EGG INDUSTRY POULTRY INDUSTRY THE ROLE OF THE IN THE GLOBAL

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1 Hans-Wilhelm Windhorst, IEC Statistical Analyst The role of the egg industry in the global poultry industry THE ROLE OF THE EGG INDUSTRY IN THE GLOBAL POULTRY INDUSTRY

2 Introduction The role of the egg industry in the global poultry industry Over the past years, the author of this report has presented several special studies to the IEC. They dealt with the patterns and dynamics of egg production and egg trade in Europe, Asia and the Americas and presented a new spatial pattern of the global egg industry, based on the development status of the single countries. In addition, an Atlas of the European Egg Industry was developed which tried to find a new way to visualise the Objectives The main objectives of this report are: to analyse the dynamics of egg and poultry meat production in comparison to other commodities of animal production, to compare, on the basis of the continents, the contribution of eggs and poultry meat to the overall production volume and production value of the dynamics and spatial patterns of European egg production and trade. All poultry industry, these studies and a number of other papers (which are available to members to identify the leading countries in egg and poultry meat production and to of the IEC as downloads) only dealt with egg production and trade and did explain differences and similarities in the not consider other branches of the poultry industry. spatial patterns, to analyse the patterns of egg and In this report, the egg industry will be analysed within the larger framework of the poultry industry. At first glance this approach may be surprising to the reader, but it will become obvious that the patterns of egg production and trade differ considerably to those of poultry meat. It will also be shown that the value of poultry meat production is much higher than that of eggs and that a high percentage of the produced meat is traded worldwide whereas egg trade, at least the trade of shell eggs for consumption, is confined to comparatively small areas. Note: Figures used in this document are stated in United Kingdom format with a "," to separate 000s and a "." to denote decimal places. In all cases for units of measurement "t" means "tonnes" and "mill.t" means million tonnes. 2 INTERNATIONAL EGG COMMISSION SPECIAL ECONOMIC REPORT MARCH 2012 poultry meat trade on the basis of continents and the leading exporting and importing countries, to characterise the trade balance with eggs and poultry meat on a continent level, to compile and interpret the main facts which characterise the role of egg production and egg trade in the global poultry industry.

3 PART 1 Volume and value of global egg production in comparison to meat production v MEAT Between 2000 and 2009, the volume of global egg and meat production increased from mill. t to mill. t or by 22.1%. From the data in Table 1 one can easily see that poultry meat showed the highest absolute ( mill. t) and relative ( %) growth rates in the analysed time period. Eggs ranked in second place with regard to the relative increase and in third place for absolute growth. Because of the dynamic development the gap between the production volume of pig meat and poultry meat has narrowed. Cattle meat showed the lowest absolute and relative increase (see also Figure 1). The value of egg and meat production almost doubled between 2000 and 2009 (Table 2). The highest absolute increase was in pig meat with 130 billion US-$, followed by poultry meat (+ 95 billion US-$) and cattle meat (+ 77 billion US-$). The value of egg production increased by only 34 billion US-$. The differences in the development reflect the value per t. While the average value of one tonne of eggs was only as high as 1,168 US-$ and that of poultry meat reached 1,860 US-$, pig meat had an average value of 2,250 US-$ and cattle meat of 3,168 US-$. This difference explains the remarkable dynamics of egg and poultry meat production compared to pig and cattle meat. It also becomes obvious that eggs and poultry meat are a valuable protein source with an affordable price. A comparison of the volume and value of egg and poultry meat production reveals that in 2009 the production volume of poultry meat was almost 50% higher than that of eggs and that the value of poultry meat surpassed that of eggs by over 130% (see also Figure 2). TABLE 1 The development of the volume of global egg and meat production between 2000 and 2009; data in 1,000 t FIGURE 1 The development of global egg and meat production between 2000 and 2009 TABLE 2 The development of the value of global egg and meat production between 2000 and 2009; data in mill. US-$ FIGURE 2 The development of the value of global egg and meat production between 2000 and 2009 commodity increase (%) Eggs 51,113 62, Poultry Meat 68,192 91, Pig Meat 89, , Cattle Meat 56,275 62, Total 265, , commodity increase (%) Eggs 39,327 73, Poultry Meat 75, , Pig Meat 108, , Cattle Meat 122, , Total 346, , INTERNATIONAL EGG COMMISSION SPECIAL ECONOMIC REPORT MARCH

