NIETZSCHEHO NADČLOVEK

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1 TRNAVSKÁ UNIVERZITA V TRNAVE FILOZOFICKÁ FAKULTA NIETZSCHEHO NADČLOVEK BAKALÁRSKA PRÁCA RASTISLAV HRUŠOVSKÝ TRNAVA 2008

2 TRNAVSKÁ UNIVERZITA V TRNAVE FILOZOFICKÁ FAKULTA katedra filozofie NIETZSCHEHO NADČLOVEK BAKALÁRSKA PRÁCA RASTISLAV HRUŠOVSKÝ bakalársky stupeň TRNAVA 2008

3 ABSTRAKT HRUŠOVSKÝ, Rastislav: Nietzscheho nadčlovek [Diplomová bakalárska práca] / Rastislav Hrušovský. Trnavská Univerzita v Trnave. Filozofická fakulta; Katedra Filozofie Školiteľ: doc. Mgr. Gálik Slavomír, PhD. Predseda komisie pre obhajoby: Prof. Ing. Letz Ján, CSc. Stupeň odbornej kvalifikácie: Študent Trnava: FFTU, s. Svoju prácu som rozdelil do piatich celkov, na úvod, kapitoly 1 až 3 a záver. V úvode objasňujem dôvody ktoré ma viedli k napísaniu tejto práce. V 1. kapitole, sa zaoberám vplyvmi ktoré pôsobili na Friedricha Nietzschea počas jeho života a ovplyvňovali jeho prácu. V 2. Kapitole som interpretoval jeho dielo Tak vravel Zarathustra a kriticky vysvetloval určité pasáže potrebné k objasneniu pojmu nadčlovek. V 3. Kapitole uvádzam, ktoré filozofické smery ovplyvnil, obzvlášť zavedením pojmu nadčlovek so všetkými súvislosťami. V samotnom závere prezentujem svoj názor na charakterové vlastnosti nadčloveka, poukazujem na možnosti využitia určitých metód v súčasnej spoločnosti, ako i poukazujem na nebezpečenstvo nesprávnych metód. My work is divided into five parts : introduction, chapters 1 3, conclusion. In introduction I illuminate motives, that conduce me to write this work. In the first chapter I am dealing with forces, that affects on Fridrich Nietzsche during his life and influences his work. In the second chapter I interpreted his work Tak vravel Zarathustra and I explained some passages, that were important to illuminate the term superman. In the third chapter I show philosophical movements, that he influences with the term superman and its sequences. In conclusion I present my opinion of properties of superman, I show utilization of some methods in today ś society. I also show danger of false methods. Kľúčové slová: Nadčlovek, vôľa k moci, tvorivá vôľa, resentiment, vyšší ľudia, úzkosť, šťastie. Key words: Superman, volition for sway, creation volition, resentiment, higher people, distress, felicity.

