OSPF -Open Shortest Path First

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "OSPF -Open Shortest Path First"

Transcription

1 OSPF -Open Shortest Path First Abstract: This report discusses about the OSPF protocol, its advantages, some issues faced while designing large OSPF networks. Keywords: Internal Gateway Protocol (IGP), Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSM) Introduction: OSPF is a common TCP/IP Internal Gateway Protocol (IGP) used to distribute routing information within a single Autonomous System (AS). It is based on link-state technology which is different from Bellman-Ford vector based algorithms used in Internet routing protocols such as RIP [4]. OSPF have certain new features like authentication of routing updates, Variable Length Subnet Masks, route summarization, etc. The optimization of weights which is mentioned aims to enhance the performance of Internet Protocol (IP) traffic while utilizing network resources economically. The traditional RIP has its limits which has given way to OSPF. Some limitations of RIP that causes problem in large network are: RIP network cannot span more that 15 hops. If the path includes more than 15 routers the network is considered unreachable. RIP is unable to handle Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSM). This leads to shortage of IP addresses. RIP does not take into account the network delays and link costs. It makes a routing decision based only on number of hop counts rather than considering a longer but a better bandwidth and a slower delay path. RIP treats network as a flat network i.e. without any concept of areas or boundaries. There cannot be any abstraction on routing table. Broadcast of full routing table will consume a large amount of bandwidth. This is an important issue in slow link networks. OSPF is seen to address many shortcomings discussed earlier: There is no limitation on the hop counts. The use of VLSM allows flexible IP address allocation. It uses IP multicast to send link-state updates. This ensures less processing on routers that are not meant to listen to the packets. This is only done in case of a change instead of doing it periodically. This helps in a better use of bandwidth. The network is divided into areas which avoids link state updates to be sent over the entire network. Routing authentication is used. OSPF Network Architecture: It allows sets of networks to be grouped together in an area. The topology of an area is hidden from the other AS thus reducing the routing traffic. OSPF has restrictions when multiple areas are involved. It needs to configure one area as area 0 which is the backbone. It is helpful to start with area 0 and then expand into other areas later. It is the center of all the areas and all the areas have to be physically connected to the backbone. This is required as the OSPF expects all areas to inject routing information into this area. Virtual links could be used to link the areas that are not physically connected to the backbone.

2 Fig1: Area distribution showing backbone area [2] In Link-state routing protocol, each router maintains a database describing the AS s topology. This is referred to as Link State Database (LSDB). It includes router s local state including router s usable interfaces and reachable neighbors. The router then distributes its local state throughout the AS using flooding. All routers run the same algorithm in parallel and from the link state database; each router constructs a tree of shortest paths with itself as a root. In case of more than one equal-cost route, traffic is distributed among them. Any change in routing information is flooded to all routers in the network. It is a dynamic routing protocol and quickly detects the topological changes in AS and calculates new loop-free routes after a period of convergence. This period of convergence is short and involves a minimum of routing traffic. Areas are introduced to put a boundary on explosion of link-state updates. Flooding and calculation of the Dijkstra algorithm on a router is limited to changes within an area. All routers within an area have the exact link-state database. Routers that belong to multiple areas, and connect these areas to the backbone area are called area border routers (ABR). ABRs must therefore maintain information describing the backbone areas and other attached areas [example considered below]. Routers use Hello Protocol to elect neighbors on that segment. Routers become neighbors as they see themselves listed in the neighbor s Hello packet. This guarantees a two way communication. Adjacency is the next step after neighboring process. Adjacent routers are routers that go beyond the simple Hello exchange and proceed into the database exchange process. In order to minimize the amount of information exchange on a particular segment, one router is elected as a designated Router (DR) and a backup designated router (BDR). This cuts the information exchange from O(n*n) to O(n) where n is the number of routers. DR and BDR election is done via Hello protocol. Fig2: Information exchange between routers in an area in OSPF [2] OSPF allows certain areas to be configured as stub areas. Routing from these areas to the outside world is based on a default route. Configuring a stub area reduces the topological database size inside an area and reduces the memory requirements of the routers inside the area. A stub area is an area which does not receive external routes except the default route, but does receive inter-area routes. This kind of

3 area is useful when, all Internet access goes through autonomous system border routers (ASBRs) in Area , but there are multiple paths to other nonzero areas in the OSPF domain. All routers in the area need to agree they are stub, so that they do not generate types of LSA not appropriate to a stub area. External routes can be calculated using external type 1 and external type 2 metrics. The cost of type 2 always the external cost, irrespective of the interior cost to reach the route. A type 1 cost is addition of external cost and internal cost to reach the route. Type 1 is always preferred over a type 2 route for the same destination [example considered below]. OSPF cost (metric) of an interface is an indication of the overhead required to send packets across a certain interface. It is inversely proportional to the bandwidth of the interface. Higher bandwidth indicates lower cost. It is also possible to authenticate the OSPF packets such that routers can participate in routing domains based on predefined passwords. Depending on the study, the following things should be kept in mind while designing an OSPF network: 1. Since ABRs keep a copy of the database for all areas, the number of areas per ABR should be set according to the CPU power, number of routes per area, and number of external routes per area. To avoid overload its better to spread the areas over routers. 2. Non Broadcast Multi-Access network performs better in case of a point-to point /point-tomultipoint configuration rather than multipoint networks. 3. Memory issues are faced when too many external routers are injected in the OSPF domain. Use of ABR and stub areas minimizes the number of routes exchanged and hence memory. In some cases, it is seen beneficial to change the OSPF link weights to avoid congestion and to support more demands against the default Cisco s inverse-capacity-weights. [3] Conclusion: OSPF protocol defined in RFC 2328, provides a high functionality open protocol that allows multiple vendor networks to communicate using TCP/IP protocol family. OSPF was the first widely deployed routing protocol that could converge a network in the low seconds, and guarantee loopfree paths. It has a great many features that allow the imposition of policies about the propagation of routes, for load sharing, and for selective route importing. It can also provide better load-sharing on external links than other IGPs.