4 PART 2 Patterns of egg and poultry meat production on the basis of continents By continent In the following part of the report, the dynamics and spatial patterns of egg and poultry meat production will be analysed on the basis of continents and the leading countries. Between 2000 and 2009, global egg production increased from 51.1 mill. t to 62.8 mill. t or by 22.9%. From the data in Table 3 one can see that this was not a homogeneous growth across all continents. The highest relative growth rates were shown in Central and South America (CS America) with 36.5% and Africa with 35.0%. The lowest was Europe with only 8.6 %. The highest absolute increase was observed in Asia with 8 mill. t, followed by CS America with 1.2 mill. t and North America (N America) with 1 mill. t. These differences resulted in a shift of the contribution of the continents to the global production volume as can be seen in Table 4 and Figure 3. Whereas Africa, Asia and CS America increased their share, Europe and N America lost 2.1% and 1.1% respectively. In the same time period, the production volume of poultry meat grew from 68.2 mill. t to almost 92 mill. t or by 34.9%. Here too, the growth rates of the single continents differed considerably. The highest absolute increase was in Asia with 8.8 mill. t, followed by CS America with 6.6 mill. t and Europe with 3.8 mill. t. The relative growth rates were highest in CS America with 61.4%, followed by Asia with 39.1%. In poultry meat production, a shift in the contribution of the continents to the global production volume could also be observed between 2000 and Whereas the share of CS America increased by 3%, N America lost 3.6% of its former contribution (Table 4). In a later part of this report the dynamics at country level will be analysed in detail. TABLE 3 Egg and poultry meat production in 2000 and 2009 by continent; data in 1,000 t TABLE 4 The changing contribution of the continents to the volume of global egg and poultry meat production between 2000 and 2009; data in % continent increase (%) Africa 1,923 2, Asia 29,102 37, Europe 9,480 10, N America* 7,159 8, CS America 3,249 4, Oceania World 51,113 62, continent increase (%) Africa 2,999 3, Asia 22,480 31, Europe 11,862 15, N America* 19,349 22, CS America 10,735 17, Oceania 767 1, World 68,192 91, * Canada, Mexico and USA continent Africa Asia Europe N America* CS America Oceania World continent Africa Asia Europe N America* CS America Oceania World **100.0 **100.0 * Canada, Mexico and USA * sum does not add because of rounding 4 INTERNATIONAL EGG COMMISSION SPECIAL ECONOMIC REPORT MARCH 2012

5 In addition to the analysis of the dynamics in the production volume, the changes in the production value of eggs and poultry meat were also studied in detail. From Table 5 one can easily see that the value of the two commodities increased much faster in the analysed time period than the production volume. Between 2000 and 2009, the value of egg production grew by 86.6% and that of poultry meat by 125.9%. The highest relative growth rates shown were in Asia with 98.2% and CS America with 363.3%. In contrast, the value of egg production showed only a moderate increase in N America. The highest absolute growth in the value of egg production was observed in Asia with almost 20 billion US-$, followed by Europe with 6.8 billion US-$. In poultry meat, the production value grew by over 43 billion US-$ in Asia and 17.1 billion US-$ in N America (Table 5). FIGURE 3 The changing contribution of the continents to global egg and poultry meat production between 2000 and 2009 TABLE 5 Egg and poultry meat production in 2000 and 2009 by continent; data in mill. US-$ continent increase (%) Africa 2,620 4, Asia 20,249 40, Europe 8,027 14, N America* 4,923 7, CS America 3,247 6, Oceania World 39,327 73, continent increase (%) Africa 3,600 8, Asia 27,150 70, Europe 12,897 26, N America* 27,366 44, CS America 4,058 18, Oceania 708 1, World 75, , * Canada, Mexico and USA POULTRY MEAT INTERNATIONAL EGG COMMISSION SPECIAL ECONOMIC REPORT MARCH

6 PART 2 Patterns of egg and poultry meat production on the basis of continents By continent A closer look at the shift which occurred between 2000 and 2009 regarding the contribution to the value of production reveals (Table 6 and Figure 4) that in egg production Asia gained 3.2% whereas N America lost 1.5%. The contribution of Europe remained fairly stable. In poultry meat, CS America gained 5.7% and Asia 5.5%. On the other hand, N America lost almost 10% of its former contribution and Europe 1.3%. In Table 7, the dynamics of the value of egg and poultry meat production in the analysed time period is split up for poultry meat types. The dominant role of chicken meat becomes obvious, for 87% of the total increase in the value of poultry meat production was contributed by this commodity. A closer look at the other meat types shows that the value of turkey meat increased by only 2 billion US-$ or 34%. In contrast, duck meat grew by 6.2 billion US-$ or 212% and that of goose meat by 4.3 billion US-$ or 247%. This sharp increase is mainly the result of the fast growth of the production volume in Asian countries. TABLE 6 The changing contribution of the continents to the value of global egg and poultry meat production between 2000 and 2009; data in % FIGURE 4 The changing contribution of the continents to the value of egg and poultry meat production between 2000 and 2009 continent Africa Asia Europe N America* CS America Oceania World ** continent Africa Asia Europe N America* CS America Oceania World **100.0 * Canada, Mexico and USA ** sum does not add because of rounding POULTRY MEAT 6 INTERNATIONAL EGG COMMISSION SPECIAL ECONOMIC REPORT MARCH 2012