4 PREDHOVOR T á t o p r á c a v z n i k l a z d ô v o d u m ô j h o z á u j m u o s m e r o - v a n i e ľ u d s t v a. F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e p o n ú k a j e d n u z m n o h ý c h a l t e r n a t í v p r í z v u k u j ú c d n e š n ý s t a v č l o v e k a. Z t o h t o s t a v u v y c h á d z a a t v r d e n í m o n u t n o s t i r e f o r m o v a - n i a p o s t o j a č l o v e k a k s v e t u d o s p i e v a k p r e m e n e č l o v e k a v n a d č l o v e k a. T a k ý t o p o h ľ a d n a č l o v e k a a j e h o s m e r o v a - n i e m á m n o ž s t v o r ô z n y c h i n t e r p r e t á c i i. J a s o m s a r o z h o - d o l i n t e r p r e t o v a ť a v y s v e t l i ť j e h o p r á c u z v l a s t n é h o p o - h ľ a d u, b e z o v p l y v n e n i a i n ý m i i n t e r p r e t á c i a m i, l e n s o h ľ a d o m n a p r o s t r e d i e a f i l o z o f i u z k t o r ý c h v y c h á d z a l F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e s á m. P o u ž i t i e t e j t o p r á c e v i d í m p r i o r i t n e a k o p o d n e t k ď a l š i e m u v ý s k u m u v o b l a s t i e d u k á c i e č l o v e k a. S e k u n d á r - n e b y m o h l a t á t o p r á c a p o d n i e t i ť k ď a l š i e m u s k ú m a n i u t e x t o v F r i e d r i c h a N i e t z s c h e h o, a v š a k s o h ľ a d o m n a j e h o v l a s t n é p o ž i a d a v k y, t i e s ú r o z o b r a n é a j a s n e v i d i t e ľ n é v p r á c i n i ž š i e. N a z á v e r p r e d h o v o r u b y s o m s a c h c e l p o ď a k o v a ť z a o d b o r n ú p o m o c d o c. M g r. S l a v o m í r o v i G á l i k o v i P h D., M g r. Z d e n o v i V a c k e m u a k o a j c e l é m u p e d a g o g i c k é m u z b o r u T r n a v s k e j u n i v e r z i t y z a s k u t o č n e p r o f e s i o n á l n e v e - d e n i e u n i v e r z i t y a t ý m a j v ý b o r n e v e d e n é p r e d n á š k y k t o r é s u v e ľ m i i n š p i r a t í v n e a p o d n e c u j ú s v o j i c h š t u d e n t o v k u s k ú m a n i u d a n ý c h o d p r e d n á š a n ý c h t é m.

5 OBSAH Obsah....5 Úvod Vplyv na Nietzscheho filozofiu Primárne vplyvy na Nietzscheho filozofiu Sekundárne vplyvy na filozofiu Friedricha Nietzscheho Prostredie Nadčlovek Tak vravel Zarathustra Zarathustra ako historická postava Určujúce vlastnosti nadčloveka ako nového druhu Charakteristika nadčloveka Interpretácie a vplyv Nietzsche a nacizmus Nietzsche a postmoderna Nietzsche a fenomenológia Nietzsche a existencializmus...35 Záver...37 Použitá literatúra

6 ÚVOD V o h ľ a d e n a f u n g o v a n i e d n e š n e j s p o l o č n o s t i a j e j n e u r č i t é s m e r o v a n i e s a v y n á r a v o m n e o t á z k a p o s p r á v - n o m n a s m e r o v a n í s p o l o č n o s t i, v j e j s o c i á l n e j e v o l ú c i i s o h ľ a d o m n a j e j p o t e n c i o n a l i t u. F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e s a p r á v e s v o j o u i d e o u n a d č l o v e k a a k o c h c e m u k á z a ť v t e j t o p r á c i, p o k ú š a o d s t r á n i ť n á s t r a h y ú p a d k u s p o l o č n o s t i, č i j e j s e b a d e š t