4 Route Summarization [1]:

5

6 References: 1. RFC-2328 Moy, J. (April 1998). OSPF Version 2. Internet Engineering Task Force. Retrieved on Open Shortest Path First, Cisco Documentation, Chapter Optimizing OSPF/IS IS Weights in a Changing World, Bernard Fortz, Associate Member, IEEE and Mikkel Thorup, IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 20, NO. 4, MAY Performance of New Link State Advertisement Mechanisms in Routing Protocols with Traffic Engineering Extensions, Hussein M. Alnuweiri, Lai-Yat Kelvin Wong, and Tariq A/-Khasib, University of British Columbia, INTERNET TECHNOLOGY SERIES, IEEE Communications Magazine - May 2004.

OSPF Version 2 (RFC 2328) Describes Autonomous Systems (AS) topology. Propagated by flooding: Link State Advertisements (LSAs).

OSPF Version 2 (RFC 2328) Describes Autonomous Systems (AS) topology. Propagated by flooding: Link State Advertisements (LSAs). OSPF Version 2 (RFC 2328) Interior gateway protocol (IGP). Routers maintain link-state database. Describes Autonomous Systems (AS) topology. Propagated by flooding: Link State Advertisements (LSAs). Router

More information

Route Discovery Protocols

Route Discovery Protocols Route Discovery Protocols Columbus, OH 43210 Jain@cse.ohio-State.Edu http://www.cse.ohio-state.edu/~jain/ 1 Overview Building Routing Tables Routing Information Protocol Version 1 (RIP V1) RIP V2 OSPF

More information

GregSowell.com. Mikrotik Routing

GregSowell.com. Mikrotik Routing Mikrotik Routing Static Dynamic Routing To Be Discussed RIP Quick Discussion OSPF BGP What is Routing Wikipedia has a very lengthy explanation http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/routing In the context of this

More information

Link-State Routing Protocols

Link-State Routing Protocols Link-State Routing Protocols Malin Bornhager Halmstad University Session Number 2002, Svenska-CNAP Halmstad University 1 Objectives Link-state routing protocol Single-area OSPF concepts Single-area OSPF

More information

OSPF Routing Protocol

OSPF Routing Protocol OSPF Routing Protocol Contents Introduction Network Architecture Campus Design Architecture Building Block Design Server Farm Design Core Block Design WAN Design Architecture Protocol Design Campus Design

More information

Routing with OSPF. Introduction

Routing with OSPF. Introduction Routing with OSPF Introduction The capabilities of an internet are largely determined by its routing protocol. An internet's scalability, its ability to quickly route around failures, and the consumption

More information

Introduction to TCP/IP

Introduction to TCP/IP Introduction to TCP/IP Raj Jain The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 Nayna Networks Milpitas, CA 95035 Email: Jain@ACM.Org http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/~jain/ 1 Overview! Internetworking Protocol

More information

Layer 3 Routing User s Manual

Layer 3 Routing User s Manual User s Manual Second Edition, July 2011 www.moxa.com/product 2011 Moxa Inc. All rights reserved. User s Manual The software described in this manual is furnished under a license agreement and may be used

More information

Router and Routing Basics

Router and Routing Basics Router and Routing Basics Malin Bornhager Halmstad University Session Number 2002, Svenska-CNAP Halmstad University 1 Routing Protocols and Concepts CCNA2 Routing and packet forwarding Static routing Dynamic

More information

Chapter 10 Link-State Routing Protocols

Chapter 10 Link-State Routing Protocols Chapter 10 Link-State Routing Protocols CCNA2-1 Chapter 10 Note for Instructors These presentations are the result of a collaboration among the instructors at St. Clair College in Windsor, Ontario. Thanks

More information

- Open Shortest Path First -

- Open Shortest Path First - 1 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) - Open Shortest Path First - OSPF is a standardized Link-State routing protocol, designed to scale efficiently to support larger networks. OSPF adheres to the following

More information

Distance Vector Routing Protocols. Routing Protocols and Concepts Ola Lundh

Distance Vector Routing Protocols. Routing Protocols and Concepts Ola Lundh Distance Vector Routing Protocols Routing Protocols and Concepts Ola Lundh Objectives The characteristics of distance vector routing protocols. The network discovery process of distance vector routing

More information

IP Routing Configuring RIP, OSPF, BGP, and PBR

IP Routing Configuring RIP, OSPF, BGP, and PBR 13 IP Routing Configuring RIP, OSPF, BGP, and PBR Contents Overview..................................................... 13-6 Routing Protocols.......................................... 13-6 Dynamic Routing

