RJSS. Relationship between Self-management with Conflict management in Sport Managers of West Azerbaijan province

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1 Relationship between Self-management with Conflict management in Sport Managers of West Azerbaijan province RJSS RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SPORT SCIENCES Vol 4 (6): ISSN: Copyright 2016 Asghar Ghosiyan 1*, Farokh Lega Najafzadeh 2 1 Department of Physical Education, Malekan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Malekan, Iran 2 Assistance Professor, Department Of Physical Education, Malekan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Malekan, Iran * Corresponding Author ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is the relationship between self - management with conflict management in West Azerbaijan Province. In order to achieve this goal, the management and staff of Youth and Sports Department of the West Azerbaijan Province were used as population. For this purpose, from Managers 80 subjects were selected as sample managers. In this study, to measure the variables and data collection was used 3 questionnaires: personal information questionnaire, Robbins conflict questionnaire, self-management questionnaire from Houghton & Nek and performance questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha was used to verify the reliability of questionnaires with the reliability coefficient of self-management 0.95, conflict management. In order to normalize the data Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used. For analysis the data descriptive (the distribution tables, diagrams) and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation coefficient for the relationship between variables and results of multiple regressions due to several significant predictors of a variable criterion) were used. For data analysis, SPSS 18 statistical software was used. The significance level for all tests was set at P The results showed that there are significant relationship between problem-solving styles (cooperation, reconciliation), non-opposing style (avoidance, compromise) and control style (competitive) of sports managers with conflict management in West Azerbaijan province. KEYWORDS Self-management, Conflict Management, Sport, Managers. INTRODUCTION In today`s world of sport, physical training is not the only key to achieve success and the highest performance. Conflict is a phenomenon in which positive and negative effects on the performance of individuals and organizations. Proper and effective use of conflict and improve the performance of the organization is to promote performance and health and non-effective use of that, reduce the performance and create conflict and tension in the organization (Robbins, 1996).Ability to deal with the conflict and its important role in the success of the organization's managers has creative roles. If conflicts are constructive, creative and new ideas are triggered constructive change and innovation and developments in the field and provide and ultimately help management to gain their provide and ultimately help management to gain their goals (Shamaila, 2012). Conflict is a natural part of our daily lives; it is a fact with which men have been faced all through their history, and unfortunately, because of not properly managing their conflicts, they have most often come up in the form of fierce contradictions and hostilities. That is why nowadays most people disparage conflict as something negative 163

2 in their lives.basically, however, conflict is a kind of knowing effort intended by A for deactivating the efforts of B. It is, of course, done by barring the way of B so that he or she might feel exhausted in the ways toward their goals, or it can add to the advantages of A instead (Robbins, 1998). Conflict comes about when two or more people come into clash with each other because of difference in their needs, wants, aims and values. It is an indispensable part of team works which, if not properly managed, can affect the failure or even the success of a team (Tjosvold & Sun, 2006)." When, in a conflict, one side is strongly after satisfying his own needs and ignores those of the opposite side, or shows barely any effort for meeting the wants of the opposite party, he has, in fact, moved toward the style that is oriented toward competition (Fakhimi, 2002). The avoidance or resignation style involves a lack of cooperation and being creditor.when one of the parties involved does not to take care of their interests and desires of either itself or the other one involved, it tends toward the avoidance or resignation style, that is, they simply ignore their conflict (Izadi, 2000). Respect and consideration for those of the opponent (Alvani, 2004). This style is focused more on conflict resolution through cooperation (Gross & Guerrero, 2000). Conflict is viewed as natural due to life s uncertainty. Conflict is good and necessary because conflict can stimulate innovative thinking when it is managed in the right way. Lacking conflict, thoughts and actions are performed because they are habitual. Conflict allows an examination of the necessity of these thoughts and actions. The third assumption points out that people find it easier to live with unresolved misunderstanding than facing the fact that fundamental differences do exist, they demand recognition and appropriate management (Fontaine, 2011). Working in an organization means to be involved in a conflict, as people working together have various personalities and different views on life. Consequently, they can t avoid conflicts in the workplace. During the past 25 years, organizations have changed, so did their attitude to conflict management. Companies try to adopt a strategic approach to managing organizational conflicts (Aula & Siira, 2010). Intragroup conflict - is the conflict within an internal group, team or department. This type of conflict involves more than one person within a group (Morgan, 2012). The manager can try to resolve the problem through problem solving tactics or following an internal dispute resolution process. Sometimes a facilitator can be useful to help discuss issues of conflict and related concerns. Such types of conflicts should be solved quickly as if problem continues it can destroy the organization (Green, 2012). The differences between these two types of conflict are not in their sources but in the manner in which each of them is expressed. In constructive conflict, each party resists attacking the other. Instead, both sides take part in thoughtful discussion. They listen to each other s point of view, and try to find mutually beneficial solutions. By contrast, in dysfunctional conflict both parties are involved in confrontation which doesn t lead to any beneficial solution (Whetten & Cameron, 2012). Jordan research results (2006) showed that Leaders with high emotional intelligence in dealing with conflict tend to choose the collaborative way. The present study describes the emotional intelligence and conflict management strategies in physical education experts. Studies done by Naghizadeh et al (2011) show that, from the viewpoints of coaches and players, collaboration style of conflict management has significant positive effects on team effectiveness, while competition has negative effect on team effectiveness. Alpar et al (2000) state that compared to the competition-oriented style, collaboration style in directing the conflicts makes the performance of the teams more efficient. Hensel et al. (2006) in their study conclude that there is a meaningful relationship between conflict and organizational effectiveness. Ghafarzadeh (1996) has concluded in his study that among the conflict management styles, managers most often follow the collaboration style after which such other styles as agreement, reconciliation, avoidance and domination are followed, respectively. Iranzadeh et al (2012) in their study, demonstrate that there are no significant relationship between the avoidance and cooperation styles and the creativity of the personnel. Mozafari et al (2012) in their study concluded that in order to become familiar with the advantages and disadvantages of each of the coaches of conflict management strategies in this regard, they must be given the necessary training. 164