r u k c i i a p o k ú š a s a o j e j s p r á v n e n a s m e r o v a n i e k r o z v o j u. F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e, a k o s i ď a l e j u k á ž e m e, ž i l a t v o r i l v d o b e k t o r á s i t a k é t o v ý c h o d i s k á p ý t a l a a d á s a t e d a p o v e d a ť, ž e a k o p r v ý z a c h y t i l t i e t o s i g n á l y a r o z v i n u l i c h d o t e ó r i e v r c h o l i a c e j v z r o d e n a d č l o v e k a. K e ď ž e N i e t z s c h e a k o s v o j e h l a v n é f i l o z o f i c k é d i e l o p r e d - k l a d á T a k v r a v e l Z a r a t h u s t r a b u d e m v t e j t o p r á c i v y c h á - d z a ť p r á v e z t o h t o d i e l a. Č i t a t e ľ n o s ť a p o c h o p e n i e t o h t o d i e l a j e v e ľ m i n á r o č n é a p r e t o s o m m u s e l n i e k t o r é č a s t i t o h t o d i e l a p o d r o b i ť h l b š i e m u s k ú m a n i u a k o n f r o n t á c i á m s d i e l a m i n a ň o d k a z u j ú c i m i, n a č o v o s v o j e j p r á c i p a t r i č - n e u p o z o r n í m. N e s m e l s o m t i e ž p o n e c h a ť b e z p o v š i m n u - t i a, ž e N i e t z s c h e b o l p r o f e s o r o m k l a s i c k e j f i l o l ó g i e, č o n á m u k a z u j e s k l a d b u j e h o s p i s o v, v k t o r ý c h s p o n t á n n e t i e t o v e d o m o s t i v y u ž í v a l a t ý m i c h a j p r i m e t o d i c k y n e ú - p l n o m š t ú d i u r o b i l n e č i t a t e ľ n é a č a s t o s a č i t a t e ľ j e h o d i e l m o h o l n a t o m t o z á k l a d e p r i v i e s ť d o o m y l u. 6

7 1. V P L Y V N A N I E T Z S C H E H O F I L O Z O F I U N a N i e t z s c h e h o f i l o z o f i u a p r á c u v p l ý v a l o v i a c e r o s k u t o č n o s t í, k t o r é m ô ž e m e o z n a č i ť a k o p r i m á r n e, s e k u n - d á r n e a a k o v p l y v p r o s t r e d i a P r i m á r n e v p l y v y n a f i l o z o f i u F r i e d r i c h a N i e t z s c h e h o N i e t z s c h e u r č u j e z a s v o j h o v y c h o v á v a t e ľ a v o f i l o z o - f i i A r t h u r a S c h o p e n h a u e r a, k t o r é h o o z n a č u j e z a s v o j h o v y c h o v á v a t e ľ a v o b l a s t i s m e r o v a n i a j e h o f i l o z o f i e. H o v o - r í o ň o m a k o o b e z p r o s t r e d n o m p r a v d i v o m a r a d o s t n o m v y k l a d a č o v i s v o j e j f i l o z o f i e. A k t o s i n i e k e d y u v e d o m i l, č o t o v n a š o m r o z p o l t e n o m ľ u d s t v e z n a m e n á, n á j s ť c e l i s t - v ú, j e d n o h l a s n ú, v s e b e z a k o t v e n ú a h y b n ú, o t v o r e n ú a s p o n t á n n u p r í r o d n ú b y t o s ť, t e n p o c h o p í m o j e š ť a s t i e a m ô j ú ž a s, k e ď s o m n a š i e l S c h o p e n h a u e r a : t u š i l s o m, ž e s o m n a š i e l t o h o v y c h o v á v a t e ľ a a f i l o z o f a, k t o r é h o s o m t a k d l h o h ľ a d a l 1 N i e t z s c h e h o v o r í o h ľ a d a n í t o h o s p r á v - n e h o v y c h o v á v a t e ľ a z h ľ a d i s k a s l o b o d n é h o n e d e t e r m i n o - v a n é h o s v e t o m, a l e u r č o v a n é h o l e n n a z á k l a d e s l o b