More information

Route Optimization. rek. 2005 Petr Grygarek, VSB-TU Ostrava, Routed and Switched Networks 1

Route Optimization. rek. 2005 Petr Grygarek, VSB-TU Ostrava, Routed and Switched Networks 1 Route Optimization (intra-as) Petr Grygárek rek 1 Goal of route optimization Static routing: More predictable and safer Dynamic routing: Automatically ally reacts on topology changes Lower administration

More information

Appendix A Protocols. Data Link Layer

Appendix A Protocols. Data Link Layer Appendix A Protocols The LAN environment of the networks application focuses on modeling broadcast network architectures within a single autonomous system (or routing domain), and therefore its protocol

More information

Simulation of Heuristic Usage for Load Balancing In Routing Efficiency

Simulation of Heuristic Usage for Load Balancing In Routing Efficiency Simulation of Heuristic Usage for Load Balancing In Routing Efficiency Nor Musliza Mustafa Fakulti Sains dan Teknologi Maklumat, Kolej Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Selangor normusliza@kuis.edu.my Abstract.

More information

Interconnecting Multiple OSPF Areas

Interconnecting Multiple OSPF Areas C H A P T E R 4 Interconnecting Multiple OSPF Areas This chapter introduces readers to the use, operation, configuration, and verification of Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) in multiple areas. After completing

More information

ITRI CCL. IP Routing Primer. Paul C. Huang, Ph.D. ITRI / CCL / N300. CCL/N300; Paul Huang 1999/6/2 1

ITRI CCL. IP Routing Primer. Paul C. Huang, Ph.D. ITRI / CCL / N300. CCL/N300; Paul Huang 1999/6/2 1 IP Routing Primer Paul C. Huang, Ph.D. ITRI / / N300 /N300; Paul Huang 1999/6/2 1 Basic Addressing / Subnetting Class A 0 Network Host Host Host 127 networks / 16,777,216 hosts Class A natural mask 255.0.0.0

More information

Administrative Distance

Administrative Distance RIP is a distance vector routing protocol. It shares routing information through the local broadcast in every 30 seconds. In this tutorial we will explain RIP routing fundamentals with examples such as

More information

Using OSPF in an MPLS VPN Environment

Using OSPF in an MPLS VPN Environment Using OSPF in an MPLS VPN Environment Overview This module introduces the interaction between multi-protocol Border Gateway Protocol (MP-BGP) running between Provider Edge routers (s) and Open Shortest

More information

Layer 3 Routing User s Manual (UI 2.0)

Layer 3 Routing User s Manual (UI 2.0) Layer 3 Routing User s Manual (UI 2.0) Second Edition, June 2015 www.moxa.com/product Models covered by this manual: IKS-G6824A, ICS-G7826A, ICS-G7828A, ICS-G7848A, ICS-G7850A, ICS-G7852A Series 2015 Moxa

More information

Internet Routing Overview

Internet Routing Overview Internet Routing Overview AS, IGP,, BGP Agenda Routing at Large Types of Autonomous Systems -2 Introduction BGP Internet Routing Overview, v4.5 2 Page 45-1 Routing in Small Networks in small networks distance

More information

Textbook Required: Cisco Networking Academy Program CCNP: Building Scalable Internetworks v5.0 Lab Manual.

Textbook Required: Cisco Networking Academy Program CCNP: Building Scalable Internetworks v5.0 Lab Manual. Course: NET 251 Building Scalable Internetworks Credits: 3 Textbook Required: Cisco Networking Academy Program CCNP: Building Scalable Internetworks v5.0 Lab Manual. Course Description: In this course,

More information

Routing in Small Networks. Internet Routing Overview. Agenda. Routing in Large Networks

Routing in Small Networks. Internet Routing Overview. Agenda. Routing in Large Networks Routing in Small Networks Internet Routing Overview AS, IGP,, BGP in small networks distance vector or link state protocols like RIP or OSPF can be used for dynamic routing it is possible that every router

More information

Example: Advertised Distance (AD) Example: Feasible Distance (FD) Example: Successor and Feasible Successor Example: Successor and Feasible Successor

Example: Advertised Distance (AD) Example: Feasible Distance (FD) Example: Successor and Feasible Successor Example: Successor and Feasible Successor 642-902 Route: Implementing Cisco IP Routing Course Introduction Course Introduction Module 01 - Planning Routing Services Lesson: Assessing Complex Enterprise Network Requirements Cisco Enterprise Architectures

More information

Introduction to Link State Protocols

Introduction to Link State Protocols 1 Introduction to Link State Protocols Session Scott Sturgess scsturge@cisco.com 2 Agenda Overview of Link State Protocols Concepts in Link State Protocols The Dijkstra Algorithm Link State Concepts Comparison

More information

Introduction to Dynamic Routing Protocols

Introduction to Dynamic Routing Protocols CHAPTER 3 Introduction to Dynamic Routing Protocols Objectives Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to answer the following questions: Can you describe the role of dynamic routing protocols

More information

CCNA2 Chapter 11 Practice

CCNA2 Chapter 11 Practice CCNA2 Chapter 11 Practice Two neighbouring routers are configured for OSPF, but they have different hello and dead intervals. What will happen? They will become adjacent as long as they are configured

