Reproduction in Plants. Chapter 28. Reproductive Strategies. Reproductive Strategies

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1 Reproduction in Plants Chapter 28 Outline Reproductive Strategies Alternation of Generations Flowers Pollination Fertilization! Seed Development Fruit Seed Germination Asexual Reproduction Tissue Culture 1 2 Reproductive Strategies All plants have a two-stage, alternating life cycle. Sporophyte produces haploid spores by meiosis.! Spores divide to become haploid gametophytes. Reproductive Strategies Flower produces two types of spores. Microspore - Male gametophyte! Undergoes mitosis and become pollen grain. Megaspore - Female gametophyte! Undergoes mitosis to become embryo sac within an ovary, within an ovule. " Ovule becomes seed 3 4

2 Fig Alternation of Generations 5 6 Alternation of Generations Flowers Flower develops in response to environmental signals such as day length. In monocots, flower parts occur in threes and multiples of three. In eudicots, flower parts occur in fours or fives and multiples of four or five. 7 8

3 Flowers Typical flower has four whorls of modified leaves attached to a receptacle at the end of a flower stalk. Recepticle with a single flower is a penducle. Recepticle with several flowers is a pedicle. Flowers Leaflike sepals protect the bud. Open flower has whorl of petals. Stamens are male portion of flower. Anther - Saclike container Filament - Slender stalk 9 10 Flowers Anatomy of a Flower Carpel is female portion of flower. Stigma - Enlarged sticky knob. Style - Slender stalk Ovary - Enlarged base enclosing ovules. Complete flowers have sepals, petals, stamens, and a carpel. Incomplete flowers do not. Bisexual flowers have both stamens and carpel. Unisexual flowers do not

4 Fig Flowers Monoecious plants have stamenate flowers and carpellate flowers on the same plant. Dioecious plants have staminate and carpellate flowers on separate plants From Spores to Fertilization Fig Male Gametophytes Microspores are produced in anthers.! Each anther has four pollen sacs, each with many microsporocytes. " Undergoes meiosis to produce microspores. # Mitosis produces pollen grains

5 Fig. 28.5b Fig. 28.5a Pollination Pollination is the transfer of pollen from an anther to the stigma of a carpel. Self-pollination occurs if the pollen is from the same plant. Cross-pollination occurs if the pollen is from a different plant. Fig

6 Production of Female Gametophyte Ovary contains one or more ovules. Ovule has mass of parenchyma cells.! One cell enlarges to become megasporocyte. " Undergoes meiois and becomes four haploid megaspores. # Functional megaspore divides mitotically until there are eight nuclei of a female gametophyte. Fertilization When a pollen grain lands on the stigma of the same species, it germinates, forming a pollen tube. Passes between the stigma and style to reach the micropyle of the ovule.! Double fertilization occurs. " One sperm nucleus unites with the egg nucleus, producing a zygote. " Other unites with the polar nuclei, forming a 3n endosperm cell Fig. 28.7ab Fig. 28.7b 23 24

7 Fig. 28.7c Fig. 28.7cdef Fig. 28.7e Fig. 28.7d 27 28

8 Seed Development Development of Eudicot Embryo After double fertilization, endosperm nucleus begins to divide asymmetrically.! Small cell is destined to become the embryo.! Larger cell divides repeatedly to become a suspensor. Fig. 28.7f Development of Eudicot Embryo During globular stage, prembryo is ball of cells. Outermost cells will become dermal tissue. Embryo is heart shaped when cotyledons appear. Epicotyl is portion between cotyledons contributing to shoot development. Hypocotyl is portion below that contributes to stem development. Radicle contributes to root development. Fig

9 Fig. 28.8a Fig. 28.8aa Fig. 28.8ab Fig. 28.8b 35 36

10 Fig. 28.8ba Fig. 28.8bb Fruit Types and Seed Dispersal Simple Fruits Simple fruits are derived from single or several united carpels.! Legumes are fruits that split along two sides when mature. " Dehiscent - Split open Fig " Indehiscent - Fail to split open 39 40

11 Fig Table Fleshy! - Drupe! - Berry! - Pome Simple Fruits Dry! - Follicle! - Legume! - Capsule! - Achene! - Nut! - Grain Dispersal Simple Fruits! Many seeds are dispersed by wind. " Woolly hairs, plumes, wings Fleshy fruits - Attract animals and provide them with food.! Peaches, cherries, tomatoes Accessory fruit - Bulk of fruit is not from ovary, but from receptacle.! Apples 43 44

12 Compound Fruits Compound fruits develop from several individual ovaries. Aggregate Fruits - Ovaries are from a single flower.! Blackberry Multiple Fruits - Ovaries are from separate flowers clustered together. Seed Germination When seed germination occurs, the embryo resumes growth and metabolic activity. Length of time seeds retain their viability is quite variable.! Some seeds do not germinate until they have been through a dormant period. " Temperate zones - Cold Weather " Deserts - Rain Seed Germination Garden Bean Structure and Germination Environmental requirements for seed germination : Availability of oxygen for metabolic needs. Adequate temperature for enzyme activity. Adequate moisture for hydration of cells. Light (in some cases). Respiration and metabolism continue throughout dormancy, but at a reduced level

13 Fig Corn Kernel Structure and Germination Fig Fig a 52

14 Asexual Reproduction in Plants Fig bb Because plants contain nondifferentiated meristem tissue, they routinely reproduce asexually by vegetative propagation. Plant hormone auxin can be used to cause roots to develop, thus expanding the list of plants that can be propagated from cuttings Asexual Reproduction in Plants Tissue Culture of Plants Tissue culture is the growth of a tissue in an artificial liquid or solid culture medium. Plant cells are totipotent. Meristem culture! Adding the correct proportions of auxins and cytokinins to a liquid medium will allow many new shoots to develop from a single shoot tip. " Virus-free clonal plants

15 Tissue Culture of Plants Suspension Culture! Rapidly growing calluses are cut into small pieces and shaken into a liquid nutrient medium. " Single cells or small clumps break off and form a suspension. Genetic Engineering Traditionally, hybridization was used to produce plants with desirable traits. Crossing different varieties of plants. Transgenic plants can now be produced by placing foreign genes into a plant. Agricultural plants with improved traits.! Pest or insecticide resistant. Commercial Products! Human hormones, antibodies Pollinators Fruit Bats

16 Dung Seed Dispersal Seedling Growth Carnivorous Plants Review Reproductive Strategies Alternation of Generations Flowers Pollination Fertilization! Seed Development Fruit Seed Germination Asexual Reproduction Tissue Culture 64

17 65

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