# Electricity and Energy

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Lesmahagow High School National 5 Physics Electricity and Energy Summary Notes

2 Throughout the Course, appropriate attention should be given to units, prefixes and scientific notation. tera T x 1,000,000,000,000 giga G 10 9 x 1,000,000,000 mega M 10 6 x 1,000,000 kilo k 10 3 x 1,000 centi c 10-2 /100 milli m 10-3 /1,000 micro µ 10-6 /1,000,000 nano n 10-9 /1,000,000,000 pico p /1,000,000,000,000 In this section the prefixes you will use most often are milli (m), micro (µ), kilo (k), and mega (M) and giga (G). It is essential that you use these correctly in calculations. In Physics, the standard unit for time is the second (s) and therefore if time is given in milliseconds (ms) or microseconds (µs) it must be converted to seconds. Example 1 An electronic system is now used and is able to perform the same experiment in 0.5 ms. How long is this? 0.5 ms = 0.5 milliseconds = 0.5 x 10-3 s = 0.5/1 000 = seconds. In this unit we use the unit amperes, which is the unit of current. Often there will be currents which are measured in ma and µa. Example 2 An ammeter reading shows that there are 54.2 µa of current in a circuit? How many amperes is this? 54.2 µa = 54.2 microamperes = 54.2 x 10-6 A = 54.2/ = amperes. In this unit we use the unit for power the Watt, W, this may be measured in kw and MW. Example 3 A hairdryer is rated at 2 kw. How many W is this? 2 kw = 2 kilowatts = 2 x 10 3 Hz = 2 x = watts.

3 National 5 Physics Energy Contents Conservation of Energy... 6 Specific Heat Capacity Gas laws and the kinetic model Tutorial Questions... Error! Bookmark not defined. Numerical Answers... Error! Bookmark not defined.

4 Conservation of energy 1.1. Principle of conservation of energy applied to examples where energy is transferred between stores Identify and explain loss of energy where energy is transferred Calculations with potential and kinetic energy in situations involving conservation of energy

5

6 Conservation of Energy It is difficult to state what energy actually is. We know that we need energy to do things, and we know that energy is changed from one type to another. It is commonly stated that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed from one type to another. In order to increase the amount of one type of energy, we must transform it from a different type. A battery in a circuit stores chemical energy which is transformed in a circuit into electrical energy. Energy is measured in joules (J). No energy can disappear in the change all energy in a system is conserved. This means that if we start with 100 J, we must have 100 J of total energy after any change has taken place. Energy loss We often talk about energy loss. As we have already discussed, energy cannot be destroyed but it can be changed. The problem is that it doesn t always change the way we want. A perfect example is a filament lamp. When we turn it on, the desired transformation is from electrical energy to light energy. This is the main transformation, but the lamp gets very warm when it is switched on. This transformation from electrical to heat energy is undesired. 10 J Useful Light Energy 75 J Useful Light Energy 100 J Electrical Energy 90 J lost Heat Energy This sankey diagram shows the energy transformation in a filament lamp. 100 J Electrical Energy 25 J lost Heat Energy This is a similar diagram but for an energy saving lamp. Very little energy is lost as heat. Any energy which is transformed into a form other than the one we want could be said to be lost as it was not intended. Friction will often cause energy loss too. If we want to move an object, we want to change potential energy into kinetic energy, but work done against friction will result in the surface of the object heating up. The temperature can t change if there isn t an increase in heat energy!

7

8 Calculations Using Conservation of Energy We can use the conservation of energy in calculations. For example, we can calculate the change in gravitational potential energy when an object is dropped. Due to conservation of energy, this must be the same as the kinetic energy gained by the same object (if we ignore the effect of friction). As a result we can calculate the velocity of the object. Worked Example A 0.50kg stone is dropped down a well. The distance from the top of the well to the water is 12.0 m. Calculate the speed of the stone as it hits the water, ignoring the effects of friction. h g m E p v = 12 m = 10 N/kg = 0.5 kg =? =? E p E p E p E k E k 60 v 2 v = mgh = = 60 J = E p = 60 = ½mv 2 = v 2 = 60/0.25 = 15.5 m/s You may have noticed that it is possible to calculate the speed without the mass of the object. This is because, as Galileo discovered, the speed at which an object drops does not depend on the mass, only the gravitational field it is in. This is shown below. Calculating this for the above example h = 12 m g = 10 N/kg v =? v v v v = gh = = = 15.5 m/s

9

10 2. Specific heat capacity 2.1. The same mass of different materials requires different quantities of heat to raise the temperature of unit mass by one degree Celsius The temperature of a substance is a measure of the mean kinetic energy of its particles Explain the connection between temperature and heat energy Use appropriate relationships to carry out calculations involving mass, heat energy, temperature change and specific heat capacity Conservation of energy to determine heat transfer.

