Russia Energy efficiency report

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1 Russia Energy efficiency report Objectives: o 40% reduction in energy intensity by 2020 and 56% by 2030 o 53% efficiency in gas-fired power generation by 2030 Overview - (%/year) Primary intensity (EU=100)¹ % ++ CO 2 intensity (EU=100) % ++ CO 2 emissions per capita (in tco /cap) % -- Power generation - (%/year) Efficiency of thermal power plants (in %) % + Rate of electricity T&D losses (in %) % - CO 2 emissions per kwh generated (in gco /kwh) % -- Industry - (%/year) Energy intensity (EU=100) % ++ Share of industrial CHP in industrial consumption (in %) % - Unit consumption of steel (in toe/t) % Among best countries + Better than the EU average 1 - Below the EU average 1 --Among countries with the lowest performances Latest update: February The European Union, as the best performing region, is used as the benchmark.

2 1. Overview 1.1. Policies: 40% reduction in energy intensity by 2020 The state program on Energy Saving and Energy Efficiency Improvement until 2020 was adopted in December and implemented in The program aims to reduce the energy intensity of GDP by 40 percent by 2020 compared with ; 26.5 percent of that reduction should come from structural shifts in the economy (development of non-energy intensive sectors, replacement of old equipment, tariff growth, etc.) and 13.5 percent should be achieved through new efficiency measures such as public-private partnerships, loan guarantees for energy efficiency projects, new standards, etc. Moreover, new construction standards were approved in The Energy Strategy of Russia defined in sets a 56 percent energy intensity reduction target for 2030 (compared with ). A Federal Law on Energy Conservation and Increase of Energy Efficiency was adopted in November to create the legal and economic framework for the promotion of energy efficiency. It mainly focuses on the efficiency of buildings and introduces the installation of compulsory meters, the establishment of a federal energy efficiency information network and energy efficiency certificates ( energy passports ) Energy consumption trends: slow growth since Energy consumption per capita in Russia is twice as high as the world average, at nearly 5 toe/cap (). Total energy consumption (primary consumption) grew slightly between and (+0.6 percent/year) but fell by 6 percent in as a consequence of the global economic crisis. However, in it exceeded its level. Figure 1: Energy consumption trends by sector Other Industry Power generation Mtoe Russia s primary consumption is dominated by gas and oil, which account for 55 percent and 21 percent, respectively (). The share of coal decreased slightly, from 21 percent in to 15 percent in. Nuclear power covers 6 percent of primary consumption, followed by hydroelectricity (2 percent). The power sector and industry, including non-energy uses, represent about 30 percent each of the total energy consumption (). Their shares have remained relatively stable since. Electricity consumption per capita is twice as high as the world average, at around 6,000 kwh/cap (slightly above the EU average). After a decline between and, electricity consumption grew at the steady pace of 2.5 percent/year until. In it fell by 4.2 percent, but in recovered its level. Close to 60 percent of electricity is consumed in industry. Russia Country reports 2

3 Figure 2: Electricity consumption trends by sector Industry Others TWh 1.3. Energy efficiency trends: strong reduction in energy intensity driven by industry and the power sectors Between and the very strong growth in the Russian GDP, triggered by high energy prices, led to significant decreases in energy intensity. Total energy consumption per unit of GDP (primary energy intensity) decreased by 2.9 percent/year over the - period. Industry and the power sectors contributed to three quarters of that drop (40 percent for industry and 35 percent for the power sectors). Figure 3: Energy intensity trends 0.0% - - %/year -0.5% -1.0% -1.5% -2.0% -2.5% -3.0% -3.5% Other Industry Power generation Russia Country reports 3