More information

Advanced Networking Routing: RIP, OSPF, Hierarchical routing, BGP

Advanced Networking Routing: RIP, OSPF, Hierarchical routing, BGP Advanced Networking Routing: RIP, OSPF, Hierarchical routing, BGP Renato Lo Cigno Routing Algorithms: One or Many? Is there a single routing protocol in the Internet? How can different protocols and algorithms

More information

Routing Protocols. Interconnected ASes. Hierarchical Routing. Hierarchical Routing

Routing Protocols. Interconnected ASes. Hierarchical Routing. Hierarchical Routing Routing Protocols scale: with 200 million destinations: can t store all dest s in routing tables! routing table exchange would swamp links! Hierarchical Routing Our routing study thus far - idealization

More information

Chapter 4. Distance Vector Routing Protocols

Chapter 4. Distance Vector Routing Protocols Chapter 4 Distance Vector Routing Protocols CCNA2-1 Chapter 4 Note for Instructors These presentations are the result of a collaboration among the instructors at St. Clair College in Windsor, Ontario.

More information

Monitoring Routing. Monitoring OSPF LSAs. Type 1 CHAPTER

Monitoring Routing. Monitoring OSPF LSAs. Type 1 CHAPTER 44 CHAPTER You can use ASDM to monitor OSPF LSAs, OSPF and EIGRP neighbors, and the routing table. To access the routing monitoring screens, go to Monitoring > Routing in the ASDM interface. This section

More information

O 10.16.1.0/27 [110/129] via 192.168.1.5, 00:00:05, Serial0/0/1

O 10.16.1.0/27 [110/129] via 192.168.1.5, 00:00:05, Serial0/0/1 1 Which two statements are true regarding the advantages of the use of static routes? (Choose increased security reduced effort in configuring routes the administrator maintains control over routing easier

More information

Dynamic Routing Protocols II OSPF. Distance Vector vs. Link State Routing

Dynamic Routing Protocols II OSPF. Distance Vector vs. Link State Routing Dynamic Routing Protocols II OSPF Relates to Lab 4. This module covers link state routing and the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol. 1 Distance Vector vs. Link State Routing With distance

More information

CCNA 2 v5.0 Routing Protocols Final Exam Answers

CCNA 2 v5.0 Routing Protocols Final Exam Answers CCNA 2 v5.0 Routing Protocols Final Exam Answers 1 Refer to the exhibit. What can be concluded about network 192.168.1.0 in the R2 routing table? This network was learned through summary LSAs from an ABR.*

More information

OSPF Configuring Multi-Area OSPF

OSPF Configuring Multi-Area OSPF OSPF Configuring Multi-Area OSPF Objective In this lab configure a multiarea OSPF operation, interarea summarization, external route summarization, and default routing. Scenario International Travel Agency

More information

Routing Protocols OSPF CHAPTER. The following topics describe supported routing protocols. Topics include OSPF, page 9-1 IS-IS Protocol, page 9-3

Routing Protocols OSPF CHAPTER. The following topics describe supported routing protocols. Topics include OSPF, page 9-1 IS-IS Protocol, page 9-3 CHAPTER 9 The following topics describe supported routing protocols. Topics include OSPF, page 9-1 IS-IS Protocol, page 9-3 OSPF Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a link state Internet routing protocol.

More information

Edges = communication links Vertices = computers, switches, routers, etc. For packet inbound at a particular vertex, determine what output edge to use

Edges = communication links Vertices = computers, switches, routers, etc. For packet inbound at a particular vertex, determine what output edge to use IP Routing Networks as Graphs Networks are graphs Edges = communication links Vertices = computers, switches, routers, etc For packet inbound at a particular vertex, determine what output edge to use Routers

More information

Command Line Interface Protocol Configuration Guide. Cajun P550/P220 Switch Version 4.0

Command Line Interface Protocol Configuration Guide. Cajun P550/P220 Switch Version 4.0 Command Line Interface Protocol Configuration Guide Cajun P550/P220 Switch Version 4.0 Lucent Technologies Command Line Interface Protocol Configuration Guide, Volume 1 Copyright LUCENT TECHNOLOGIES 1999

More information

Based on Computer Networking, 4 th Edition by Kurose and Ross

Based on Computer Networking, 4 th Edition by Kurose and Ross Computer Networks Internet Routing Based on Computer Networking, 4 th Edition by Kurose and Ross Intra-AS Routing Also known as Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP) Most common Intra-AS routing protocols:

More information

Cisco CCNP 642 901 Optimizing Converged Cisco Networks (ONT)

Cisco CCNP 642 901 Optimizing Converged Cisco Networks (ONT) Cisco CCNP 642 901 Optimizing Converged Cisco Networks (ONT) Course Number: 642 901 Length: 5 Day(s) Certification Exam This course will help you prepare for the following exams: Cisco CCNP Exam 642 901:

More information

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Petr Grygárek rek 1 Role of Autonomous Systems on the Internet 2 Autonomous systems Not possible to maintain complete Internet topology information on all routers big database,