11

12 Specific Heat Capacity Different materials sometimes feel warmer or colder to touch even in the same room. This is because of the different amounts of energy required to heat them up. Every kilogram of water, for example, requires 4180 J of energy to increase in temperature by 1 ⁰C. The same mass of copper, 1 kg, only requires 385 J to increase the temperature by 1 ⁰C. Each different material requires a different amount of energy to increase the temperature by 1 degree. We call this value the Specific Heat Capacity. It is measured in joules per kilogram degree Celsius, or J/kg⁰C. Some examples of specific heat capacities are shown below. You can see that metals require much less energy for their temperature to increase than many other materials. Material Specific Heat Capacity / J/kg⁰C Water 4180 Sea water 3900 Ethanol 2600 Oil 2500 Meths 2500 Ice 2100 Aluminium 900 Granite 800 Steel 500 Iron 440 Copper 400 Brass 390 Mercury 150 Lead 130 Heat and Temperature Heat and temperature are related, but they are not the same. Temperature is a measure of the amount of heat energy that a material has. Heat energy is actually a type of kinetic energy. It increases as the movement of the individual particles of the material increases. We state that the temperature of a substance is a measure of the mean kinetic energy of its particles. The temperature of an object will increase as the heat energy increases.

13

14 Heat Energy The change in heat energy of an object can be calculated when we know its mass, specific heat capacity and how much the temperature has changed. Symbol Name Unit Unit Symbol E h Energy joules J c Specific Heat Capacity joules per kilogram degree Celsius J/kg⁰C m mass kilograms kg ΔT Change in Temperature degrees Celsius ⁰C This relationship allows us to calculate the change in energy when a material changes temperature. It is important to look at it as a change as the heat energy will increase if a material is getting warmer, but it will go down if the material cools down. Worked examples 1. 2 kg of water is placed in a fridge to cool it to 5 ⁰C. When it was placed in the fridge it was 25 ⁰C. How much heat energy is removed from the water? m T 1 T 2 ΔT c E h = 2 kg = 25 ⁰C = 5 ⁰C = T 1 - T 2 = 20 ⁰C = 4180 J/kg⁰C =? E h E h E h E h = cmδt = = = 167 kj 2. A heating element is placed in a 3.6 kg block of lead. 18 kj of energy are supplied to the heater. Assuming that all heat energy is absorbed by the lead, what is the increase in temperature? m ΔT c E h = 3.6 kg =? = 130 J/kg⁰C = 18 kj = J E h ΔT ΔT = cmδt = ΔT = 18000/468 = 38.4 ⁰C 3. A 160 kg sample of metal requires 35.2 kj to increase its temperature by 5 ⁰C. What type of metal is it? m = 160 kg E h = cmδt E h = 35.2 kj = J = c c =? c = /800 ΔT = 5 ⁰C c = 440 J/kg⁰C Matching to the table on p12, the metal is iron.

15

16 Conservation of Heat Energy Earlier in this unit we learned about conservation of energy where an energy of one type can be transformed into another, but none can be created or destroyed. This includes heat energy, so in order to increase heat energy of a material, there must have been either an energy transformation, or a distribution of the total energy of a system. When we are investigating conservation of energy, it is often stated that we can assume no energy loss. In cases to do with heat energy, this is often because we must assume that no energy is lost to the surrounding atmosphere so for example if we are investigating how long it would take a kettle to boil 1 kg of water, we may assume that no heat energy is transformed into the surrounding area. Worked example 1.5 kg of oil at 25 ⁰C is mixed with 3.0 kg of oil at 55 ⁰C. Assuming no heat energy is lost to the surroundings, what is the final temperature of all the oil? Using conservation of energy the increase in heat energy of the colder oil must be the same as the decrease in heat energy of the warm oil. m T 1 m 2 T 2 c ΔT = 1.5 kg = 25 ⁰C = 3.0 kg = 55 ⁰C = 2500 J/kg⁰C =? ΔE 1 cm 1 ΔT 1 m 1 ΔT 1.5 ΔT 1 ΔT 1 Therefore = ΔE 2 = cm 2 ΔT 2 = m 2 ΔT 2 = 3 ΔT 2 = ΔT 2 So the final temperature is = 45⁰C 5 + ΔT 2 3ΔT 2 ΔT 2 = 55 - ΔT 2 = 30 = 10 ⁰C The law of conservation of energy can be used with any type of energy, so it also allows us to investigate electrical appliances.

17

18 Worked example A kettle works on the UK mains (230 V) and a current of 12 A flows when it is switched on. a. What is the power rating of the kettle? b. How much energy would the kettle transform if it was switched on for 2 minutes? c. What is the maximum mass of 20 ⁰C water which could be heated to 99 ⁰C in this time? d. What assumptions did you make in part c? a. V I P = 230 V = 12 A =? P P P = IV = = 2760 W b. P t E = 2760 W = 2 60 = 120 s =? P 2760 E E E = E/t = E/120 = = J = 331 kj c. m T 1 T 2 ΔT c E h =? = 20 ⁰C = 99 ⁰C = T 2 - T 1 = 79 ⁰C = 4180 J/kg⁰C = 331 kj = J E h m m m = cmδt = 4180 m 79 = / = = 1 kg d. Assuming all energy supplied to kettle heats the water, none is lost to the surroundings.

19

20 3. Gas laws and the kinetic model 3.1. Pressure is the force per unit area exerted on a surface Use an appropriate relationship to calculate pressure, force and area Explanation of the relationship between the volume, pressure and temperature of a fixed mass of gas using qualitative kinetic theory Use of appropriate relationship to calculate the volume, pressure and temperature of a fixed mass of gas The relationship between kelvin, degrees Celsius and absolute zero of temperature.