3 MATERIALS AND METHODS This research has the purpose of application of applied research that is descriptive-correlation and the ways of collecting data. In order to achieve this goal, the management and staff of Youth and Sports Department of the West Azerbaijan Province were used as population. For this purpose, 103 employees were selected, according to Morgan's table with using simple random sampling. Managers also due to the low population, all 80 subjects were selected as sample managers. In this study, to measure the variables and data collection was used four questionnaires: personal information questionnaire, Robbins conflict questionnaire, self-management questionnaire from Houghton & Nek and performance questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha was used to verify the reliability of questionnaires with conflict management 0.83 and performance Robbins, conflict management questionnaire The questionnaire included 30 years in the form of a 7 point scale by Robbins (1998) is set. His questionnaire was designed to help you identify your preferred style of conflict resolution. 30 simple questions. Respond to each question by "clicking" on the answer that you think best describes your preferred style for handling differences or conflicts between our self and others. There are no right or better answers. Each style is good in its own way. When you have finished answering the questions, "click" on the SUBMIT at to receive an analysis of your approach to managing conflict. Standard self-management Questionnaire (Houghton, and Neck, 2002) The questionnaire contains 34 questions, and questions based on the whole five-point Likert questionnaire were designed. For analysis the data descriptive (the distribution tables, diagrams) and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation coefficient for the relationship between variables and results of multiple regressions due to several significant predictors of a variable criterion) were used. For data analysis, SPSS 18 statistical software was used. The significance level for all tests was set at P RESULTS Table 1. Distribution of Managers by gender. Sex N Percent Man Female Total As Table 1 shows, of the 80 samples, 65 males and 15 females equal to percent to percent is equivalent to: the number of male employees more. Table 2. Comparison of mean scores with self-management assumed mean. Indicators mean SD t p Personal goal Encouraged Self Spanking introspection Self-help Focus on natural rewards Visualize successful performance Soliloquy Evaluation beliefs and assumptions

4 Results Table 2 shows, Personal goal, Encouraged, Self Spanking,introspection, Self-help, Focus on natural rewards, Visualize successful performance, Soliloquy and Evaluation beliefs and assumptions, in p 0.05 was significantly more than the average level was so above components. Table 3. Kolmogorov-Smirnov conflict management indicators. Indicators of Conflict N Kolmogorov-Smirnov (z) p Management Sacrifice style Compromise style Cooperation style Avoidance style Competitive style As Table 3 shows, Z values observed for all variables in level (p= 0.05) of is smaller than the critical value table And therefore Zero hypothesis and research hypothesis is confirmed. Table 4. Multiple regression Factor problem-solving styles (cooperation, compromise) sports managers. Indicators problem-solving styles (cooperation, compromise) managers N df F P Results table 5 shows between style avoidance (avoidance, compromise) West Azerbaijan province and sport managers there is a significant relationship. Table 5. Multiple regression factor between style avoidance (avoidance, compromise) sports managers with staff management. Indicators Style avoidance (avoidance, compromise) staff management N df F P Results table 6 shows Between Control style (competitive) sports managers West Azerbaijan province and Self-management there is a significant relationship. Table 6. The correlation coefficient between Control Style (Competition) with Self-management. correlation coefficient Self-management r p N Control Style (Competition) Table 6 shows Results that the correlation coefficient between Control styles (Competition) with Selfmanagement In the p 0.05 there is a significant relationship. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Managers of organizations with good practices in dealing with conflict can increase staff efficiency and effectiveness of their organizations (Geber, 2004). Data analyzing shows that the compromise style is Comparison of mean scores with self-management assumed mean (Personal goal (0.000), Encouraged 166