More information

Using the Border Gateway Protocol for Interdomain Routing

Using the Border Gateway Protocol for Interdomain Routing CHAPTER 12 Using the Border Gateway Protocol for Interdomain Routing The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), defined in RFC 1771, provides loop-free interdomain routing between autonomous systems. (An autonomous

More information

Internet Firewall CSIS 4222. Packet Filtering. Internet Firewall. Examples. Spring 2011 CSIS 4222. net15 1. Routers can implement packet filtering

Internet Firewall CSIS 4222. Packet Filtering. Internet Firewall. Examples. Spring 2011 CSIS 4222. net15 1. Routers can implement packet filtering Internet Firewall CSIS 4222 A combination of hardware and software that isolates an organization s internal network from the Internet at large Ch 27: Internet Routing Ch 30: Packet filtering & firewalls

More information

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP-4)

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP-4) Vanguard Applications Ware IP and LAN Feature Protocols Border Gateway Protocol (BGP-4) Notice 2008 Vanguard Networks 25 Forbes Blvd Foxboro, MA 02035 Phone: (508) 964 6200 Fax: (508) 543 0237 All rights

More information

Configuring RIP. Overview. Routing Update Process CHAPTER

Configuring RIP. Overview. Routing Update Process CHAPTER CHAPTER 22 This chapter describes how to configure the ASA to route data, perform authentication, and redistribute routing information, using the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) routing protocol. This

More information

Networking. Palo Alto Networks. PAN-OS Administrator s Guide Version 6.0. Copyright 2007-2015 Palo Alto Networks

Networking. Palo Alto Networks. PAN-OS Administrator s Guide Version 6.0. Copyright 2007-2015 Palo Alto Networks Networking Palo Alto Networks PAN-OS Administrator s Guide Version 6.0 Contact Information Corporate Headquarters: Palo Alto Networks 4401 Great America Parkway Santa Clara, CA 95054 www.paloaltonetworks.com/company/contact-us

More information

IMPLEMENTING CISCO IP ROUTING V2.0 (ROUTE)

IMPLEMENTING CISCO IP ROUTING V2.0 (ROUTE) IMPLEMENTING CISCO IP ROUTING V2.0 (ROUTE) COURSE OVERVIEW: Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE) v2.0 is an instructor-led five day training course developed to help students prepare for Cisco CCNP _

More information

WHITE PAPER. Understanding IP Addressing: Everything You Ever Wanted To Know

WHITE PAPER. Understanding IP Addressing: Everything You Ever Wanted To Know WHITE PAPER Understanding IP Addressing: Everything You Ever Wanted To Know Understanding IP Addressing: Everything You Ever Wanted To Know CONTENTS Internet Scaling Problems 1 Classful IP Addressing 3

More information

Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 2

Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 2 Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 2 Course Number: ICND2 Length: 5 Day(s) Certification Exam This course will help you prepare for the following exam: 640 816: ICND2 Course Overview This course

More information

Evaluation And Implementation Of The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Routing Protocol

Evaluation And Implementation Of The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Routing Protocol Evaluation And Implementation Of The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Routing Protocol G.C NWALOZIE 1, V.N OKOROGU 2, A.C OKAFOR 3, A.O UMEH 4 1, 2, 3,4 Electronic and Computer Engineering Department, Nnamdi

More information

Inter-domain Routing Basics. Border Gateway Protocol. Inter-domain Routing Basics. Inter-domain Routing Basics. Exterior routing protocols created to:

Inter-domain Routing Basics. Border Gateway Protocol. Inter-domain Routing Basics. Inter-domain Routing Basics. Exterior routing protocols created to: Border Gateway Protocol Exterior routing protocols created to: control the expansion of routing tables provide a structured view of the Internet by segregating routing domains into separate administrations

More information

Table of Contents. Cisco How Does Load Balancing Work?

Table of Contents. Cisco How Does Load Balancing Work? Table of Contents How Does Load Balancing Work?...1 Document ID: 5212...1 Introduction...1 Prerequisites...1 Requirements...1 Components Used...1 Conventions...1 Load Balancing...1 Per Destination and

More information

Inter-domain Routing. Outline. Border Gateway Protocol

Inter-domain Routing. Outline. Border Gateway Protocol Inter-domain Routing Outline Border Gateway Protocol Internet Structure Original idea Backbone service provider Consumer ISP Large corporation Consumer ISP Small corporation Consumer ISP Consumer ISP Small

More information

Network Level Multihoming and BGP Challenges

Network Level Multihoming and BGP Challenges Network Level Multihoming and BGP Challenges Li Jia Helsinki University of Technology jili@cc.hut.fi Abstract Multihoming has been traditionally employed by enterprises and ISPs to improve network connectivity.