21

22 Gas laws and the kinetic model Pressure When an object exerts a force on another object, this force is spread across the entire surface area of contact. For example a wooden block sitting a table will exert a force on the table top due to the weight of the block. If the box is turned on its end, it will exert the same force but over a smaller surface area. The amount of force exerted on a unit area is defined as pressure Symbol Name Unit Unit Symbol P Pressure Pascal Pa F Force Newton N A Area Square Metre m 2 The unit of pressure is the Pascal. One Pascal of pressure occurs when one Newton of force acts on an area of one square metre. Worked example Pressure, force and Area An ice skater has a mass of 75 kg, when standing on one leg on the ice their skate has a surface area of 0.5 cm 2. What is the pressure exerted by the skater on the ice? m A F P = 75 kg = 0.5 cm 2 = 0.5 x 10-5 m 2 = mg = 75 x 9.8 = 235 N =? P P = 235/0.5 x 10-5 = 4.7 x 10 7 Pa Pressure in everyday situations A knife has a very small surface area creating a large pressure. This allows food to be cut more easily. An elephant has a large total foot surface area, preventing it from sinking into the Earth s surface.

23

24 Gas Pressure A gas consists of very small particles, which are all very far apart and which all move randomly at high speeds. The study of gases by treating them as particles free to move in any direction is known as Kinetic Theory. These particles collide with one another and with anything else they come in contact with. Each time a particle collides with a wall of the container, it exerts a force on the wall. Thus with particle continuously bombarding the container walls, the gas exerts a pressure on the container. Diagram showing gas particle collisions in a container. Temperature, energy and the kinetic model As discussed above, the temperature of an object is a measure of the mean kinetic energy of its particles. The most common everyday temperature scale is the Celsius scale (often referred to as the centigrade scale). This scale is based on the freezing (0 o C) and boiling point of water (100 o C). However the SI unit of temperature is the Kelvin (K). On the Kelvin scale, water freezes at 273 K and boils at 373 K. (Note that a temperature in Kelvin is written as, say, 300 K and not 300 K.) Like the Celsius scale, the difference between the boiling and freezing points of water is 100 units on the Kelvin scale, which means that a temperature difference of 1 K is equal to a temperature difference of 1 C. So the size of a temperature unit is the same on both scales. The scales differ in the point at which zero is defined, 0 K is defined as the point at which the particles of a substance have no kinetic energy. 0 K is equivalent to -273 C. To convert between Kelvin and Celsius :- To convert between Celsius and Kelvin :- Temperature in K = Temperature in o C Temperature in o C = Temperature in K - 273

25

26 Pressure and Volume (Boyle s Law) Using the apparatus below, the volume of a gas can be changed and any corresponding change in Pressure measured. The mass and temperature of the gas are fixed. zfbfsb Syringe Pressure sensor connected to computer As the syringe is pushed, the volume decreases, so the pressure increases. We can explain this in terms of the kinetic model. We have seen how the pressure exerted by the gas on its container arises from the collisions of molecules with the container walls. If we have the same number of molecules in a smaller container, they will hit the walls more frequently. Graph of P versus V Graph of P versus 1/V We can state for a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature or so

27

28 Temperature and Pressure We will now look at the relationship between the temperature and pressure of a fixed mass of gas, with the volume of the container kept constant. According to the kinetic theory, the average speed of the gas particles increases with increasing temperature. The hotter the gas, the faster the gas particles are moving. We stated earlier that when a particle collides with a wall of a container a force is exerted. The force exerted depends in the speed of the particle, so the faster the gas particles are moving, the greater the pressure exerted by the gas on the walls of the container. For a fixed mass of gas at fixed volume, or Therefore Temperature must be given in Kelvin! TEMPERATURE PRESSURE LAW The pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant volume is directly proportional to its temperature in kelvin TEMPERATURE PRESSURE LAW :- Kinetic Theory Summary If the temperature of a sealed container full of gas is increased (and the volume stays the same), the kinetic energy and hence velocity of the gas molecules increases. The gas molecules therefore hit the walls of the container harder and more often (with a higher frequency) - so the pressure increases.

29

30 Volume and Temperature (Charle s Law) Consider a fixed mass of gas trapped in a cylinder with a frictionless piston. If the gas is heated, the average speed of the gas particles increases. This means the force exerted on the piston when gas particles collide with it increases. It also means the number of collisions per second will increase. The increased force and rate of collisions act to push out the piston, increasing the volume inside the cylinder and hence the volume of the gas. Once the piston has been pushed out, the rate of collisions will decrease, as particles now have further to travel between collisions with the piston or the walls. Thus the pressure remains the same - the effects of greater impulse and lower rate of collision balance each other out. The overall effect is that heating a gas causes it to expand, and the relationship between volume and temperature is or Therefore Temperature must be given in Kelvin! VOLUME - TEMPERATURE LAW The volume of a fixed mass of gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to its temperature in kelvin. VOLUME - TEMPERATURE LAW :- Kinetic Theory Summary If the temperature of a sealed container full of gas is increased (and the pressure stays the same), the kinetic energy and hence velocity of the gas molecules increases. The gas molecules therefore hit the walls of the container harder and more often (with a higher frequency) - so the walls of the container are pushed outwards (volume increases).