4 2. Power generation 2.1. Policies: 53% efficiency in gas-fired power generation by 2030 Russia aims to modernize its energy infrastructure. Under the Energy Strategy, by 2030 the generation efficiency rate should be increased to at least 41 percent in coal-fired power plants, 53 percent in gas-fired power plants and 36 percent in nuclear power plants. Russia also promotes small-generation with high efficiency (above 48 percent) and with heat recovery to increase efficiency to 90 percent. As of January 2012, thermal and nuclear power facilities with positive energy efficiency indicators are eligible for investment tax credits. The Energy Strategy also aims to cut grid losses to 8 percent by Efficiency of the power sector: low efficiency rate Russia s average power generation efficiency rate is kept low by the high share of low-efficiency power plants: in oil-fired, coal-fired and nuclear power accounted for 33 percent of the power generation (38 percent in ). Nevertheless, the generation efficiency rate rose over the years, from 29 percent to 31 percent. That improvement was triggered by thermal power plants, which saw their average efficiency increase from 23 percent to 26 percent, which remains 24 percent below the world average. The share of gas combined-cycle plants in the total capacity is insignificant, contributing to the relatively low thermal efficiency rate. Figure 4: Efficiency of power generation and thermal power plants Figure 5: Thermal electricity capacity, by technology Steam Gas turbines Combined cycles 25 % Total power generation Thermal power plants GW The rate of transmission and distribution losses is 37 percent higher than the world average, at nearly 12 percent. Figure 6: Electric T&D losses % Russia Country reports 4

5 3. Industry 3.1. Policies: energy audits and energy passports Russia has developed sectoral energy efficiency programs (especially in the energy-intensive industries like steel, cement, paper or aluminum). The Federal Law on Energy Conservation and Increase of Energy Efficiency (November ) includes energy audits and federal and regional energy efficiency standards for industrial consumers. Large consumers (with an energy expenditure exceeding 10 million rubles/year (US$0.330 million/year)) are submitted to mandatory energy audits and energy passports (ie energy efficiency and thermal efficiency performance certificates for specified equipment and materials). The law also introduced incentives and tax benefits for heavy industry to replace inefficient equipment by energy-efficient machinery. Indeed, since January 2012, certain high energyefficiency facilities and technologies (in oil extraction and processing, iron ore production and paper production) are entitled to investment tax credits Energy consumption trends: stagnating consumption since After a 25 percent fall between and, energy consumption in Russia s industry remained roughly stable between and. In it dropped by 4.9 percent as a consequence of the global economic crisis, but in it exceeded its pre-crisis level. Figure 7: Trends in industrial energy consumption Mtoe District heating covers 29 percent of industrial energy consumption. Nevertheless, it has fallen since, when it stood at 46 percent, to the benefit of electricity (from 16 percent in to 20 percent in ), gas (24 percent compared with 14 percent in ) and oil (12 percent). The share of coal, which remained relatively stable at 14 percent between and, has averaged 16 percent since. Energy-intensive industries are gaining importance, which shows the opposite trend compared with most countries: their share increased from 56 percent to 68 percent between and. Steel is the largest consuming sector (33 percent in, from 27 percent in ). The share of the chemical branch remained relatively stable (20 percent in ), while that of the non-metallic minerals industry increased over the period, from 6 percent to 11 percent. Pulp and paper production accounts for 4 percent of industrial energy consumption. Russia Country reports 5

6 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% Figure 8: Energy consumption of industry, by source 0% Biomass Heat Electricity Gas Oil Coal/Lignite 100% Figure 9: Energy consumption of industry, by branch 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Other Paper Non metallic minerals Chemical Steel 3.3. Energy intensity trends: limited energy efficiency gains in the steel sector Between and energy intensity in Russia s industry decreased rapidly, by 4.8 percent/year. That improvement is linked to the drop in energy intensity in the chemical sector (-3.7 percent/year) and in the paper and pulp branch (-6.5 percent). Efficiency gains were more limited in the steel industry, which accounts for 1/3 of industrial energy consumption, with a 1.8 percent decrease in energy intensity between and (+0.7 percent/year between and ). Energy intensity even rose in the non- metallic minerals branch (+2.9 percent/year over the - period). Figure 10: Trends in the energy intensity of industrial branches %/year 6.0% 4.0% 2.0% 0.0% -2.0% Total* Steel Chemical Cement Paper % -6.0% -8.0% *Including construction and mining Russia Country reports 6

7 The share of electricity produced by CHP facilities in industrial electricity consumption has decreased slightly since. However, at 15 percent in it remains twice as high as the world average. Figure 11: Share of industrial CHP in industrial consumption 20% 18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% Russia Country reports 7

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