7 The main results of this part of the analysis can be summarised as follows: Between 2000 and 2009, the volume of egg and meat production increased by 22.1% and the value by 97.2%. Poultry meat showed the highest relative growth rate, followed by eggs in relation to volume of production and by pig meat in relation to production value. In 2009, the volume of poultry meat production reached almost 92 mill. t, 29 mill. t more than egg production. The value of poultry meat production was as high as billion US-$ whereas eggs production reached a value of only 73.4 billion US-$. Asia showed the highest absolute increase in egg production with 12 mill. t, and also an increase of 8.8 mill. t in production of poultry meat. In 2009, this continent contributed 59.1% to global egg production and 34.0% to poultry meat production. Regarding production value, Asia ranked in first place for eggs as well as for poultry meat, followed by Europe and then N America. In 2009, Asia contributed 54.7% to the value of global egg production and 41.3% of poultry meat production. Chicken meat contributed 87% to the increase of the value of poultry meat. In contrast to turkey meat, duck meat and goose meat also showed a considerable growth in production value, this was mainly due to the remarkable increase in Asia. A comparison of egg and poultry meat production shows that in 2009 the volume of poultry meat production was about 30 mill. t higher than that of egg production and the value surpassed that of egg production by 98 billion US-$. TABLE 7 The value of egg and poultry meat production (by meat type) in 2000 and 2009 by continent; data in mill. US-$ 2000 chicken TurkEy duck GooSE poultry continent MEAT MEAT MEAT MEAT** MEAT Africa 2,620 3, ,600 Asia 20,249 23, ,064 1,496 27,150 Europe 8,027 9,559 2, ,897 N America* 4,923 24,167 3, ,366 CS America 3,247 3, ,058 Oceania World 39,327 64,889 6,214 2,928 1,748 75, chicken TurkEy duck GooSE poultry continent MEAT MEAT MEAT MEAT** MEAT Africa 4,040 7, ,488 Asia 40,127 57, ,423 5,705 70,748 Europe 14,831 22,145 2,966 1, ,911 N America* 7,830 29,172 4, ,445 CS America 6,043 29, ,800 Oceania 504 1, ,805 World 73, ,688 8,306 9,131 6, ,197 * Canada, Mexico and USA ** includes Guinea fowl meat INTERNATIONAL EGG COMMISSION SPECIAL ECONOMIC REPORT MARCH

8 PART 3 Patterns of egg and poultry meat production on a country basis By country In a third step, patterns of egg and poultry meat production will be analysed at the level of the leading countries, first on a global scale and then for the single continents. The regional concentration of global egg production is very high, as can be seen from the data in Table 8. The ten leading countries contributed 70.1% to the production volume and 77.2% to the value of production. A closer look at the ranking of the countries shows remarkable differences. In relation to production volume, the three leading countries (China, USA and India) shared 51.2% of global egg production; regarding the value of production, the three leading countries (China, Japan and USA) contributed 49.4%. India, which shared 5.1% of the volume of global egg production (rank 3) contributed only 3.1% to the production value (rank 10). France and Ukraine which were ranked among the ten leading countries regarding the volume of egg production were replaced by Iran (rank 4) and Nigeria (rank 9) regarding production value. This shows that the average value of eggs is comparatively low in India (314 US-$/t) and in China (368 US-$), but high in Japan (1,650 $), Nigeria (1,843 $) and Iran (2,018 $). The analysis of the spatial pattern of poultry meat production has to distinguish between the four leading meat types. As can be seen from the data in Table 9, the regional concentration differed considerably. In chicken meat production, the ten leading countries contributed 61.8% to the global production volume with the USA, China and Brazil in the top three ranks. Together, these three countries shared 46.3% of the global production volume. TABLE 8 The ten leading countries in global egg production in 2009 Global egg production contribution from the ten leading countries Chicken meat production contribution from the ten leading countries volume (%) value (%) (1,000 t) (mill. us-$) China 23, China 8, USA 5, Japan 4, India 3, USA 3, Japan 2, Iran 1, Mexico 2, Brazil 1, Russia 2, Mexico 1, Brazil 1, Indonesia 1, Indonesia 1, Russia 1, France Nigeria 1, Ukraine India 1, Countries 44,055 * Countries 24,937 *77.2 World 62, World 39, * sum does not add because of rounding 70.1% Ten leading countries Rest of world 61.8% Ten leading countries Rest of world Volume Volume Value 77.2% Ten leading countries Rest of world Value 61.9% Ten leading countries Rest of world 8 INTERNATIONAL EGG COMMISSION SPECIAL ECONOMIC REPORT MARCH 2012

9 The comparatively low degree of the regional concentration reflects the fact that chicken meat has in the meantime become a basic food in many countries. The lack of religious taboos, the excellent feed conversion rates and short growing periods are the main steering factors for this successful development. In turkey meat production, the regional concentration was much higher. In 2009, the ten leading countries shared 89.7% of the global production volume with the USA in an absolute leading position. With the exception of Israel (rank 10), only European countries and countries of the Americas were listed among the top ten producing countries. Turkey meat has no tradition in East Asia so far and is hardly consumed in Africa because of the comparatively high price. In duck and goose meat production, the regional concentration was extremely high, with ten leading countries contributing 90.3% and 99.3% to the global production volume. This is mainly due to the dominant role of China which shared 69.3% of global duck meat production and 94.1% of goose and guinea fowl meat production. Asian countries are playing a leading role in the production of both poultry meat types. TABLE 9 The ten leading countries in the volume of global poultry meat (by meat type) production in 2009; data in 1,000 t chicken MEAT TurkEy MEAT volume (%) volume (%) USA 16, USA 2, China 11, Germany Brazil 9, Brazil Mexico 2, France Russia 2, Italy Iran 1, Canada Argentina 1, UK UK 1, Chile Indonesia 1, Hungary Japan 1, Israel Countries 49, Countries 4,744 *89.7 World 80, World 5, duck MEAT GooSE ANd GuiNEA fowl MEAT volume (%) volume (%) China 2, China 2, France Egypt Malaysia Hungary Myanmar Poland Vietnam Italy Thailand Madagascar Germany Bulgaria Rep. of Korea Israel Hungary Mayanmar USA Iran Countries 3,444 * Countries 2, World 3, World 2, * sum does not add because of rounding INTERNATIONAL EGG COMMISSION SPECIAL ECONOMIC REPORT MARCH