o d n é h o d u c h a, a s l o b o d n é h o n a z e r a n i a s v e t a, p o u k a z u j e n a K a n t a, ž e i k e ď j e h o f i l o z o f i a m a l a ú s p e c h, n e m o h l a d o s a h o v a ť t i e n a j v y š š i e m é t y, s l o b o d n é h o d u c h a a t o p r á v e n a h l i a d - n u t i a f i l o z o f i e a j i n a k a k o i b a v o k l i e š t e n ý c h m e d z i a c h v e d y. K a n t ľ p e l n a u n i v e r z i t e p o d r o b o v a l s a v l á d a m, z o - t r v á v a l v z d a n í n á b o ž e n s k e j v i e r y, v y d r ž a l t o m e d z i k o l e - g a m i a š t u d e n t m i. J e t e d a l e n p r i r o d z e n é, ž e j e h o p r í k l a d s p l o d i l p r e d o v š e t k ý m u n i v e r z i t n ý c h p r o f e s o r o v a p r o f e s o r s k ú f i l o z o f i u. 2 N i e t z s c h e b o l t o t i ž z á s t a n c o m A n t i c k é h o p r e ž í v a n i a f i l o z o f i e, k e d y s a f i l o z o f i a n i e l e n 1 NIETZSCHE, Friedrich: Nečasové úvahy. Londýn: Athenaeum, 1988, s NIETZSCHE, Friedrich: Nečasové úvahy. Londýn: Athenaeum, 1988,s

8 t v o r i l a, a l e s a a j p r e ž í v a l a, n e b o l a l e n v k n i h á c h, a l e b o - l a p r í t o m n á v ž i v o t e. K a n t b o l p o d ľ a n e h o p o k r y t e c K a n t : č i ž e c a n t a k o i n t e l i g i b i l n ý c h a r a k t e r. 3 T a k t i e ž p o u k a z u j e n a i n d i c k é d e j i n y, k t o r é s ú v l a s t n e a j d e j i n a m i i n d i c k e j f i l o z o f i e. N a k a ž d o m f i l o z o f o v i m i z á l e ž í l e n d o t e j m i e r y, d o a k e j j e s c h o p n ý í s ť p r í k l a d o m. Ž e s v o j í m p r í k l a d o m m ô ž e z a s e b o u ť a h a ť c e l é n á r o d y, j e n e s p o r n é ; i n d i c k é d e j i n y, k t o r é s ú b e z m á l a d e j i n a m i i n d i c k e j f i l o z o - f i e, t o d o k a z u j ú. 4 T u t e d a m ô ž e m e v i d i e ť t a k ý p r v o p o - č i a t o k o d r a z u f i l o z o f i e k f i l o z o f i i u k o n č e n e j p o j m o m n a d č l o v e k, t e d a č l o v e k p r e m i e ň a j ú c i s a v n a d č l o v e k a, r e - f l e k t u j ú c e h o s v o j e b y t i e a n a p r e d u j ú c e h o k j e h o z a v ŕ š e - n i u k t o r é s a m u u k a z u j e v p o d s t a t e n a h l i a d a n é h o b y t i a. T e d a n a N i e t z s c h e h o f i l o z o f i u z j e h o p o h ľ a d u p r i m á r n e p ô s o b i l a f i l o z o f i a A r t h u r a S c h o p e n h a u e r a s v o j o u s l o b o - d o u a f i l o z o f i a I n d i e a k o i A n t i c k á f i l o z o f i a a ž p o P l a t ó - n a o č i v i d n ý m p r e ž í v a n í m s v o j e j s ú d o b e j f i l o z o f i e. V š e - t c i t r a j a D e w e y, N i e t z s c h e a j H e i d e g g e r b o l i a n t i p l a t o - n i c i 5 R o r t y p o u k a z u j e n a t o, ž e N i e t z s c h e h o p r í s t u p k f i l o z o f i i P l a t ó n a o v p l y v ň u j e a j p o s t m o d e r n u a k o e x i s - t e n c i a l i z m u s t a k a j p r a g m a t i z m u s, k d e s a o d k l á ň a m e o d i d e á l n e h o s v e t a a s n a ž í m e s a n á j s ť z m y s e l a k o v s e b e t a k