31

32 The General Gas Equation The gas experiment above gives three equations. These can be combined to create the general gas equation. Worked Examples An air bubble at the bottom of the sea occupies a volume of 4.00 x 10-6 m 3. At this depth, the pressure is 2.50 x 10 7 Pa and the temperature is 275 K. Calculate the volume of the bubble when it has risen to a point where the pressure is 5.00 x 10 6 Pa and the temperature is 280 K, assuming the bubble contains a fixed mass of air..5 x x. x 5 P V T = P V T 5. x x V = = V 2 V 2 = 2.04 x 10-5 m 3

### Units and Dimensions in Physical Chemistry

Units and Dimensions in Physical Chemistry Units and dimensions tend to cause untold amounts of grief to many chemists throughout the course of their degree. My hope is that by having a dedicated tutorial

### 1. The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that all matter is composed of atoms and molecules that are in a constant state of constant random motion

Physical Science Period: Name: ANSWER KEY Date: Practice Test for Unit 3: Ch. 3, and some of 15 and 16: Kinetic Theory of Matter, States of matter, and and thermodynamics, and gas laws. 1. The Kinetic

### CHAPTER 8 UNITS, PREFIXES AND ENGINEERING NOTATION

CHAPTER 8 UNITS, PREFIXES AND ENGINEERING NOTATION EXERCISE 34 Page 62 1. State the SI unit of volume. The SI unit of volume is cubic metres, m 3 2. State the SI unit of capacitance. The SI unit of capacitance

### Chapter 3 Assessment. Name: Class: Date: ID: A. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Name: Class: _ Date: _ ID: A Chapter 3 Assessment Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which state of matter has a definite volume but a variable

### 1Physical quantities and units

1Physical quantities and units By the end of this chapter you should be able to: explain what is meant by a in physics; state the five fundamental quantities recognised and used in physics; explain the

### Name: Class: Date: 10. Some substances, when exposed to visible light, absorb more energy as heat than other substances absorb.

Name: Class: Date: ID: A PS Chapter 13 Review Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the statement true. 1. In all cooling

### S3 Physics Elective Density and Kinetic Theory

Name: Class: Duncanrig Secondary School East Kilbride S3 Physics Elective Density and Kinetic Theory Pupil Booklet Learning Outcomes Homework Summary SCN 4-08b Through experimentation, I can explain floating

### HEAT UNIT 1.1 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. 1.1.1 Introduction. 1.1.2 Postulates of Kinetic Theory of Gases

UNIT HEAT. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES.. Introduction Molecules have a diameter of the order of Å and the distance between them in a gas is 0 Å while the interaction distance in solids is very small. R. Clausius

### A physical quantity is any quantity that can be measured with a certain mathematical precision. Example: Force

1 Unit Systems Conversions Powers of Physical Quantities Dimensions Dimensional Analysis Scientific Notation Computer Notation Calculator Notation Significant Figures Math Using Significant Figures Order

### Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics

Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics Every science has its own unique vocabulary associated with it. recise definition of basic concepts forms a sound foundation for development of a science and prevents possible

### Gravitational Potential Energy

Gravitational Potential Energy Consider a ball falling from a height of y 0 =h to the floor at height y=0. A net force of gravity has been acting on the ball as it drops. So the total work done on the

### Physical Quantities and Units

Physical Quantities and Units 1 Revision Objectives This chapter will explain the SI system of units used for measuring physical quantities and will distinguish between vector and scalar quantities. You

### Temperature Scales. temperature scales Celsius Fahrenheit Kelvin

Ch. 10-11 Concept Ch. 10 #1, 3, 7, 8, 9, 11 Ch11, # 3, 6, 11 Problems Ch10 # 3, 5, 11, 17, 21, 24, 25, 29, 33, 37, 39, 43, 47, 59 Problems: CH 11 # 1, 2, 3a, 4, 5, 6, 9, 13, 15, 22, 25, 27, 28, 35 Temperature

### Chapter 3. Table of Contents. Chapter 3. Objectives. Chapter 3. Kinetic Theory. Section 1 Matter and Energy. Section 2 Fluids

States of Matter Table of Contents Objectives Summarize the main points of the kinetic theory of matter. Describe how temperature relates to kinetic energy. Describe four common states of matter. List

### PS-6.2 Explain the factors that determine potential and kinetic energy and the transformation of one to the other.

PS-6.1 Explain how the law of conservation of energy applies to the transformation of various forms of energy (including mechanical energy, electrical energy, chemical energy, light energy, sound energy,

### 13.1 The Nature of Gases. What is Kinetic Theory? Kinetic Theory and a Model for Gases. Chapter 13: States of Matter. Principles of Kinetic Theory

Chapter 13: States of Matter The Nature of Gases The Nature of Gases kinetic molecular theory (KMT), gas pressure (pascal, atmosphere, mm Hg), kinetic energy The Nature of Liquids vaporization, evaporation,

### Kinetic Theory. Bellringer. Kinetic Theory, continued. Visual Concept: Kinetic Molecular Theory. States of Matter, continued.

