Virtualization with Xen. November 24, 2008

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1 Virtualization with Xen November 24, 2008

2 Outline Background Definition Motivations History Challenges Full Virtualization Para-Virtualization Xen hardware

3 Definition Virtualization is A logical extension of concept of layered systems Provides an interface identical to underlying hardware Provides isolated duplicates of the real machine [7]

4 System Virtual Machine A system virtual machine provides a complete system environment [8] Full execution environment Support processes, users Share filesystem, access to I/O Persists

5 Why Virtualization Server Consolidation Robust level of security Reliability Kernel Development End User Other

6 History Lesson Virtualization idea is almost as old as timesharing [3] MSS (MIT/GE/Bell) v. TSS (IBM) 1972 IBM VM/370 melinda/25paper.pdf

7 Full Virtualization Full Virtualization Complete virtualization of hardware Guest OS is not aware that it is running on virtualized hardware Challenges Transparently prevent one VM from making changes that might affect another VM Costs of extra layer of abstraction

8 Full Virtualization Virtual Machine Monitor [5] Type I Runs directly on machines hardware. Typically includes device emulators, MMU, etc. Provided interface is the same or subset of the hardware interface of the machine Transforms single machine interface into the illusion of many Type II - hosted VMM Runs as application on host operating system Relies on host for memory management, resource allocation, and device drivers Only provides virtualization support

9 Properties of a VMM Defined by Popek & Goldberg 1974 [6] Resource control - VMM controls all resources Equivalence - Indistiguishable execution Efficiency - VMM does not interfere with instructions that are not sensitive Privileged instructions generate traps Sensitive instructions change or depend on resource state

10 Ideal Implementation Idealized Implementation [4] VMM runs in supervisor mode Run all guest OS instructions in user mode VMM maintains virtual mode bit in a software table Mode bit is the mode an instruction "would be" in if allowed to run on bare machine Sensitive instructions generate traps, which are then simulated in software by VMM

11 Requires Virtualizable Architecture Popek & Goldberg Requirements 1974 [6] At least 2 privilege modes Need architectures where sensitive privileged instructions

12 IA-32 IA-32* Current privilege level - CPL goes from 0 to 3 Often called Rings 17 sensitive instructions that are not privileged [5]

13 VMWare Binary Translation [9] Guest runs in ring-1 OS code runs on VMM emulator which translates sensitive instructions Application code runs on the real CPU Problems Some sensitive instructions can be quite frequent Page faults System calls

14 Xen Goals & Design Principles High performance on IA32 Scale with multiple operating systems domain target Support for unmodified application binaries [1]

15 Para Virtualization Present machine abstration that is similar but not identical to underlying hardware [1] Sensitive instructions are validated and executed by the hypervisor Requires modifications to the guest OS

16 Hypervisor Validation Table of exceptions and handlers for each OS is registered with the hypervisor - IDT Hypervisor sends copy of exception to the guest OS and returns control to appropriate handler Only 2 types of exceptions occur frequently enough to impact performance System-calls Page faults [1]

17 Challenges Basic model makes virtualization possible on IA-32, but still many challenges to meet the scale and performance requirements. CPU scheduling - how to schedule OS, and preserve fairness, work-conservation and real time scheduling? Memory - how to take advantage of cache, provide protected address spaces for each guest? I/O - how do we schedule I/O requests, ensure that each domain gets the correct request, and gets it fast?

18 CPU Scheduling Multiple Options - alot like OS CPU scheduling [1] Borrowed Virtual Time (BVT) scheduling algorithm Credit Scheduler Simplest Earliest Deadline First

19 BVT Each OS has a weight w i. Hypervisor monitors virtual time used of each OS, A i If domain i runs for time t, then increment A i + = t/w i. Also track effective time, the actual clock time used Usually E i = A i Xen dispatches the VM with smallest effective virtual time E i Switch from domain i to j when E j E i w i Warp factor: E i = A i (warp i?w i : 0)

20 Real Memory Memory is statically partitioned for each domain Xen is mapped in every OS s address space in the top 64MB Pseudo-physical memory - illusion of contiguous memory starting at 0 Global machine-to-physical table maps machine page frames to pseudo-physical ones Domain physical-to-machine table maps pseudo-physical pages to machine page frames to

