# Network Routing: Distance Vector, Link State 4/10/2012

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1 Network Routing: Distance Vector, Link State 4/10/2012 1

2 2 Admin Possibility of scheduling Exam 2 during final period

3 Recap: Distributed Distance-Vector Simple update rule: d ( h + 1) = min ( d + d ( h)) i j N ( i) ij j Key property: monotonicity Consider two configurations d(t) and d (t): if d(t) d (t), then d(t+1) d (t+1) Tool box: a key technique for proving (liveness) convergence of distributed protocols: two extreme configurations to sandwich any real configurations 3

4 Recap: Distributed Distance-Vector Good news propagate quickly Bad news propagate slowly 4

5 Recap: Routing Loops Counting-to-infinity is due to routing loops: A global state (consisting of the nodes local states) at a global moment (observed by an oracle) such that there exist nodes A, B, C, E such that A (locally) thinks B as next hop, B thinks C as next hop, E thinks A as next hop Reverse-poison removes two node loops but not more-node loops 5

6 Recap: Routing Loop Counting-to-infinity is due to routing loops: A global state (consisting of the nodes local states) at a global moment (observed by an oracle) such that there exist nodes A, B, C, E such that A (locally) thinks B as next hop, B thinks C as next hop, E thinks A as next hop Reverse-poison removes two node loops but not more-node loops 6

7 7 Discussion q Possibilities to avoid routing loops?

8 Outline q Recap Ø Distance vector protocols o synchronous Bellman-Ford (SBF) o asynchronous Bellman-Ford (ABF) Ø destination-sequenced distance vector (DSDV) 8

9 Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector protocol (DSDV) An extension of distance vector protocol to address the counting-to-infinity problem Extension DSDV tags each route with a sequence number each destination node D periodically advertises monotonically increasing even-numbered sequence numbers when a node realizes that the link it uses to reach destination D is broken, it advertises an infinite metric and a sequence number which is one greater than the previous route (i.e. an odd seq. number) the route is repaired by a later even-number advertisement from the destination 9

10 route update 10 DSDV: More Detail A B Let s assume the destination node is D There are optimizations but we present a simple version: each node B maintains (S B, d B ), where S B is the sequence number at B for destination D and d B is the best distance using a neighbor from B to D Both periodical and triggered updates periodically: D increases its seq. by 2 and broadcasts with (S D, 0) if B is using C as next hop to D and B discovers that C is no longer reachable B increases its sequence number S B by 1, sets d B to, and sends (S B, d B ) to all neighbors

11 Example Will this trigger an update? 11

12 Example Will this trigger an update? 12

13 route update DSDV: Simple Update A B Consider simple version, no optimization Update after receiving a message assume B sends to A its current state (S B, d B ) when A receives (S B, d B ) if S B > S A, then // always update if a higher seq#» S A = S B» if (d B == ) d A = ; else d A = d B + d(a,b) else if S A == S B, then» if d A > d B + d(a,b) // update for the same seq# only if better route d A = d B + d(a,b) and uses B as next hop

14 14 Example: CD link down C-D link is down, it increases its seq# and broadcasts its cost to be

15 Claim: DSDV Does Not Form Loop Initially no loop (no one has next hop so no loop) Derive contradiction if a loop forms after a node processes an update, e.g., when A receives the update from B, A decides to use B as next hop and forms a loop A update B 15

16 Technique: Global Invariants Global Invariant is a very effective method in understanding safety of distributed asynchronous protocols Invariants are defined over the states of the distributed nodes Consider any node B. Let s identify some invariants over the state of node B, i.e., (S B, d B ). 16

17 Invariants of a Single Node B Some invariants about the state of a node B [I1] S B is non-decreasing time [I2] d B is non-increasing for the same sequence number 17

18 18 Invariants of if A Considers B as Next Hop Some invariants if A considers B as next hop A B [I3]S A cannot be an odd number, d A is not [I4] S B S A because A is having the seq# which B last sent to A; B s seq# might be increased after B sent its state [I5] if S B == S A then d B < d A because d A is based on d B which B sent to A some time ago, d B < d A since all link costs are positive; d B might be decreased after B sent its state

19 19 Loop Freedom of DSDV Consider a critical moment A starts to consider B as next hop, and we have a loop According to invariant I4 for each link in the loop (X considers Y as next hop) : S Y >= S X Two cases: exists S Y > S X by transition along the loop S B > S B A update Y B X all nodes along the loop have the same sequence number apply I5, by transition along the loop d B > d B

20 Summary: DSDV DSDV uses sequence number to avoid routing loops seq# partitions routing updates from different outside events within same event, no loop so long each node only decreases its distance 20

21 21 EIGRP: Diffusive Update Alg. EIGRP: a proprietary routing protocol by Cisco based on a Diffusive Update Algorithm (DUAL) A key idea: checking condition before switching to another route to prevent potential loops

22 EIGRP: Detail Maintain both a primary (successor) and a secondary (feasible successor) route if primary fails, switch to secondary i P S d primary + d i primary d secondary + d i secondary 22

23 Condition for Feasible Successor If a loop is formed when switching to secondary, the distance from secondary is higher than from A primary A destination secondary Condition: reported distance of secondary must be lower than the total distance using primary d primary + d i primary > d secondary 23

24 24 EIGRP: Example d primary + d i primary > d secondary secondary? Will A use B as a secondary?