Bellringer You are already familiar with the most common states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. For example you can see solid ice and liquid water. You cannot see water vapor, but you can feel it in

### Chapter 1. An Introduction to Chemistry By Mark Bishop

Chapter 1 An Introduction to Chemistry By Mark Bishop Chemistry The science that deals with the structure and behavior of matter Summary of Study Strategies The will to succeed is important, but what s

### THE IDEAL GAS LAW AND KINETIC THEORY

Chapter 14 he Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic heory Chapter 14 HE IDEAL GAS LAW AND KINEIC HEORY REIEW Kinetic molecular theory involves the study of matter, particularly gases, as very small particles in constant

### Energy Matters Heat. Changes of State

Energy Matters Heat Changes of State Fusion If we supply heat to a lid, such as a piece of copper, the energy supplied is given to the molecules. These start to vibrate more rapidly and with larger vibrations

### Work, Energy and Power

Work, Energy and Power In this section of the Transport unit, we will look at the energy changes that take place when a force acts upon an object. Energy can t be created or destroyed, it can only be changed

### 1.4.6-1.4.8 Gas Laws. Heat and Temperature

1.4.6-1.4.8 Gas Laws Heat and Temperature Often the concepts of heat and temperature are thought to be the same, but they are not. Perhaps the reason the two are incorrectly thought to be the same is because

### Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics. Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57

Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57 Thermodynamics study and application of thermal energy temperature quantity

### Name Date Class STATES OF MATTER. SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages 385 389)

13 STATES OF MATTER SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages 385 389) This section introduces the kinetic theory and describes how it applies to gases. It defines gas pressure and explains how temperature

### UNIT (1) MEASUREMENTS IN CHEMISTRY

UNIT (1) MEASUREMENTS IN CHEMISTRY Measurements are part of our daily lives. We measure our weights, driving distances, and gallons of gasoline. As a health professional you might measure blood pressure,

### TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY In general, when an object performs work on another object, it does not transfer all of its energy to that object. Some of the energy is lost as heat due to

### FXA 2008. Candidates should be able to : Define and apply the concept of specific heat capacity. Select and apply the equation : E = mcδθ

UNIT G484 Module 3 4.3.3 Thermal Properties of Materials 1 Candidates should be able to : Define and apply the concept of specific heat capacity. Select and apply the equation : E = mcδθ The MASS (m) of

### Chapter 6 Work and Energy

Chapter 6 WORK AND ENERGY PREVIEW Work is the scalar product of the force acting on an object and the displacement through which it acts. When work is done on or by a system, the energy of that system

### Chemistry 13: States of Matter

Chemistry 13: States of Matter Name: Period: Date: Chemistry Content Standard: Gases and Their Properties The kinetic molecular theory describes the motion of atoms and molecules and explains the properties

### Chapter 4: Transfer of Thermal Energy

Chapter 4: Transfer of Thermal Energy Goals of Period 4 Section 4.1: To define temperature and thermal energy Section 4.2: To discuss three methods of thermal energy transfer. Section 4.3: To describe

### WEEK 1. Engineering Calculations Processes Process Variables

WEEK 1 Engineering Calculations Processes Process Variables 2.1 Units and Dimensions Units and dimensions are important in science and engineering A measured quantity has a numerical value and a unit (ex:

### Thermodynamics AP Physics B. Multiple Choice Questions

Thermodynamics AP Physics B Name Multiple Choice Questions 1. What is the name of the following statement: When two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, then they are in thermal equilibrium

### THERMOCHEMISTRY & DEFINITIONS

THERMOCHEMISTRY & DEFINITIONS Thermochemistry is the study of the study of relationships between chemistry and energy. All chemical changes and many physical changes involve exchange of energy with the

### Gas Laws. The kinetic theory of matter states that particles which make up all types of matter are in constant motion.

Name Period Gas Laws Kinetic energy is the energy of motion of molecules. Gas state of matter made up of tiny particles (atoms or molecules). Each atom or molecule is very far from other atoms or molecules.

### Section 7. Laws of Thermodynamics: Too Hot, Too Cold, Just Right. What Do You See? What Do You Think? Investigate.

Chapter 6 Electricity for Everyone Section 7 Laws of Thermodynamics: Too Hot, Too Cold, Just Right What Do You See? Learning Outcomes In this section, you will Assess experimentally the final temperature

### Metric System Math Review -Dimensional Analysis

Metric System Math Review -Dimensional Analysis In 1960 the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (Sevres, France) adopted the "International System of Units", also known as "SI" units. 7 base units

### ENERGY. Thermochemistry. Heat. Temperature & Heat. Thermometers & Temperature. Temperature & Heat. Energy is the capacity to do work.

ENERGY Thermochemistry Energy is the capacity to do work. Chapter 6 Kinetic Energy thermal, mechanical, electrical, sound Potential Energy chemical, gravitational, electrostatic Heat Heat, or thermal energy,

### Abbreviations Conversions Standard Conditions Boyle s Law

Gas Law Problems Abbreviations Conversions atm - atmosphere K = C + 273 mmhg - millimeters of mercury 1 cm 3 (cubic centimeter) = 1 ml (milliliter) torr - another name for mmhg 1 dm 3 (cubic decimeter)

### FORCES AND MOTION UNIT TEST. Multiple Choice: Draw a Circle Completely around the ONE BEST answer.

FORCES AND MOTION UNIT TEST Multiple Choice: Draw a Circle Completely around the ONE BEST answer. 1. A force acting on an object does no work if a. a machine is used to move the object. b. the force is

### = 800 kg/m 3 (note that old units cancel out) 4.184 J 1000 g = 4184 J/kg o C

Units and Dimensions Basic properties such as length, mass, time and temperature that can be measured are called dimensions. Any quantity that can be measured has a value and a unit associated with it.