p r i a m o v z j a v o v a n o m s v e t e S e k u n d á r n e v p l y v y n a f i l o z o f i u F r i e d r i c h a N i e t z s c h e h o M e d z i s e k u n d á r n y m i v p l y v m i m ô ž e m e v i d i e ť s ú d o b ú f i l o z o f i u s t o r o č i a v g l o b á l e. N i e t z s c h e r e f l e k - t u j e f i l o z o f i u a k o i k u l t ú r u s v o j e j d o b y. H o v o r í o s m r t i B o h a, n i e v š a k o s m r t i B o h a a k o e n t i t y, a l e o s m r t i B o h a 3 NIETZSCHE, Friedrich: Soumrak model. Olomouc: VOTOBIA,1995, s NIETZSCHE, Friedrich: Nečasové úvahy. Londýn: Athenaeum, 1988, s.18 5 RORTY Richard: Filozofické orchidey. Bratislava: Kalligram, 2006, s. 13 8

9 a k o v y v s t á v a j ú c i p r o b l é m v s ú d o b e j f i l o z o f i i. T a k é t o n a - h l i a d n u t i e j e m o ž n é v i d i e ť u ľ a v i c o v ý c h n o v o h e g e l o v c o v ( F e u e r b a c h, M a r x, E n g e l s ), k t o r í p o p i e r a j ú e x i s t e n c i u B o h a a k l a d ú h o i b a a k o i d e u s t v o r e n ú č l o v e k o m, a k o i d e u d o k o n a l o s t i. N o k e ď Z a r a t h u s t r a z o s t a l s á m, t a k t o p r e h o v o r i l k s v o j m u s r d c u : J e t o t o m o ž n é? T e n t o s t a r u č k ý s v ä t e c v o s v o j o m l e s e e š t e n e z a č u l, ž e b o h j e m ŕ t v y! 6 V t o m t o c i t á t e m ô ž e m e v i d i e ť, ž e N i e t z s c h e n e h o v o r í o s v o j o m p o z n a n í, ž e B o h j e m ŕ t v y, a l e o p o z n a n í s p r o - s t r e d k o v a n o m i n ý m i, p o z n a n í, k t o r é h o v o r í o t o m, ž e B o h j e m ŕ t v y. S á m N i e t z s c h e h o v o r í o s m r t i B o h a n a j m ä v z m y s l e m o ž n é h o n a p r e d o v a n i a č l o v e k a, n a p r e d o v a n i a, k t o r é b y b o l o u t l m e n é v p r í p a d e a k b y č l o v e k n a d s e b o u n e u s t á l e p r e d p o k l a d a l n i e č o m o c n e j š i e č o m u b y n u t n e p r i n á l e ž a l a a j m o c n a d č l o v e k o m, t e d a č l o v e k b y t ý m a u - t o m a t i c k y s t r á c a l s l o b o d u. N a p r í k l a d v o f i l o z o f i i F e u e r - b a c h a a j e h o p o h ľ a d e n a n á b o ž e n s t v o j e m o ž n é v i d i e ť u r - č i t é s p o j n i c e m e d z i f i l o z o f i o u F r i e d r i c h a N i e t z s c h e h o. F e u e r b a c h v y c h á d z a l z k r i t i k y H e g e l a. J e h o h l a v n ý m d i e - l o m j e P o d s t a t a k r e s ť a n s t v a. N i e B o h s t v o r i l č l o v e k a, a l e č l o v e k B o h a. N e p o t r e b u j e m e t e o l ó g i u, a l e a n t r o p o l ó g i u. B o h m á c h a r a k t e r h y p o s t a z o v a n i a, t o j e p r e m i e t n u t i e k l a d n ý c h ľ u d s k ý c h v l a s t n o s t í d o A b s o l ú t n e h o B y t i a, d o B o h a. F e u e r b a c h n e c h c e l n á b o ž e n s t v o z n i č i ť, h o v o r i l ž e j e p o t r e b n é, s p r í t o m ň u j e i d e á l y. P o d s t a t a n á b o ž e n s t v a : č l o v e k s a c h c e v y m a n i ť s p o d n a d v l á d y p r í r o d y, p r e t o s i v y m ý š ľ a B o h a, k t o r ý j e j p a n u j e a