More information

TCP/IP Overview. Contents. Document ID: 13769

TCP/IP Overview. Contents. Document ID: 13769 TCP/IP Overview Document ID: 13769 Contents Introduction TCP/IP Technology TCP IP Routing in IP Environments Interior Routing Protocols RIP IGRP EIGRP OSPF Integrated IS IS Exterior Routing Protocols EGP

More information

Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)

Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) SFWR 4C03: Computer Networks & Computer Security Jan 31-Feb 4, 2005 Lecturer: Kartik Krishnan Lecture 13-16 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) The operation of the Internet is closely monitored by

More information

Module 7. Routing and Congestion Control. Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur

Module 7. Routing and Congestion Control. Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur Module 7 Routing and Congestion Control Lesson 4 Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Specific Instructional Objectives On completion of this lesson, the students will be able to: Explain the operation of the

More information

640-816: Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 2 v1.1

640-816: Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 2 v1.1 640-816: Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 2 v1.1 Course Introduction Course Introduction Chapter 01 - Small Network Implementation Introducing the Review Lab Cisco IOS User Interface Functions

More information

Cisco s OSPF Implementation P1C-107

Cisco s OSPF Implementation P1C-107 Configuring OSPF This chapter describes how to configure OSPF. For a complete description of the OSPF commands in this chapter, refer to the OSPF s chapter of the Network Protocols Reference, Part 1. To

More information

PRASAD ATHUKURI Sreekavitha engineering info technology,kammam

PRASAD ATHUKURI Sreekavitha engineering info technology,kammam Multiprotocol Label Switching Layer 3 Virtual Private Networks with Open ShortestPath First protocol PRASAD ATHUKURI Sreekavitha engineering info technology,kammam Abstract This paper aims at implementing

More information

Seminar Seite 1 von 10

Seminar Seite 1 von 10 Seminar Seite 1 von 10 CISCO - Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE) Dauer: 5 Tage Kosten: 2.490,00 EUR (pro Person / zzgl. MwSt) Ziele: Der Kurs Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE) vermittelt den Teilnehmern

More information

GregSowell.com. Intro to Networking Mikrotik/Cisco

GregSowell.com. Intro to Networking Mikrotik/Cisco Intro to Networking Mikrotik/Cisco Terms Used Layer X When I refer to something being at layer X I m referring to the OSI model. VLAN 802.1Q Layer 2 marking on traffic used to segment sets of traffic.

More information

Course Contents CCNP (CISco certified network professional)

Course Contents CCNP (CISco certified network professional) Course Contents CCNP (CISco certified network professional) CCNP Route (642-902) EIGRP Chapter: EIGRP Overview and Neighbor Relationships EIGRP Neighborships Neighborship over WANs EIGRP Topology, Routes,

More information

ZXR10 5900/5200 Series

ZXR10 5900/5200 Series ZXR10 5900/5200 Series All Gigabit-Port Intelligent Routing Switch User Manual (IPv4 Routing Volume) Version 2.8.23.A ZTE CORPORATION ZTE Plaza, Keji Road South, Hi-Tech Industrial Park, Nanshan District,

More information

- IGRP - IGRP v1.22 Aaron Balchunas

- IGRP - IGRP v1.22 Aaron Balchunas 1 - GRP - GRP (nterior Gateway Routing Protocol) GRP is a isco-proprietary Distance-Vector protocol, designed to be more scalable than RP, its standardized counterpart. GRP adheres to the following Distance-Vector

More information

Routing Protocols (RIP, OSPF, BGP)

Routing Protocols (RIP, OSPF, BGP) Chapter 13 Routing Protocols (RIP, OSPF, BGP) INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR ROUTING RIP OSPF BGP 1 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 1 Introduction Packets may pass through several networks on their way to

More information

CSE331: Introduction to Networks and Security. Lecture 8 Fall 2006

CSE331: Introduction to Networks and Security. Lecture 8 Fall 2006 CSE331: Introduction to Networks and Security Lecture 8 Fall 2006 Announcements Reminders: Project I is due on Monday, Sept. 25th. Homework 1 is due on Friday, Sept. 29th. CSE331 Fall 2004 2 Internet Protocol

More information

Cisco Certified Network Associate Exam. Operation of IP Data Networks. LAN Switching Technologies. IP addressing (IPv4 / IPv6)

Cisco Certified Network Associate Exam. Operation of IP Data Networks. LAN Switching Technologies. IP addressing (IPv4 / IPv6) Cisco Certified Network Associate Exam Exam Number 200-120 CCNA Associated Certifications CCNA Routing and Switching Operation of IP Data Networks Operation of IP Data Networks Recognize the purpose and

More information

Understanding Virtual Router and Virtual Systems

Understanding Virtual Router and Virtual Systems Understanding Virtual Router and Virtual Systems PAN- OS 6.0 Humair Ali Professional Services Content Table of Contents VIRTUAL ROUTER... 5 CONNECTED... 8 STATIC ROUTING... 9 OSPF... 11 BGP... 17 IMPORT

More information

Chapter 3. Enterprise Campus Network Design

Chapter 3. Enterprise Campus Network Design Chapter 3 Enterprise Campus Network Design 1 Overview The network foundation hosting these technologies for an emerging enterprise should be efficient, highly available, scalable, and manageable. This

More information

Datagram-based network layer: forwarding; routing. Additional function of VCbased network layer: call setup.