### The particulate nature of matter

The particulate nature of matter Solids, liquids and gases The kinetic theory of matter Explaining the states of matter Changes of state An unusual state of matter An unusual change of state Heating and

### 10 g 5 g? 10 g 5 g. 10 g 5 g. scale

The International System of Units, or the SI Units Vs. Honors Chem 1 LENGTH In the SI, the base unit of length is the Meter. Prefixes identify additional units of length, based on the meter. Smaller than

### Unit 2 Energy & States of Matter Part 1 - Objectives

Unit 2 Energy & States of Matter Part 1 - Objectives 1. Relate observations of diffusion to particle motion and collision in the gas and liquid phases. 2. Relate observations regarding the addition of

### IDEAL AND NON-IDEAL GASES

2/2016 ideal gas 1/8 IDEAL AND NON-IDEAL GASES PURPOSE: To measure how the pressure of a low-density gas varies with temperature, to determine the absolute zero of temperature by making a linear fit to

### (b) Explain how the principle of conservation of momentum is a natural consequence of Newton s laws of motion. [3]

Physics A Unit: G484: The Newtonian World 1(a) State Newton s second law of motion. The resultant force on an object is proportional to the rate of change of momentum of the object In part (a) the candidate

### 1 Introduction The Scientific Method (1 of 20) 1 Introduction Observations and Measurements Qualitative, Quantitative, Inferences (2 of 20)

The Scientific Method (1 of 20) This is an attempt to state how scientists do science. It is necessarily artificial. Here are MY five steps: Make observations the leaves on my plant are turning yellow

### AP Physics Course 1 Summer Assignment. Teachers: Mr. Finn, Mrs. Kelly, Mr. Simowitz, Mr. Slesinski

AP Physics Course 1 Summer Assignment Teachers: Mr. Finn, Mrs. Kelly, Mr. Simowitz, Mr. Slesinski On the following pages, there are six sections that use the basic skills that will be used throughout the

### Physical Quantities, Symbols and Units

Table 1 below indicates the physical quantities required for numerical calculations that are included in the Access 3 Physics units and the Intermediate 1 Physics units and course together with the SI

### CHEMISTRY. Matter and Change. Section 13.1 Section 13.2 Section 13.3. The Gas Laws The Ideal Gas Law Gas Stoichiometry

CHEMISTRY Matter and Change 13 Table Of Contents Chapter 13: Gases Section 13.1 Section 13.2 Section 13.3 The Gas Laws The Ideal Gas Law Gas Stoichiometry State the relationships among pressure, temperature,

### EXERCISE # 1.Metric Measurement & Scientific Notation

EXERCISE # 1.Metric Measurement & Scientific Notation Student Learning Outcomes At the completion of this exercise, students will be able to learn: 1. How to use scientific notation 2. Discuss the importance

### Measurements 1. BIRKBECK MATHS SUPPORT www.mathsupport.wordpress.com. In this section we will look at. Helping you practice. Online Quizzes and Videos

BIRKBECK MATHS SUPPORT www.mathsupport.wordpress.com Measurements 1 In this section we will look at - Examples of everyday measurement - Some units we use to take measurements - Symbols for units and converting

### Kinetic Theory & Ideal Gas

1 of 6 Thermodynamics Summer 2006 Kinetic Theory & Ideal Gas The study of thermodynamics usually starts with the concepts of temperature and heat, and most people feel that the temperature of an object

### Gas particles move in straight line paths. As they collide, they create a force, pressure.

#28 notes Unit 4: Gases Ch. Gases I. Pressure and Manometers Gas particles move in straight line paths. As they collide, they create a force, pressure. Pressure = Force / Area Standard Atmospheric Pressure

### The Distance Learning Centre

The Distance Learning Centre STUDENT ASSESSMENT SHEET SUBJECT: Physics UNIT TITLE: Introduction to Physics: Solving Problems in Basic Physics LEVEL: 3 Formative Assessment (Ungraded) CREDITS: 3 How to

### Study the following diagrams of the States of Matter. Label the names of the Changes of State between the different states.

Describe the strength of attractive forces between particles. Describe the amount of space between particles. Can the particles in this state be compressed? Do the particles in this state have a definite

### PS Chapter 1 Review. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Name: Class: Date: ID: A PS Chapter 1 Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The two main branches of science are a. physics and chemistry.

### CHAPTER 25 IDEAL GAS LAWS

EXERCISE 139, Page 303 CHAPTER 5 IDEAL GAS LAWS 1. The pressure of a mass of gas is increased from 150 kpa to 750 kpa at constant temperature. Determine the final volume of the gas, if its initial volume

### Sample Questions Chapter 2. Stoker

Sample Questions Chapter 2. Stoker 1. The mathematical meaning associated with the metric system prefixes centi, milli, and micro is, respectively, A) 2, 4, and 6. B) 2, 3, and 6. C) 3, 6, and 9. D) 3,

### PHYSICAL QUANTITIES AND UNITS

1 PHYSICAL QUANTITIES AND UNITS Introduction Physics is the study of matter, its motion and the interaction between matter. Physics involves analysis of physical quantities, the interaction between them

### FXA 2008. Candidates should be able to : Describe solids, liquids and gases in terms of the spacing, ordering and motion of atoms or molecules.