t a k j e a k o b y p a n s t v o n a d p r í r o d o u v r á t e n á č l o v e k u. P o d o b n o s ť u N i e t z s c h e h o m ô ž e m e v i d i e ť h n e ď n a v i a c e r ý c h m i e s t a c h j e h o d i e l. N i e t z s c h e h o v o r í s í c e, ž e o r g a n i z á c i e p o s t a v e n é n a n á b o - ž e n s t v e s ú z l é, a v š a k ľ u ď o m p o n e c h á v a s l o b o d n ú v o ľ b u 6 NIETZSCHE, Friedrich: Tak vravel Zarathustra. Bratislava: Iris, 2002 s. 8 9

10 v o v i e r e. N e h o v o r í, ž e v i e r a a k o t a k á j e z l á, a l e v i e r a v h o d n o s t á r o v, k t o r í s i p o s t a v i l i s v o j e ž i v o b y t i e n a v i e r e j e z l á. Z a p r i s a h á m v á s, b r a t i a m o j i, z o s t a ň t e v e r n í z e - m i a n e v e r t e t ý m, č o v á m r o z p r á v a j ú o n a d p o z e m s k ý c h n á d e j a c h! T r a v i č i s ú t o, č i u ž t o v e d i a a l e b o n i e. O p o v r - h u j ú ž i v o t o m, o d u m i e r a j ú a s a m i s a o t r á v i l i ; z e m j e i c h s ý t a : n e c h t e d a o d í d u! 7 N i e t z s c h e m u t e d a i d e v p r v o m r a d e o r o z p o z n a n i e p r a v d y. Č l o v e k m á o s t a ť v e r n ý z e m i, o d r á ž a ť s v o j e v e d e n i e z t o h o, č o m u j e j a s n e p o n ú k a n é p r e p o z n a n i e. N i e t z s c h e b o l v p r v o m r a d e f i l o z o f ( a n i e n a p r í k l a d a f o r i s t a, b á s n i k č i p r o r o k ), k t o r ý s v o j í m c h a - r a k t e r i s t i c k ý m s p ô s o b o m p r i s p e l k e u r ó p s k e m u m y s l e n i u t ý m, ž e r o z p o z n a l a č e l i l d ô s l e d k o m r a d i k á l n e j z m e n y v z á p a d n o m c h á p a n í a p r í s t u p u k p r a v d e. 8 N i e t z s c h e t e d a r e f l e k t u j e s ú č a s n ý p o h ľ a d p r a v d y z p o h ľ a d u a k ý p r i - n á š a H e g e l o v a f i l o z o f i a, ž e p r a v d a j e v o v ý v o j i, t e d a p r a v d a j e r e l a t í v n a, t a k ž e č l o v e k n e m ô ž e d o s p i e ť k p o - z n a n i u a b s o l ú t n e j p r a v d y P r o s t r e d i e N a r o d i l s a v r o k u , v d e d i n k e R ö c k e n v p r u s k o m S a s k u, a z o m r e l v r o k u v o V ý m a r e. J e h o o t e c a o b a j a d e d o v i a b o l i l u t e r á n s k y d u c h o v n í a c e l ý ž i v o t s a z a o b e r a l f i l o z o f i o u. V p l y v n a n e h o j e t e d a t v o r e n ý t r o m a t r a d í c i a m i : n á r o d n o u, n á b o ž e n s k o u a f i l o z o f i c k o u. J e h o ž i v o t s p a d á d o o b d o b i a v l á d y n a j s k ô r v P r u s k u a o d r o k u a j n a ú z e m í N e m e c k a V i l h é m a I. a B i s m a r c k a. A k z v a ž u j e m e N i e t z s c h e h o v o v z ť a h u k t ý m t o v p l y v o m a o b e c n e k n á r o d n o s t n e j o t á z k e, m u s í m e s i n a j s k ô r u v e - d o m i ť, ž e f a k t, ž e n e b o l n i k d y o b č a n o m R í š e, a l e p o v ä č - 7 Tamže s HOLLINGDALE, R.J.: Nietzsche. Olomouc: Votobia, 1998 s