10 PART 3 Patterns of egg and poultry meat production on a country basis By country The composition and ranking of the ten leading countries with regard to the value of poultry meat production partly differs from that of the production volume, as seen from the data in Table 10. In 2009, the regional concentration of the value of chicken meat was much lower than that of the production volume. The value of one tonne of chicken meat in the four leading countries differed considerably. In Russia and China, the value was as high as 2,256 US-$ and 2,170 US-$ respectively; in contrast, one tonne in Brazil had a value of only 1,150 US-$ and in the USA 1,380 US-$. This difference reflects the role of the USA and Brazil as the two dominant chicken meat exporting countries with a high surplus and that of Russia and China as major importing countries with a considerable deficit. The listing and ranking of the leading countries in the value of the other poultry meat types is very similar to that of the ranking in the production volume. However, in the lower ranks several replacements can be observed. It is not surprising that China was also in a dominant position in 2009 considering the value of duck and goose meat. In the following step, the leading countries in egg and poultry meat production will be analysed for the single continents. In 2009, Asian countries contributed 37.1 mill. t or 59.2% to global egg production and 31.3 mill. t or 34.0% to global poultry meat production (see Figure 3). A comparison of Tables 11 and 12 (see also Figure 4) shows that the share of Asian countries regarding the value of production was lower for eggs (54.8%) and higher for poultry meat (41.3%). The regional concentration in the production volume and the production value was very high for eggs as well as for poultry meat. China held a dominant position in both commodities. The differences in the ranking are a result of the differences in egg and poultry meat prices. TABLE 10 The ten leading countries in the value of global poultry meat production (by meat type) in 2009; data in mill. US-$ TABLE 11 The ten leading Asian countries in the volume of egg and poultry meat production in 2009 chicken MEAT TurkEy MEAT value (%) value (%) China 24, USA 3, USA 22, Germany Brazil 13, France Russia 5, Brazil Idonesia 5, Canada Mexico 4, UK Argentina 4, Israel Turkey 3, Hungary Iran 3, Chile Japan 3, Tunisia Countries 91,383 * Countries 7, World 147, World 8, duck MEAT GooSE ANd GuiNEA fowl MEAT value (%) value (%) China 6, China 5, France Egypt Malaysia Hungary Thailand Poland Egypt Madagascar Vietnam UK Rep. of Korea Turkey India France Germany Germany UK Israel Countries 8, Countries 6, World 9, World 6, * sum does not add because of rounding volume (%) (1,000 t) China 23, India 3, Japan 2, Indonesia 1, Turkey Iran Thailand Rep. of Korea Philippines Malaysia countries 34,276 *92.3 Asia 37, * sum does not add because of rounding volume (%) (1,000 t) China 16, Iran 1, Indonesia 1, Japan 1, Turkey 1, Thailand 1, Malaysia 1, Myanmar Philippines India countries 26,826 *85.8 Asia 31, INTERNATIONAL EGG COMMISSION SPECIAL ECONOMIC REPORT MARCH 2012

11 Countries of the Americas contributed 20.1% to global egg and 43.7% to global poultry meat production (see Figure 3). Regarding the value, TABLE 12 value (%) (mill. us-$) value (%) (mill. us-$) their share was lower with 18.9% for eggs and 36.9% for poultry meat (see Figure 4). Whereas the Americas ranked as number 1 in poultry meat, they were second after Asia in egg production. The regional concentration in egg as well as in poultry meat production was very high in this double continent which can be seen from the data in Tables 13 and 14. The three leading countries (USA, Mexico and Brazil) contributed almost 77% to the volume of egg production and 65% to the value. The lower share regarding the The ten leading Asian countries in the value of egg and poultry meat production in 2009 China 22, Japan 4, India 2, Indonesia 2, Turkey 1, Philippines 1, Rep. of Korea Iran Thailand Malaysia countries 37,690 *93.9 Asia 40, * sum does not add because of rounding China 36, Indonesia 5, Turkey 4, Iran 3, Japan 3, Vietnam 2, Thailand 2, Philippines 1, Malaysia 1, Saudi Arabia 1, countries 63, Asia 70, value is due to the fact that eggs are comparatively cheap in all three countries (Brazil: 916 US-$/t, USA: 922 US-$/t, Mexico: 965 US-$/t) compared to other countries (Colombia: 2,213 US-$/t, TABLE 13 volume (%) (1,000 t) volume (%) (1,000 t) Argentina: 1,277 US-$/t). In poultry meat production, the USA and Brazil shared 73% of the overall production volume of the Americas and 63.1% of the production value. Here too, the lower share regarding the value of production is a result of the low broiler meat prices. The ten leading countries of the Americas in the volume of egg and poultry meat production in 2009 USA 5, Mexico 2, Brazil 1, Colombia Argentina Canada Peru Venezuela Chile Paraguay USA 18, Brazil 10, Mexico 2, Argentina 1, Canada 1, Colombia 1, Peru Venezuela Chile Dominican Rep countries 11,804 * countries 38,504 *95.9 Americas 12, Americas 40, * sum does not add because of rounding TABLE 14 value (%) (mill. us-$) value (%) (mill. us-$) The ten leading countries of the Americas in the value of egg and poultry meat production in 2009 USA 4, Mexico 2, Brazil 1, Colombia 1, Canada Argentina Venezuela Paraguay Peru Dominican Rep USA 26, Brazil 13, Mexico 4, Argentina 4, Venezuela 2, Canada 2, Peru 2, Colombia 2, Dominican Rep Chile countries 12, countries 60,326 *95.4 Americas 13, Americas 63, * sum does not add because of rounding INTERNATIONAL EGG COMMISSION SPECIAL ECONOMIC REPORT MARCH