Datagram-based network layer: forwarding; routing. Additional function of VCbased network layer: call setup. CEN 007C Computer Networks Fundamentals Instructor: Prof. A. Helmy Homework : Network Layer Assigned: Nov. 28 th, 2011. Due Date: Dec 8 th, 2011 (to the TA) 1. ( points) What are the 2 most important network-layer

More information

A REPORT ON ANALYSIS OF OSPF ROUTING PROTOCOL NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY

A REPORT ON ANALYSIS OF OSPF ROUTING PROTOCOL NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY A REPORT ON ANALYSIS OF OSPF ROUTING PROTOCOL Using OPNET 14.5 Modeler NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY SUBMITTED BY: SHOBHANK SHARMA ssharma5@ncsu.edu Page 1 ANALYSIS OF OSPF ROUTING PROTOCOL A. Introduction

More information

CCNP ROUTE 642-902. Official Certification Guide. Wendell Odom, CCIE No. 1624. Cisco Press. Indianapolis, IN 46240. 800 East 96th Street

CCNP ROUTE 642-902. Official Certification Guide. Wendell Odom, CCIE No. 1624. Cisco Press. Indianapolis, IN 46240. 800 East 96th Street CCNP ROUTE 642-902 Official Certification Guide Wendell Odom, CCIE No. 1624 Cisco Press 800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, IN 46240 IX Contents Foreword xxiv Introduction xxv Part I Perspectives on Network

More information

Understanding Route Redistribution & Filtering

Understanding Route Redistribution & Filtering Understanding Route Redistribution & Filtering When to Redistribute and Filter PAN-OS 5.0 Revision B 2013, Palo Alto Networks, Inc. www.paloaltonetworks.com Contents Overview... 3 Route Redistribution......

More information

- Routing Information Protocol -

- Routing Information Protocol - 1 - Routing Information Protocol - RIP (Routing Information Protocol) RIP is a standardized Distance Vector protocol, designed for use on smaller networks. RIP was one of the first true Distance Vector

More information

Computer Networks Administration Help Manual Sana Saadaoui Jemai Oliver Wellnitz

Computer Networks Administration Help Manual Sana Saadaoui Jemai Oliver Wellnitz Technische Universität Braunschweig Institut für Betriebssysteme und Rechnerverbund Computer Networks Administration Help Manual Sana Saadaoui Jemai Oliver Wellnitz Braunschweig, 27 th March 2007 Contents

More information

Cisco BGP Case Studies

Cisco BGP Case Studies Table of Contents BGP Case Studies...1 BGP4 Case Studies Section 1...3 Contents...3 Introduction...3 How Does BGP Work?...3 ebgp and ibgp...3 Enabling BGP Routing...4 Forming BGP Neighbors...4 BGP and

More information

Question 1. [7 points] Consider the following scenario and assume host H s routing table is the one given below:

Question 1. [7 points] Consider the following scenario and assume host H s routing table is the one given below: Computer Networks II Master degree in Computer Engineering Exam session: 11/02/2009 Teacher: Emiliano Trevisani Last name First name Student Identification number You are only allowed to use a pen and

More information

Outline. Internet Routing. Alleviating the Problem. DV Algorithm. Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Link State Routing. Routing algorithms

Outline. Internet Routing. Alleviating the Problem. DV Algorithm. Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Link State Routing. Routing algorithms Outline Internet Routing Venkat Padmanabhan Microsoft Research 9 pril 2001 Routing algorithms distance-vector (DV) link-state (LS) Internet Routing border gateway protocol (BGP) BGP convergence paper Venkat

More information

Computer Networks II Master degree in Computer Engineering Exam session: 11/02/2009 Teacher: Emiliano Trevisani. Student Identification number

Computer Networks II Master degree in Computer Engineering Exam session: 11/02/2009 Teacher: Emiliano Trevisani. Student Identification number Computer Networks II Master degree in Computer Engineering Exam session: 11/02/2009 Teacher: Emiliano Trevisani Last name First name Student Identification number You are only allowed to use a pen and

More information

Objectives. The Role of Redundancy in a Switched Network. Layer 2 Loops. Broadcast Storms. More problems with Layer 2 loops

Objectives. The Role of Redundancy in a Switched Network. Layer 2 Loops. Broadcast Storms. More problems with Layer 2 loops ITE I Chapter 6 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 1 Objectives Implement Spanning Tree Protocols LAN Switching and Wireless Chapter 5 Explain the role of redundancy in a converged

More information

Date Submitted: 2-1-2014. Course Number: 9110

Date Submitted: 2-1-2014. Course Number: 9110 Date Submitted: 2-1-2014 Course Title: Advanced IPv6 Migration Course Number: 9110 Pricing & Length Classroom: 4 days, (onsite and public offering) Course Description: This advanced, hands-on course covers

More information

Deploying OSPF for ISPs. OSPF Design. Agenda. Service Providers. SP Architecture. SP Architecture. OSPF Design in SP Networks

Deploying OSPF for ISPs. OSPF Design. Agenda. Service Providers. SP Architecture. SP Architecture. OSPF Design in SP Networks Agenda OSPF Design in SP Networks Deploying OSPF for ISPs Adding Networks in OSPF OSPF in IOS ISP/IXP 1 2 Service Providers OSPF Design As applicable to Service Provider Networks SP networks are divided

More information

Recovery Performance in Redundant. Campus Network

Recovery Performance in Redundant. Campus Network Technical report, IDE0960, December 2009 Recovery Performance in Redundant Campus Network Master s Thesis in Computer Systems Engineering Sergo Mchedlishvili Master s Thesis in Computer Networks Engineering