UNIT G484 Module 3 4.3.1 Solid, liquid and gas 1 Candidates should be able to : DESCRIPTION OF SOLIDS, LIQUIDS AND GASES Describe solids, liquids and gases in terms of the spacing, ordering and motion

### Type: Double Date: Kinetic Energy of an Ideal Gas II. Homework: Read 14.3, Do Concept Q. # (15), Do Problems # (28, 29, 31, 37)

Type: Double Date: Objective: Kinetic Energy of an Ideal Gas I Kinetic Energy of an Ideal Gas II Homework: Read 14.3, Do Concept Q. # (15), Do Problems # (8, 9, 31, 37) AP Physics Mr. Mirro Kinetic Energy

### Thermodynamics is the study of heat. It s what comes into play when you drop an ice cube

Chapter 12 You re Getting Warm: Thermodynamics In This Chapter Converting between temperature scales Working with linear expansion Calculating volume expansion Using heat capacities Understanding latent

### CHM Kinetic Theory of Gases (r14) Charles Taylor 1/6

CHM 110 - Kinetic Theory of Gases (r14) - 2014 Charles Taylor 1/6 Introduction We've talked about the gas laws and how they were derived from experiment. As scientists, we would like to figure out why

### 2. Room temperature: C. Kelvin. 2. Room temperature:

Temperature I. Temperature is the quantity that tells how hot or cold something is compared with a standard A. Temperature is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of molecular translational

### A2 Physics Notes OCR Unit 4: The Newtonian World

A2 Physics Notes OCR Unit 4: The Newtonian World Momentum: - An object s linear momentum is defined as the product of its mass and its velocity. Linear momentum is a vector quantity, measured in kgms -1

### SAM Teachers Guide Heat and Temperature

SAM Teachers Guide Heat and Temperature Overview Students learn that temperature measures average kinetic energy, and heat is the transfer of energy from hot systems to cold systems. They consider what

### STAAR Science Tutorial 25 TEK 8.6C: Newton s Laws

Name: Teacher: Pd. Date: STAAR Science Tutorial 25 TEK 8.6C: Newton s Laws TEK 8.6C: Investigate and describe applications of Newton's law of inertia, law of force and acceleration, and law of action-reaction

### AS CHALLENGE PAPER 2014

AS CHALLENGE PAPER 2014 Name School Total Mark/50 Friday 14 th March Time Allowed: One hour Attempt as many questions as you can. Write your answers on this question paper. Marks allocated for each question

### Chapter 2 Measurement and Problem Solving

Introductory Chemistry, 3 rd Edition Nivaldo Tro Measurement and Problem Solving Graph of global Temperature rise in 20 th Century. Cover page Opposite page 11. Roy Kennedy Massachusetts Bay Community

### APPENDIX H CONVERSION FACTORS

APPENDIX H CONVERSION FACTORS A ampere American Association of State AASHTO Highway & Transportation Officials ABS (%) Percent of Absorbed Moisture Abs. Vol. Absolute Volume ACI American Concrete Institute

### Kinetic Molecular Theory (con t) Kinetic Molecular Theory Gas Liquid Solid 1. Slightly 2. High 3. Does not expand to

Kinetic Energy and (Kelvin) Temperature Temperature is a Kinetic Energy and (Kelvin) Temperature(2) The Kelvin temperature scale is called the Absolute Zero - Zero degrees on the 1. Highly 2. Low 3. Fills

### LeaPS Workshop March 12, 2010 Morehead Conference Center Morehead, KY

LeaPS Workshop March 12, 2010 Morehead Conference Center Morehead, KY Word Bank: Acceleration, mass, inertia, weight, gravity, work, heat, kinetic energy, potential energy, closed systems, open systems,

### Measuring Temperature

Measuring Temperature The standard metric unit of temperature is the degree Celsius ( C). Water freezes at 0 C. Water boils at 100 C. The Fahrenheit scale is used only in the United States. Why Do We Need

### Physics 2AB Notes - 2012. Heating and Cooling. The kinetic energy of a substance defines its temperature.

Physics 2AB Notes - 2012 Heating and Cooling Kinetic Theory All matter is made up of tiny, minute particles. These particles are in constant motion. The kinetic energy of a substance defines its temperature.

### Temperature. Temperature

Chapter 8 Temperature Temperature a number that corresponds to the warmth or coldness of an object measured by a thermometer is a per-particle property no upper limit definite limit on lower end Temperature

### CHEMISTRY GAS LAW S WORKSHEET

Boyle s Law Charles Law Guy-Lassac's Law Combined Gas Law For a given mass of gas at constant temperature, the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure PV = k The volume of a fixed mass of gas is

### The Gas Laws. The effect of adding gas. 4 things. Pressure and the number of molecules are directly related. Page 1

The Gas Laws Describe HOW gases behave. Can be predicted by the theory. The Kinetic Theory Amount of change can be calculated with mathematical equations. The effect of adding gas. When we blow up a balloon

### Weight The weight of an object is defined as the gravitational force acting on the object. Unit: Newton (N)

Gravitational Field A gravitational field as a region in which an object experiences a force due to gravitational attraction Gravitational Field Strength The gravitational field strength at a point in

### The AS Physics content is as follows:

Science Department The AS Physics content is as follows: Module 1 Development of practical skills in physics 1.1 Practical skills assessed in a written examination 1. Practical skills assessed in the