12 PART 3 Patterns of egg and poultry meat production on a country basis By country On the global scale, European countries ranked in third place with regard to both volume and the value of egg and poultry meat production. In TABLE 15 volume (%) (1,000 t) volume (%) (1,000 t) 2009, they contributed 16.4% to the volume and 20.2% to the value of egg production. In poultry meat, the situation was different, for here their contribution was 17.0% to the volume and only 15.7% to the value of production (see Figures 3 and 4). The regional concentration for both commodities was very similar. 81.8% of the production volume and almost 83% of production value were contributed by the ten leading countries with The ten leading European countries in the volume of egg and poultry meat production in 2009 Russia 2, France Ukraine Spain Italy Germany Poland Netherlands UK Romania countries 8, Europe 10, Russia 2, France 1, UK 1, Germany 1, Spain 1, Poland 1, Italy 1, Ukraine Netherlands Belgium countries 12, Europe 15, Russia in a leading position. A comparison of Tables 15 and 16 reveals that the value of eggs and poultry meat in the leading countries differed considerably. In the Netherlands, one tonne of poultry meat had an average value of 1,460, in Russia the value was as high as 2,200. This difference reflects the different situations in these countries, the Netherlands an exporting country and Russia an importing country. The highest value per tonne of eggs was reached in Romania with 2,963, the lowest with only 893 was Ukraine. The average value was also comparatively low in the Netherlands and Spain with 1,470. Both countries are important egg exporters which will be shown in a later part of TABLE 16 The ten leading European countries in the value of egg and poultry meat production in 2009 value (%) (mill. us-$) Russia 2, Spain 1, Germany 1, France 1, Poland Netherlands Romania Ukraine UK Greece countries 12,135 *81.8 Europe 14, * sum does not add because of rounding value (%) (mill. us-$) Russia 5, France 3, UK 2, Germany 2, Spain 2, Poland 1, Ukraine 1, Netherlands 1, Romania Belgium countries 22, Europe 26, this analysis. 12 INTERNATIONAL EGG COMMISSION SPECIAL ECONOMIC REPORT MARCH 2012

13 African countries are still playing a minor role in global egg and poultry meat production (see Figures 3 and 4). In 2009, they contributed about TABLE 17 volume (%) (1,000 t) volume (%) (1,000 t) 4% to the global production volume. Their share of the value of these two commodities was a bit higher with 5.4% (eggs) and 5.0% (poultry meat). The regional concentration for eggs and poultry meat was very similar. The ten leading countries contributed about 82% to the overall production volume of Africa. The highest degree of concentration was reached for the value of eggs with 87.4% (Tables 17 and 18). The ten leading African countries in the volume of egg and poultry meat production in 2009 Nigeria South Africa Egypt Morocco Algeria Tunisia Kenya Libya Sudan Burkina Faso countries 2, South Africa Egypt Morocco Algeria Nigeria Tunisia Libya Madagascar Zimbabwe Tanzania countries 3, Even though the composition and ranking of the Africa 2, Africa 3, countries differed, it is obvious that all Northern African countries and South Africa were to be found among the ten leading countries. In egg production, Nigeria was in a leading position with a share of 23.6% followed by South Africa and Egypt. In poultry meat production, South Africa contributed 25.3% to the African production volume, followed by Egypt and Morocco. Nigeria and Egypt ranked in the first two places regarding the value of egg production and South Africa and Egypt were in the first two places regarding the value of poultry meat production. TABLE 18 The ten leading African countries in the value of egg and poultry meat production in 2009 value (%) (mill. us-$) Nigeria 1, Egypt South Africa Algeria Morocco Kenya Sudan Tunisia Ghana Cote d Ivoire value (%) (mill. us-$) South Africa 1, Egypt 1, Nigeria Morocco Algeria Tunisia Mali Madagascar Ethiopia Ghana countries 3, countries 7,053 *83.1 Africa 4, Africa 8, * sum does not add because of rounding INTERNATIONAL EGG COMMISSION SPECIAL ECONOMIC REPORT MARCH

14 PART 3 Patterns of egg and poultry meat production on a country basis By country In 2009, the contribution of the countries of Oceania to global egg production was as low as 0.3%, in poultry meat production the share was TABLE 19 volume (%) (1,000 t) volume (%) (1,000 t) 1.2%. A similar contribution was seen in the value of production. The regional concentration for both commodities was very high because of the dominant role of Australia, followed by New Zealand. In all other countries, volume and value of production were only of minor importance The six leading countries of Oceania in the volume of egg and poultry meat production in 2009 Australia New Zealand Papua New Guinea Fiji French Polynesia New Caledonia countries Australia New Zealand Fiji Papua New Guinea New Caledonia French Polynesia countries 1, (Tables 19 and 20). The peripheral location, a Oceania Oceania 1, small population and the lack of know how, as well as of investment capital in the developing countries of this continent are the main steering factors for the stagnation of the poultry industry in Polynesia, Melanesia and Micronesia. TABLE 20 value (%) (mill. us-$) value (%) (mill. us-$) The three leading countries of Oceania in the value of egg and poultry meat production in 2009 Australia New Zealand Fiji countries Oceania Australia 1, New Zealand Fiji countries 1, Oceania 1, INTERNATIONAL EGG COMMISSION SPECIAL ECONOMIC REPORT MARCH 2012