More information

College 5, Routing, Internet. Host A. Host B. The Network Layer: functions

College 5, Routing, Internet. Host A. Host B. The Network Layer: functions CSN-s 5/1 College 5, Routing, Internet College stof 1 Inleiding: geschiedenis, OSI model, standaarden, ISOC/IETF/IRTF structuur Secties: 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 2 Fysieke laag: Bandbreedte/bitrate Secties:

More information

SOLUTIONS PRODUCTS TECH SUPPORT ABOUT JBM Online Ordering

SOLUTIONS PRODUCTS TECH SUPPORT ABOUT JBM Online Ordering SOLUTIONS PRODUCTS TECH SUPPORT ABOUT JBM Online Ordering SEARCH TCP/IP Tutorial This tutorial is intended to supply a brief overview of TCP/IP protocol. Explanations of IP addresses, classes, netmasks,

More information

CS 3251- Computer Networks 1: Routing Algorithms

CS 3251- Computer Networks 1: Routing Algorithms CS 35- Computer Networks : Routing Algorithms Professor Patrick Tranor 0//3 Lecture 3 Reminders The due date for Homework was moved to Thursda. Reason: Allow ou to attend toda s lecture. Project is still

More information

IP Addressing. and Routing. Prepared by : Swapan Purkait Director. Nettech Private Ltd. swapan@nettech.in + 91 93315 90003

IP Addressing. and Routing. Prepared by : Swapan Purkait Director. Nettech Private Ltd. swapan@nettech.in + 91 93315 90003 For Summer Training on Computer Networking visit IP Addressing Prepared by : Swapan Purkait Director Nettech Private Limited swapan@nettech.in + 91 93315 90003 and Routing IP Addresses Basic IP Addressing

More information

Advanced Computer Networks

Advanced Computer Networks Introduction to Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) Advanced Computer Networks Outline Ad hoc networks Differences to other networks Applications Research areas Routing Other research areas Enabling Technologies

More information

Configuring a Gateway of Last Resort Using IP Commands

Configuring a Gateway of Last Resort Using IP Commands Configuring a Gateway of Last Resort Using IP Commands Document ID: 16448 Contents Introduction Prerequisites Requirements Components Used Conventions ip default gateway ip default network Flag a Default

More information

Cisco Router Configuration Tutorial

Cisco Router Configuration Tutorial Cisco Router Configuration Tutorial Cisco Inter-network Operating System: Cisco IOS Modes of Operation The Cisco IOS software provides access to several different command modes. Each command mode provides

More information

Introduction. Internet Address Depletion and CIDR. Introduction. Introduction

Introduction. Internet Address Depletion and CIDR. Introduction. Introduction Introduction Internet Address Depletion and A subnet is a subset of class A, B, or C networks IP addresses are formed of a network and host portions network mask used to separate the information Introduction

More information

Configuration IP Routing and Multicast Avaya Ethernet Routing Switch 4500 Series

Configuration IP Routing and Multicast Avaya Ethernet Routing Switch 4500 Series Configuration IP Routing and Multicast Avaya Ethernet Routing Switch 4500 Series 5.4 NN47205-506, 02.02 November 2010 2010 Avaya Inc. All Rights Reserved. Notice While reasonable efforts have been made

More information

Course Overview: Learn the essential skills needed to set up, configure, support, and troubleshoot your TCP/IP-based network.

Course Overview: Learn the essential skills needed to set up, configure, support, and troubleshoot your TCP/IP-based network. Course Name: TCP/IP Networking Course Overview: Learn the essential skills needed to set up, configure, support, and troubleshoot your TCP/IP-based network. TCP/IP is the globally accepted group of protocols

More information

- Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol -

- Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol - 1 - Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol - EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) EIGRP is a Cisco-proprietary Hybrid routing protocol, incorporating features of both Distance-Vector

More information

CCNA Exploration 4.0: (II) Routing Protocols and Concepts. Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Forwarding

CCNA Exploration 4.0: (II) Routing Protocols and Concepts. Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Forwarding Http://elmaestrodelared.blogspot.com CCNA Exploration 4.0: (II) Routing Protocols and Concepts Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Forwarding 1. If a router cannot find a valid configuration

More information

Traffic Engineering With Traditional IP Routing Protocols

Traffic Engineering With Traditional IP Routing Protocols Traffic Engineering With Traditional IP Routing Protocols Bernard Fortz Jennifer Rexford Mikkel Thorup Institut d Administration et de Gestion Internet and Networking Systems Universite Catholique de Louvain

More information

Faculty of Engineering Computer Engineering Department Islamic University of Gaza 2012. Network Chapter# 19 INTERNETWORK OPERATION

Faculty of Engineering Computer Engineering Department Islamic University of Gaza 2012. Network Chapter# 19 INTERNETWORK OPERATION Faculty of Engineering Computer Engineering Department Islamic University of Gaza 2012 Network Chapter# 19 INTERNETWORK OPERATION Review Questions ٢ Network Chapter# 19 INTERNETWORK OPERATION 19.1 List

More information

SolarWinds Technical Reference

SolarWinds Technical Reference SolarWinds Technical Reference New to Networking Volume 9 Introduction to IP Routing Section 1 Introduction... 1 Section 2 Routing Concepts... 1 Section 3 Routing Mechanisms... 3 Section 4 - Building a

More information