### Kinetic Molecular Theory

Kinetic Molecular Theory Particle volume - The volume of an individual gas particle is small compaired to that of its container. Therefore, gas particles are considered to have mass, but no volume. There

### Astro 110-01 Lecture 10 Newton s laws

Astro 110-01 Lecture 10 Newton s laws Twin Sungrazing comets 9/02/09 Habbal Astro110-01 Lecture 10 1 http://umbra.nascom.nasa.gov/comets/movies/soho_lasco_c2.mpg What have we learned? How do we describe

### Heat and Temperature. Temperature Scales. Thermometers and Temperature Scales

Heat and Temperature Thermometers and Temperature Scales The mercury-based one you see here relies on the fact that mercury expands at a predictable rate with temperature. The scale of the thermometer

### 1. Units and Prefixes

1. Units and Prefixes SI units Units must accompany quantities at all times, otherwise the quantities are meaningless. If a person writes mass = 1, do they mean 1 gram, 1 kilogram or 1 tonne? The Système

### Name Date Class THERMOCHEMISTRY. SECTION 17.1 THE FLOW OF ENERGY HEAT AND WORK (pages 505 510)

17 THERMOCHEMISTRY SECTION 17.1 THE FLOW OF ENERGY HEAT AND WORK (pages 505 510) This section explains the relationship between energy and heat, and distinguishes between heat capacity and specific heat.

### Forces. When an object is pushed or pulled, we say that a force is exerted on it.

Forces When an object is pushed or pulled, we say that a force is exerted on it. Forces can Cause an object to start moving Change the speed of a moving object Cause a moving object to stop moving Change

### GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS PHYSICS 20 GRAVITATIONAL FORCES. Gravitational Fields (or Acceleration Due to Gravity) Symbol: Definition: Units:

GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS Gravitational Fields (or Acceleration Due to Gravity) Symbol: Definition: Units: Formula Description This is the formula for force due to gravity or as we call it, weight. Relevant

### Pump Formulas Imperial and SI Units

Pump Formulas Imperial and Pressure to Head H = head, ft P = pressure, psi H = head, m P = pressure, bar Mass Flow to Volumetric Flow ṁ = mass flow, lbm/h ρ = fluid density, lbm/ft 3 ṁ = mass flow, kg/h

### 1) ASSOCIATE ELEMENTARY PARTICLES WITH THEIR ELECTRICAL CHARGE

Name Date STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 5 ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM 1) ASSOCIATE ELEMENTARY PARTICLES WITH THEIR ELECTRICAL CHARGE Scientists now know that an atom is composed of even smaller particles of matter:

### Newton s Third Law, Momentum, Center of Mass

Team: Newton s Third Law, Momentum, Center of Mass Newton s Third Law is a deep statement on the symmetry of interaction between any two bodies in the universe. How is the pull of the earth on the moon

### The Kinetic Theory of Gases Sections Covered in the Text: Chapter 18

The Kinetic Theory of Gases Sections Covered in the Text: Chapter 18 In Note 15 we reviewed macroscopic properties of matter, in particular, temperature and pressure. Here we see how the temperature and

### Energy. Work. Potential Energy. Kinetic Energy. Learning Check 2.1. Energy. Energy. makes objects move. makes things stop. is needed to do work.

Chapter 2 Energy and Matter Energy 2.1 Energy Energy makes objects move. makes things stop. is needed to do work. 1 2 Work Potential Energy Work is done when you climb. you lift a bag of groceries. you

### 5. Which temperature is equal to +20 K? 1) 253ºC 2) 293ºC 3) 253 C 4) 293 C

1. The average kinetic energy of water molecules increases when 1) H 2 O(s) changes to H 2 O( ) at 0ºC 3) H 2 O( ) at 10ºC changes to H 2 O( ) at 20ºC 2) H 2 O( ) changes to H 2 O(s) at 0ºC 4) H 2 O( )

### Practice Test. 4) The planet Earth loses heat mainly by A) conduction. B) convection. C) radiation. D) all of these Answer: C

Practice Test 1) Increase the pressure in a container of oxygen gas while keeping the temperature constant and you increase the A) molecular speed. B) molecular kinetic energy. C) Choice A and choice B

### Science AS90191 Describe Aspects of Physics.

Circuits and components Science AS90191 Describe Aspects of Physics. An electric current is the movement of electrons (negatively charged particles). A circuit is made up of components connected together

### Chapter 9: The Behavior of Fluids

Chapter 9: The Behavior of Fluids 1. Archimedes Principle states that A. the pressure in a fluid is directly related to the depth below the surface of the fluid. B. an object immersed in a fluid is buoyed

### Forces. Definition Friction Falling Objects Projectiles Newton s Laws of Motion Momentum Universal Forces Fluid Pressure Hydraulics Buoyancy

Forces Definition Friction Falling Objects Projectiles Newton s Laws of Motion Momentum Universal Forces Fluid Pressure Hydraulics Buoyancy Definition of Force Force = a push or pull that causes a change

### Work and Energy. Work = Force Distance. Work increases the energy of an object. Energy can be converted back to work.

Work and Energy Ch. 6 Work = Force Distance Work increases the energy of an object. Energy can be converted back to work. Therefore, energy and work have the same unit: Newton meter = Nm Energy per gram,