15 The main results of this part of the analysis can be summarised as follows: The regional concentration of global egg and poultry meat production in 2009 was very high. The ten leading countries contributed 70% to the volume and 77% to the value of egg production. Value 70% In poultry meat production, the degree of the regional concentration differed considerably between the four major meat types. In chicken meat production, the ten leading countries shared almost 62% of the global production volume, in turkey meat about 90%, and in duck and goose meat over 90%. Volume 77% A similar concentration was reached regarding the value of poultry meat production with the exception of chicken meat. The regional concentration on the level of the single continents differed considerably. In Asia, the concentration for both commodities was very high, mainly as a result of the dominant role of China. In the Americas, the regional concentration was also comparatively high for both commodities. USA, Brazil and Mexico shared 77% of the volume of egg production in the Americas and 65% of the value. In chicken meat, USA and Brazil contributed 73% to the overall production volume and 63% to the value. In Europe, the regional concentration for both commodities reached values of 80% and higher, with Russia in a leading position. The listing and ranking of countries reflects the population figures with the exception of the export-oriented Netherlands. African countries played only a minor role in global egg and poultry meat production. The regional concentration for both commodities was very similar with values of 82%. For production value of eggs a higher degree of concentration was reached with 87.4%. North African countries and South Africa were in leading positions with the exception of egg production, where Nigeria ranked in first place. Because of its peripheral location, low population figures and a low development status in many developing countries, Oceania s contribution to global egg and poultry meat production was only of minor importance in In both commodities, Australia and New Zealand were in leading positions. INTERNATIONAL EGG COMMISSION SPECIAL ECONOMIC REPORT MARCH

16 PART 4 Patterns of global egg and poultry meat trade TrAdE In the following part of this report, patterns of global egg and poultry meat trade will be analysed on a global level as well as on the level of continents and leading countries. In addition, the balance of trade with these commodities for the single continents will be calculated. Between 2000 and 2009, the volume of global egg, egg products and poultry meat exports increased from around 9.1 mill. t to 13.7 mill. t or by 51.3%. In the same time period, the value of the exports grew from 9.2 billion US-$ to 22.1 billion US-$ or by 139.0% (Table 21). A closer look at the development of the single commodities shows that chicken meat secured its position as the leading export product with a share of 78.3% of the export volume and 72.5% of the export value. Eggs and egg products also gained market shares whereas the contribution of duck, goose and turkey meat declined. It is worth mentioning that turkey meat was the only commodity with a smaller export volume in 2009 than in Despite an increase in export value of 570 mill. US-$, the overall export value of turkey products decreased by 5.6%. Similar dynamics can be observed in the development of egg, egg products and poultry meat imports (Table 22). The import volume increased from almost 8 mill. t in 2000 to 12.2 mill. t in 2009 or by 53.6%. In the same time period, the value of imports grew from 8.7 billion US-$ to 21.9 billion US-$ or by 150.2%. Here, chicken meat, eggs and egg products gained market share whereas the contribution of duck meat, goose meat and turkey meat declined considerably. TABLE 21 The contribution of eggs, egg products and poultry meat to the global exports of poultry products in 2000 and 2009 TABLE 22 The contribution of eggs, egg products and poultry meat to the global imports of poultry products in 2000 and product volume of ShArE value of ShArE ExporTS (%) ExporTS (%) (1,000 t) (mill. us-$) Eggs Processed eggs Chicken meat 6, , Duck meat Goose meat* Turkey meat , Total 9, , product volume of ShArE value of ShArE ExporTS (%) ExporTS (%) (1,000 t) (mill. us-$) Eggs 1, , Processed eggs Chicken meat 10, , Duck meat Goose meat* Turkey meat , Total 13,712 ** , * includes Guinea fowl meat ** sum does not add because of rounding 2000 product volume of ShArE value of ShArE imports (%) imports (%) (1,000 t) (mill. us-$) Eggs Processed eggs Chicken meat 5, , Duck meat Goose meat* Turkey meat , Total 7, , product volume of ShArE value of ShArE imports (%) imports (%) (1,000 t) (mill. us-$) Eggs 1, , Processed eggs Chicken meat 9, , Duck meat Goose meat* Turkey meat , Total 12,230 ** , * includes Guinea fowl meat ** sum does not add because of rounding 16 INTERNATIONAL EGG COMMISSION SPECIAL ECONOMIC REPORT MARCH 2012