21 Virtual Virtual Memory Each Guest OS is given its own page tables Hypervisor registers Guest OS page tables directly with MMU Restrict guest OS to read-only access to real page tables Guest OS manages its own page tables Updates the MMU-visible page tables through batched hypercalls Hypervisor validates updates to ensure safety

22 Example - Page Fault

23 I/O Ring Mechanism Circular queue of I/O descriptors Domain places a producer request on a ring Advances a request producer pointer Xen removes the request, handles it Xen advances an associated request consumer Responses go the other direction (Xen is the producer) Asynchronous (not blocking), supports reordering, transfers are easy

24 I/O Ring

25 Disk I/O Only Domain0 (running Xen management software) has complete access to physical disks All other guests use virtual block devices (VBD), configured in Domain0 VBD is a list of contiguous area of storage on the disk with associated ownership and access control mechanisms

26 Virtual Block Device Translation table for each VBD is maintained by Xen Xen services batched disk I/O requests through the I/O Ring mechanism On request for I/O, Xen looks up the VBD identifier and offset in translation table Then produces the corresponding physical device and sector Transfer using DMA to the approproate pinned memory frames for the guest Requests are serviced in round robin in batches Passed to elevator scheduler before disk hardware controller

27 Other Devices Virtual network interface VIF I/O rings for transmit and receive To send Guest places request on the transmit ring Packet is sent to the network device via DMA, using a pinned memory frame Round-robin packet scheduling to ensure fairness To receive Guest places request on the reception ring Again DMA used to deliver received packet Requires an unused page for each packet reception Requires a queue of page aligned buffers at the network device If no frame for the destination VIF is available, packet is dropped

28 Performance Benchmarks SPEC - computationally expensive programs Compiling Linux with gcc Database benchmarks using PostgreSQL: OSDBIR - OpenSource Database Benchmark on Information Retrieval OSDB OLTP - Online transaction processing (synchronous disk) dbench - Filesystem benchmark using 1 client, file system operations SPEC WEB Mb/s on a mixed workload

29 Results

30 lmbench - microbenchmarks

31 Scalability

32 Scalability Contd

33 Summary Xen uses para-virtualization Requires modification of guest OSes Does not require use of a shadow page table I/O managed through ring and event notification system Performs extremely well

34 Future of IA-32 virtualization VT-x, and VT-i virtualization technology on all new processors includes newest P4, Core Duo, Xeon and Itanium processors AMD-V Pacifica on newest Phenoms, Opterons and 64bit Athalons, Both represent fixes to the problems mentioned above, and claim that paravirtualization and binary translation are no longer necessary

35 VT-x 2 new CPU privilege states, VMX-root and VMX non-root [2] CPL remains the same but guest OS now runs in ring-0 All sensitive operations now cause VM exit transition, so that guest OS can not execute if CPU is not in VMX-root mode VMM can request that the VM exit transition generate a trap Guest state is now stored in VMCS, virtual machine control states

36 EPT Extended Page Tables Defines mapping between guest to host-physical addresses EPT base pointer held in VMCS for each VM VMM does not need to handle translation and guest cannot access any memory that does not belong to it

37 VT-d Hardware support to remap DMA to VM s memory space Enables direct assignment of I/O devices to a VM Interrupts go to the VM rather than the VMM

38 Works Cited Paul Barham, Boris Dragovic, Keir Fraser, Steven Hand, Tim Harris, Alex Ho, Rolf Neugebauer, Ian Pratt, and Andrew Warfield. Xen and the art of virtualization. In SOSP 03: Proceedings of the nineteenth ACM symposium on Operating systems principles, pages , New York, NY, USA, ACM. Intel Corporation. Intel virtualization technology specification for the ia-32 intel architecture, c April Robert J. Creasy. The origin of the vm/370 time-sharing system. IBM Journal of Research and Development, 25(5): , Robert P. Goldberg. Survey of virtual machine research. IEEE Computer Magazine, 7:34 45, June Samuel T. King, George W. Dunlap, and Peter M. Chen. Operating system support for virtual machines. In ATEC 03: Proceedings of the USENIX Annual Technical Conference 2003 on USENIX Annual Technical Conference, page 6, Berkeley, CA, USA, USENIX Association. Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg. Formal requirements for virtualizable third generation architectures. Commun. ACM, 17(7): , July Abraham Silberschatz, Peter B. Galvin, and Greg Gagne. Operating System Concepts. Wiley, December 2004.

39 Thanks!

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