25 25 Discussion: Distance Vector Routing What do you like about distance vector routing? What do you not like about distance vector routing?

26 26 Churns of DV: One Example Initial Conditions + All links have cost 1 2N N+3 N+2 Problematic Message sequences 1. Node 2 tells 3. Node 3 tells 4 Node N tells N+1. (N-1 messages) 2. Node N+1 tells N+2, N+2 tells N+3,,2N. (N-1 messages) 3. Now node N-1 tells node N+1 4. Step 2 repeats 5. Now node N-2 tells node N+1 6. N+1 A total of N 2 2 messages N-1 N

27 Outline q Recap q Distance-vector protocols o synchronous Bellman-Ford (SBF) o asynchronous Bellman-Ford (ABF) o destination-sequenced distance vector (DSDV) o DUAL Ø Link state protocol 27

28 Link-State Routing Net topology, link costs are distributed to all nodes all nodes have same info Link state distribution accomplished via link state broadcast Each node computes its shortest paths from itself to all other nodes e.g., use Dijkstra s algorithm, not distributed shortest path computation 28

30 Link State Broadcast Node S updates link states connected to it. S E A B H C I G F K J D M N L 30

31 Link State Broadcast S E A B H C I G F K J D M N L To avoid forwarding the same link state announcement (LSA) multiple times (forming a loop), each node remembers the received LSAs. - Second LSA[S] received by E from C is discarded - Second LSA[S] received by C from E is discarded as well - Node H receives LSA[S] from two neighbors, and will discard one of them 31

32 Link State Broadcast Basic event structure at node n on initialization: broadcast LSA[e] for each link e connected to n on state change to a link e connected to n: broadcast LSA[e] on receiving an LSA[e]: if (does not have LSA[e]) forwards LSA[e] to all links except the incoming link Does this protocol allow each node to have a complete link state map? 32

33 33 Link State Broadcast: Issues Problem: Out of order delivery link down and then up A node may receive up first and then down Solution Each link update is given a sequence number: (initiator, seq#, link, status) the initiator should increase the seq# for each new update If the seq# of an update of a link is not higher than the highest seq# a router has seen, drop the update Otherwise, forward it to all links except the incoming link (real implementation using packet buffer) Problem of solution: seq# corruption Solution: age field

34 34 Link State Broadcast: Issues Problem: network partition and then reconnect, how to sync across the reconnected components Solution: updates are sent periodically

35 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Open : publicly available Uses Link State algorithm link state (LS) packet dissemination topology map at each node route computation using Dijkstra s algorithm 35

36 OSPF Advanced Features (not in RIP) Multiple same-cost paths allowed (only one path in RIP) For each link, multiple cost metrics for different Type Of Service (eg, satellite link cost set low for best effort; high for real time) Security: all OSPF messages authenticated (to prevent malicious intrusion); TCP connections used Hierarchical OSPF 36

37 Hierarchical OSPF summarize distances to nets in own area, advertise to other Area Border routers. run OSPF routing limited to backbone. - Link-state advertisements only in area each nodes has detailed area topology; - only know direction (shortest path) to nets in other areas. Two-level hierarchy: local area, backbone. 37

38 38 Why Hierarchy? Information hiding (filtered) => reduce computation, bandwidth, storage

39 39 Discussion: Link State Routing What do you like about link state routing? What do you not like about link state routing? Question to think about: which routing protocol (DV or LS) should the Internet use?

40 Outline q Recap q Distance-vector protocols q Link state protocol Ø Routing in the Internet 40

41 Routing in the Internet The Global Internet consists of Autonomous Systems (AS) interconnected with each other An AS is identified by an AS Number (ASN), e.g. Yale ASN is 29 Each AS owns part of IP address space Autonomous systems connect to each other Try

42 Internet ISP Connectivity 42

43 Challenge of the Internet: Characterizing Internet Topology 43

44 Routing with AS Internet routing is divided into intra-as routing and inter-as routing Intra-AS A protocol running insides an AS is called an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) Inter-AS RIP: Routing Information Protocol E/IGRP: Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (Cisco) OSPF: Open Shortest Path First IS-IS: very similar to OSPF (or should we say OSPF is very similar to IS-IS?) a protocol runs among AS s is also called an Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) for global connectivity, a single interdomain routing protocol

45 Intra-AS and Inter-AS: Example border (exterior gateway) routers a C C.b b d A A.a a b A.c c B.a a B c b interior (gateway) routers

46 Routing in the Internet: Example gateway routers of same AS share learned external routes using ibgp. Gateway routers participate in intradomain to learn internal routes. AS C (RIP intra routing) a b ebgp AS A (OSPF intra routing) e ibgp AS B (OSPF intra routing) i Gateway routers of diff. AS s exchange routes using ebgp d c f g h

47 Many Routing Processes on a Single Router BGP RIP process RIP routing table OSPF process OSPF Routing table BGP process BGP routing table RIP domain OSPF domain Forwarding Table Manager OS kernel Forwarding Table

48 Backup Slides

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