17 A comparison of Tables 21 and 22 with Table 1 reveals that of the 62.8 mill. t of shell eggs which FIGURE 5 EXPORTS IMPORTS were produced in 2009, only 1.6 mill. t or 2.6% reached the world market. In contrast 11.7 mill. t of poultry meat were traded worldwide, a share of 12.8% of the total production volume. It is obvious that shell eggs for consumption which The contribution of the continents to global egg trade in 2009 cannot be deep frozen are mainly traded within confined market areas whereas frozen poultry meat is being traded worldwide. In addition to this, the spatial patterns of egg and poultry meat trade show remarkable differences. The contribution of the continents to global egg and poultry meat trade is documented in Figures 5 and 6. Figure 5 impressively documents the dominant role of Europe in global egg trade. In 2009, 67.3% of all eggs which reached the global market had a European country as their origin, sharing 72.0% of the market value. Asia ranked in second place with a contribution of 25.4% to the total export volume and 15.4% to the export value. In comparison to this data, the share of all other continents was only of minor importance. A FIGURE 6 The contribution of the continents to global poultry meat trade in 2009 EXPORTS IMPORTS similar situation can be observed in egg imports. At the present time, there are only three major clusters of egg trade, one in Europe (mainly between the Netherlands, Spain, Poland and Germany), one in Asia (between Malaysia and Singapore) and one in N America (between the NAFTA member countries). A fourth cluster is under development between India and several countries of the Near East. INTERNATIONAL EGG COMMISSION SPECIAL ECONOMIC REPORT MARCH

18 PART 4 Patterns of global egg and poultry meat trade TrAdE The spatial pattern of global poultry meat trade differs considerably from that of egg trade, as can be seen from a comparison of the data in Table 23 and in Figures 5 and 6. Three continents, Europe, N America and CS America, contributed almost the same amount to global poultry meat exports, followed by Asia with 12.6%. It is obvious that the average value per tonne of exported poultry meat differed considerably, for Europe shared 42.0% of the overall export value, and N America only 17.8% despite a similar export volume. When comparing the spatial patterns of poultry meat exports and imports, strong distinctions become obvious (Figure 6). Asia shared 41.2% of the global import volume in 2009, followed by Europe with 39.4% and N America with 7.4%. This pattern changes again when the import value is considered. Here, European countries shared 68.1% of the overall value of traded poultry meat, followed by Asia with 20.0% and Africa with 4.3%. The data shows that high value products (breast fillets and processed meat) were imported by European countries whereas Asian countries, here mainly Hong Kong and China, imported less valuable parts (such as chicken legs and leg quarters). The distinctions in the spatial patterns of egg and poultry meat trade resulted in characteristic balances of trade. A comparison of the data in Tables 24 and 25 shows that because of the higher trade volume, the balance of trade surplus and deficit for poultry meat was much higher than that for eggs. In egg trade, Asia, Europe and N America had a surplus in their trade volumes, Asia, however, had a negative balance in the trade value. This is due to the fact that the average value of imported shell eggs was considerably higher than the value of exported eggs. It can be assumed that this is a result of hatching egg imports by several Asian countries, especially Japan. TABLE 23 The contribution of the continents to global egg and poultry meat trade in 2009; data in % TABLE 24 Trade with eggs and balance of trade in 2009 by continent TABLE 25 Trade with poultry meat and balance of trade in 2009 by continent continent volume of value of volume of value of ExporTS ExporTS imports imports Africa Asia Europe N America* CS America Oceania World **100.0 continent volume of value of volume of value of ExporTS ExporTS imports imports Africa Asia Europe N America* CS America Oceania World ** **100.0 * Canada, Mexico, USA ** sum does not add because of rounding continent ExporTS imports ExporTS imports BAlANcE of TrAdE (1,000 t) (1,000 t) (mill. us-$) (mill. us-$) (1,000 t) (Mill. us-$) Africa Asia Europe 1,106 1,048 2,056 1, N America* CS America Oceania World **1,644 1,498 **2,857 **2, * Canada, Mexico, USA ** sum does not add because of rounding continent ExporTS imports ExporTS imports BAlANcE of TrAdE (1,000 t) (1,000 t) (mill. us-$) (mill. us-$) (1,000 t) (Mill. us-$) Africa , Asia 1,793 5,231 3,668 8,795-3,438-5,107 Europe 4,156 5,005 10,489 12, ,730 N America* 4, ,435 1, , ,969 CS America 4, , , ,524 Oceania World 14,212 **12,702 **24,959 **24, * Canada, Mexico, USA ** sum does not add because of rounding 18 INTERNATIONAL EGG COMMISSION SPECIAL ECONOMIC REPORT MARCH 2012

