Environments: Typically Found in Workgroup Environment Limited to Ethernet Ports/Interfaces Limited to OSPF and RIP Protocols 50

51 Summary Q & A 51

52 Takeaway Points Routers Create Broadcast Domains Routing is Moving an IP Packet from One Network to Another Network Static & Dynamic Routing Each Have Advantages & Disadvantages The Routing Protocol Determines the Best Path to a Destination Host ACL s Can Be Used to Control IP Traffic A Layer 3 Switch Combines Layer 2 Switching & Layer 3 Routing in One Box 52

53 Further Study: 53

54 SBE Networking Certifications CBNT Certified Broadcast Networking Technician This certification is designed for persons who wish to demonstrate a basic familiarity with networking hardware as utilized in business and audio/video applications in broadcast facilities. Exam Focus: Network topologies and layouts Common network protocols Wiring standards and practices Maintenance, troubleshooting and connectivity issues Challenges unique to broadcastbased networks CBNE Certified Broadcast Networking Engineer This certification is an Advanced level that reflects the skill and knowledge that will be required in today's world of converged IT and broadcast engineering. Exam Focus: Audio/Video over IP Digital Content Management Video Systems in an IT World Data Transmission Systems General IT Hardware 54

55 55

56 ? Questions? Thank You for Attending! Wayne M. Pecena Texas A&M University

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