5 (0.031), Self Spanking (0.012), introspection (0.015), Self-help (0.022), Focus on natural rewards (0.011), Visualize successful performance (0.001), Soliloquy (0.003) and Evaluation beliefs and assumptions (0.000). Our results first showed that there was to be seen a significant inverse. Conflict comes about when two or more people come into clash with each other because of difference in their needs, wants, aims and values. It is an indispensable part of team works which, if not properly managed, can affect the failure or even the success of a team (Tjosvold & Sun, 2006)." Such results, together with ours, prove that competition style has a negative effect on team effectiveness. That is to say, the more the coach may apply the competition style against conflict situations, the more team effectiveness would deteriorate. Our results also proved that there was a meaningful relation, multiple regression Factor problem-solving styles (cooperation, compromise) sports managers (p= 0.03). This finding of our study also agrees with those of Morgan, (2012), Shamaila et al. (2012), Green, (2012), Jordan (2006), Tjosvold (2006), Naghizadeh et al (2011) and Anit et al (2009). In such situations, the parties involved are firm in their attempts toward the intended goals while seeking collaboration with each other and care for the interests of each other. In other words, they employ a win-win strategy for overcoming the conflicts. This is by far better than the other two styles. Our findings also show that there is a meaningful relation between multiple regression factors between style avoidance (avoidance, compromise) sports managers with staff management (p= 0.000). with results from the studies of Richard (1997), and Naghizadeh (2011), though it does not conform to those of Shamiala et al. (2012). Alpar et al (2000) state that compared to the competition-oriented style, collaboration style in directing the conflicts makes the performance of the teams more efficient. Hensel et al. (2006) in their study conclude that there is a meaningful relationship between conflict and organizational effectiveness. Ghafarzadeh (1996) has concluded in his study that among the conflict management styles, managers most often follow the collaboration style after which such other styles as agreement, reconciliation, avoidance and domination are followed, respectively. Iranzadeh et al (2012). Considering the results from this study, we can conclude that collaboration style is the best and most effective one for facing and overcoming conflicts. Applications of this style can enhance the effectiveness and efficiency. While the competition style, used in the same situations, leaves corruptive effects on the efficiency. Most managers are satisfied with the level of work performance of their employees, but still they have some conflicts. Personality conflicts are the most common source for the conflict situations in Icelandic organizations. The managers are not particularly familiar with the Conflict resolution techniques some of them preferred to skip the questions. Almost half of the respondents refused to answer what conflict resolution skills they think are important for the managers. In the next chapter the results will be discussed more in details and the recommendations will be developed. Most of the organizations have Interpersonal (the sources of this conflict can be personal dislikes or personality differences) and Intergroup conflict (the conflict within a group or department). Conflict of interest The authors declare no conflict of interest REFERENCES Alvani M, General Manager. Edition31. Tehran. Postedney. Iran. Aula P, Siira K, Organizational Communication and Conflict Management Systems. Nordicom Review. 31(1). PP: Fakhimi F, Stress and Coping with Conflict in Organizations. Tehran. Publication of fresh air. Iran. Fontaine P, Just As Many Foreigners Coming to Iceland as Leaving. Reykjavik:The Reykjavik Gpapevine. Available from Coming-To-Iceland-As-Leaving Geber G, Measuring emotional intelligence: Common ground andcontroversy. Nova Science Publishers. Inc. New York. PP: Ghafarzadeh M, A Study of the Relation between Mangers Views toward Conflict Management and it s Use by Them. MA dissertation. Allameh Taba Tabai University. Tehran. Iran. 167

6 Green CH, Examples of Four Types of Conflict. Human Resources. Retrieved February 25. from Gross MA, Guerrero LK, Managing Conflict appropriately and effectively: An application of the competence model to Rahim's organizational conflict styles. The International journal of conflict Management. 11(3). PP: Hensel PR, Mc.L Mitchell S, Sowers TE, Conflict Management of Riparian Dispute. Political geography. 25. PP: Houghton JD, Neck CP, The Revised self-leadership questionnaire: Testing a hierarchical factor structure for self-leadership. Journal of Managerial Psychology. 17. PP: Iranzadeh S, The relationship between conflict management styles and employee creativity in Islamic Azad University of Tabriz. Beyond Management. 20. PP: Izadi YA, Conflict Management. Tehran: Imam Hussein University Press. Iran. Jordan JP, Neal MA, Emotion intelligence. Emotional. Morgan R, What is Interorganizational Culture. Human Resources. Retrieved February 25. Mozafari AA, Rohi HR, Saatchian V, Kalani A, The relationship between emotional intelligence. conflict and team ports coaches Province Azerbaijan sharghi. Sport Management. 13. PP: Naghizadeh BA, Asadi A, Goudarzi M, Sajadi N, The Relation between Conflict Type, Conflict Management Style and the Effectiveness of Volleyball Teams of Iran Premier League. Sports Management Journal. No. 5. PP: Robbins S, Organizational Behavior. 9th edition. San Diego State University Prentice Hall International. (Inc). Robbins SP, Organizational Behavior. Concept, Controversies. Applications Eight Edition. Prentice- Hall International New Jersey. Shamaila G, Habib-ur- R, SyedaFarheen BZ, Impact of Conflict Management Styles on Team Effectiveness in Textile Sector of Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Management. 7(3). PP: Tjosvold D, Law K, Sun H, Effectiveness of Chinese teams: The role conflict types and conflict management approaches. Management and organization review. 2(2). PP: Whetten DA, Cameron KS, Managing Power and Conflict in the Workplace. Introduction to International Organizational Behavior. Retrieved 25 February. from 168

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