19 In contrast to egg trade, the surpluses and deficits in poultry meat trade reached considerable TABLE 26 country ExporT volume ShArE (1,000 t) (%) country ExporT value ShArE (mill. us-$) (%) amounts in several continents. As can be seen from Table 25, N America and CS America had trade surpluses of 3.2 mill. t and 3.5 mill. t respectively. In contrast, Asian countries had a negative balance of trade of 3.4 mill. t, followed by Europe and Africa with a deficit of 0.8 mill. t each. A comparison with the value of the balance of trade reveals the difference in the average value The ten leading countries in global egg trade in 2009 Netherlands Poland China Spain Germany Malaysia Turkey USA Belgium France Netherlands USA Germany Poland Spain Turkey Belgium France China Malaysia per tonne of exported and imported poultry 10 countries 1, countries 2, meat. CS America had the highest surplus with World 1, World 2, billion US-$, followed by N America with almost 3 billion US-$. This data once again reflects the export of high value products by South American countries, especially Brazil, and comparatively cheap products by the USA. Asian countries had the highest negative balance of trade in the value of traded poultry meat with 5.1 billion US-$, followed by Europe with 1.7 billion US-$ and Africa with almost 1 billion US-$. This data also documents the differences in the value of imported products. In Table 26, the ten leading countries in egg country import volume ShArE (1,000 t) (%) Germany France Netherlands Iraq Hong Kong USA Belgium Switzerland Poland Canada countries 1, World 1, country import value ShArE (mill. us-$) (%) Germany Netherlands Iraq Hong Kong France UK Singapore Belgium Switzerland Russia countries 1, World 2, exports and egg imports are listed according to their trade volume and trade value. The dominant role of the Netherlands as the leading egg exporting country is obvious, for this country alone contributed 24.1% of the export volume and 27.4% of the export value. It is worth mentioning that the USA ranked in 8th place regarding export volume but in second place regarding the value of exported eggs. This is due to the fact that leading US breeding companies export considerable amounts of hatching eggs worldwide. Six of the leading egg exporting and egg importing countries were located in Europe which again documents the dominant role of this continent in global egg trade. INTERNATIONAL EGG COMMISSION SPECIAL ECONOMIC REPORT MARCH

20 PART 4 Patterns of global egg and poultry meat trade TrAdE In egg imports, Germany has been the leading country for several decades. In 2009, it had TABLE 27 country ExporT volume ShArE (1,000 t) (%) country ExporT value ShArE (mill. us-$) (%) 28.5% of the global import volume and 28.7% of the import value. A closer analysis of the trade flows would show that a very close trade relationship exists between the Netherlands and Germany. In egg imports, European countries were also in a dominant position, for six of the ten leading importing countries were located in this continent, and regarding the trade value, The ten leading countries in global poultry meat trade in 2009 USA 3, Brazil 3, Netherlands 1, Thailand France Germany Hong Kong China Belgium Poland Brazil 5, USA 4, Netherlands 2, Thailand 1, France 1, Germany 1, Belgium 1, China 1, Poland Hong Kong there were seven. 10 countries 12,031 * countries 20, A comparison of the regional concentration of egg exports and imports shows that the concentration of exports was considerably higher than of imports. In several countries, egg demand increased faster than domestic production so they were forced to import shell eggs for consumption. From the data in Table 27 one can easily see that the regional concentration of exports and imports of poultry meat showed great differences. Whereas the ten leading poultry meat exporting countries contributed over 80% to the volume and value of the global exports, they contributed less than 60% of the imports. World 14, country import volume ShArE (1,000 t) (%) Russia Japan Hong Kong China Germany UK Mexico Netherlands Saudi Arabia France countries 7,185 *56.6 World 12, * sum does not add because of rounding World 24, country import value ShArE (mill. us-$) (%) Japan 2, UK 2, Germany 1, Netherlands 1, Hong Kong 1, Russia 1, China 1, Saudi Arabia 1, France 1, Mexico countries 14,491 *59.5 World 24, This reflects the fact that the poultry meat demand in many countries increased very fast and that these countries were not able to meet the additional demand by domestic production. The USA and Brazil shared 53.7% of the global export volume and 39.3% of the export value. It is obvious that European countries traded more high value products than the two American countries. Regarding the volume and value, five of the ten leading poultry meat exporting countries were located in Europe, three in Asia and two in the Americas. 20 INTERNATIONAL EGG COMMISSION SPECIAL ECONOMIC REPORT MARCH 2012

21 Russia and Japan ranked in the first two places among the ten leading poultry meat importing countries, followed by Hong Kong and China. One has to consider, however, that Hong Kong is only the transfer station for a considerable amount of the imported meat to mainland China. If it was possible to split the imports up according to demand in Hong Kong and transferred meat, China would possibly rank in first place. Japan and the United Kingdom shared about 20% of the import value in 2009, followed by Germany and the Netherlands. For six of the leading countries their contribution to the global import value was higher than their contribution to the import volume. This also documents that Japan and the European countries, with the exception of Russia, mainly imported high value products. The main results of this part of the analysis can be summarised as follows: Between 2000 and 2009, the volume of the global trade of poultry products increased from 9.1 billion US-$ to 13.7 billion US-$ or by 51.3%; the value grew from 9.2 billion US-$ to 22.1 billion US-$ or by 139%. Global poultry trade VOLUME VALUE Chicken meat contributed 78.3% to the global export volume and 72.5% to the export value, eggs and egg products 14.4% to the export volume and 16.5% to the export value. N and CS America had the highest positive balance of trade in poultry meat, Asia and Europe had the highest negative balance. In egg trade, the Netherlands was the leading exporting country and Germany led in egg imports. The USA and Brazil dominated global poultry meat exports, Japan and EU member countries led in poultry meat imports. The volume of global imports of poultry products grew by 53.6%, the value by 150.2%. In egg trade, European countries dominated exports and imports. In the poultry meat trade, Europe and the Americas were leaders in the export volume and value; Europe and Asia led in the volume and value of poultry meat imports. The balance of trade reached only small values for eggs compared to poultry meat because of the much lower trade volume. INTERNATIONAL EGG COMMISSION SPECIAL ECONOMIC REPORT MARCH

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