IP Routing Protocols. Routing Principles

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1 IP Routing Protocols Routing is one of the most important functions of IP. Routing process (routing daemon) is a software program running on a host (the router). e.g. routd in Unix. This lecture is concerned with how routers exchange routing information with adjacent routers - routing protocols. 1 Routing Principles The routing table is at the core of the routing process. The information contained in the routing table drives all routing decisions made by IP. Typically the routing table is searched in the following sequence: 1. Search for a matching host address. 2. Search for a matching Network Address. 3. Search for a default entry. The routing done by IP, when it searches the routing table and decides which interface to send a packet out on, is a routing mechanism. 2 1

2 Routing Principles The routing mechanism is different to the routing policy, which is a set of rules that decides which routes go into the routing table. IP performs the routing mechanism while a routing daemon provides the routing policy. Routing tables may be either static or dynamic. Static - created / updated by the system administrator. Dynamic - routers communicate directly using a routing protocol. The routing daemon updates the routing table with information it receives from neighbouring routers. 3 Dynamic Routing The use of dynamic routing does not change the routing mechanism - the routing table is still searched in the same way. What does / may change is the information that is put into the routing table. If the daemon finds multiple routes to a destination, the daemon chooses (somehow) which route is best. If the daemon finds that a link has gone down, it can delete the affected routes or add alternative routes to bypass the problem. 4 2

3 IGP and EGP The Internet is organised into a collection of autonomous systems. (e.g. A college campus could be considered an autonomous system). Each autonomous system can choose its own routing protocol to communicate between the routers in that autonomous system. This is called an interior gateway protocol (IGP) or intradomain routing protocol. The most popular IGP s are RIP (Routing Information Protocol) and OSPF (Open Shortest Path First). 5 IGP and EGP Separate routing protocols called exterior gateway protocols (EGPs) are used between the routers in different autonomous systems. Historically, the most popular EGP has been a protocol called. EGP. A newer EGP called Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is becoming increasingly popular and is intended to replace EGP. 6 3

4 The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) RIP is an intradomain routing protocol. RIP messages are carried in UDP Datagrams: IP Datagram UDP Datagram IP Header UDP Header RIP Message 7 RIP Message Format command (1-6) version (1) (must be zero) address family (2) (must be zero) 32-bit IP Address (must be zero) (must be zero) 20 Bytes Metric (1-16) (up to 24 more routes with same format as previous 20 bytes) 8 4

5 RIP Message Format A command of 1 is a request, and a 2 is a reply. A request asks the other system to send all or part of its routing table. A reply contains all or part of the senders routing table. The value of version is normally 1. The next 20 bytes specify: - The address family (always 2 for IP addresses) -An IP Address - An associated metric (We will soon see that RIP metrics are hop counts) 9 RIP Message Format Up to 25 routes can be advertised in a RIP-message using this 20-byte format. This limit means that multiple messages are often required to send an entire routing table. Note: The well known protocol port number for RIP is UDP port

6 RIP Normal Protocol Operation The protocol software (e.g. routd) operates as follows under normal conditions: 1. Initialisation The daemon sends out a request message on each interface. Address family is set to zero and metric is set to Request Received Either the entire routing table is sent back (if request was as in 1 above), or else each entry in the request is processed. If a route to the specified address exists, set the metric value to our value, else set it to 16 (no route). The response is returned. 11 RIP Normal Protocol Operation 3. Response Received The response is validated and may update the routing table. New entries may be added, existing entries may be modified or deleted. 4. Regular Routing Updates Every 30 seconds, all or part of the routing table is sent to every neighbouring router by either broadcast (e.g. Ethernet) or to the other end on a point to point link. 5. Triggerered Updates These occur whenever the metric for a route changes. Only the changes are sent. Each route has a 3-minute timeout associated with it. 12 6

7 RIP Metrics The metrics used by RIP are hop counts. The hop count for all dierctly connected interfaces is 1. Consider the following diagram: N1 N2 = 1 hop N1 Ends up with a route to N3 through R2 with a hop count of 2 N2 N3 R1 N1 = 1 hop N3 = 1 hop R1 N2 = 1 hop N2 Ends up with a route to N1 through R1 with a hop count of 2 N3 13 RIP Metrics If an adjacent router advertises a route to another network with a hop count of 1, then our metric for that network is 2, since we must send a packet to that router to get to that network. So in the previous example (diagram): - The metric to N1 for R2 is 2. - The metric to N3 for R1 is 2. As each router sends its routing tables to it s neighbours, a route can be determined to each network within the autonomous system (AS). 14 7

8 RIP Metrics If there are multiple paths within the AS from a router to a network, the router selects the path with the smallest hop count and ignores the other paths. As the hop count metric is limited to 15, RIP can only be used in an autonomous system where the maximum number of hops between hosts is The special metric of 16 is used to indicate that no route exists to the IP Address. 15 RIP Final Considerations The use of hop counts as the routing metric omits other variables that should be taken into consideration (e.g. quality, speed, and cost of links?) The maximum hop count of 16 limits the size of the networks on which RIP can be used. RIP takes a long time to stabilise after the failure of a router or a link. RIP has no knowledge of subnet addressing (If the host ID portion of an IP address is non-zero, is it a seubnetwork number or a host number?) 16 8

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