11 š i n u s v o j h o d o s p e l é h o ž i v o t a b o l Š v a j č i a r o m, n a ň o m n e - z a n e c h a l ž i a d n e s t o p y. N a r o d i l s a a k o p r u s k ý p o d d a n ý, a l e v r o k u s a s t a l n a t u r a l i z o v a n ý m Š v a j č i a r o m, a b y z í s k a l m i e s t o n a k a t e d r e k l a s i c k e j f i l o l ó g i e u n i v e r z i t y v B a z i l e j. Z d á s a, ž e s v o j u n á r o d n o s ť z m e n i l b e z a k é h o - k o ľ v e k z a v á h a n i a č i z n á m k y o d p o r u, n a s k u t o č n o s ť, ž e t a k u r o b i l, a k o b y p o t o m i h n e ď z a b u d o l 9 N i e t z s c h e v r o k u v s t u p u j e d o P r u s k e j a r m á d y, t a k ž e n a p r i e k z m e n e o b č i a n s t v a v i d í m e, ž e s a s t á l e c í t i l b y ť N e m c o m. D o a r - m á d y t e d a v s t u p u j e ú p l n e s l o b o d n e, n a k o ľ k o p o v i n n o s t i n a z á k l a d e t o h o, z k t o r e j k r a j i n y p o c h á d z a l s a h o u ž v z h ľ a d o m n a t o, k t o r e j k r a j i n y j e o b č a n o m n e t ý k a l i. S o h ľ a d o m n a j e h o d i e l a m ô ž e m e t i e ž h o v o r i ť o t o m, ž e N i e t z s c h e s a n i k d y n e c í t i l b y ť Š v a j č i a r o m, d e m o k r a t i c k ý s y s t é m v o Š v a j č i a r s k u m u b o l c u d z í. N i k d y s a n e z m i e ň o - v a l o Š v a j č i a r s k u, a l e b o o t o m, ž e b o l Š v a j č i a r o m ; v l a s t - n e s a v ô b e c o š v a j č i a r s k e z á l e ž i t o s t i n e z a u j í m a l. 10 T a k - t i e ž n e m ô ž e m e o p o m e n ú ť p r i v h ľ a d e d o j e h o f i l o z o f i e f a k t, ž e o s v o j e j r o d i n e p r e h l a s o v a l, ž e j e j k o r e n e s i a h a - j ú d o P o ľ s k a. T o t o t v r d e n i e o p ô v o d e N i e t z s c h e h o r o d i n y s a n e s k ô r u k a z u j e a k o n e p r a v d i v é i k e ď a k o n e p r a v d i v é s a u k a z u j e v d o b e v y s t u p ň o v a n é h o n a c i z m u v N e m e c k u v 2 0. s t o r o č í, k e d y M a x O e h l e r v y d á v a k n i h u, v k t o r e j s l e d u j e N i e t z s c h e h o r o d. B e h o m n a c i s t i c k e j é r y v y d a l M a x O e h l e r k n i h u, v k t o r e j s l e d o v a l p ô v o d d v o c h s t o v i e k N i e t z s c h e h o p r e d k o v a u k á z a l, ž e v š e t c i b o l i N e m c i. 11 V z h ľ a d o m o t o, ž e i š l o o n a c i s t i c k ú é r u j e m o ž n é t i e t o ú d a j e n a h l i a d a ť a k o v á g n e. P o d ľ a H o l l i n g d a l a i c h v š a k m ô ž e m e b r a ť n a z r e t e ľ s o h ľ a d o m n a N i e t z s c h e h o v y j a d - r o v a n i e s a k N e m c o m, k t o r é b o l o s o h ľ a d o m n a i n é n á r o - 9 HOLLINGDALE, R.J.: Nietzsche. Olomouc: Votobia, 1998 s Tamže: s Tamže: s

12 d y o m n o h o k r i t i c k e j š i e, t e d a j e m o ž n é p r e d p o k l a d a ť, ž e N i e t z s c h e k t o r é m u s a n e p á č i l a p r e h n a n á h r d o s ť n a č o k o ľ - v e k č o s i j u n e z a s l u h o v a l o, s v o j o u k r i t i k o u a t a k t i e ž p o - u k á z a n í m n a s v o j P o ľ s k ý p ô v o d s a p o k ú š a t ý m t o u r č i t ý m s p ô s o b o m v y p o v e d a ť s v o j u ž i v o t n ú f i l o z o f i u. N e m e c k o v N i e t z s c h e h o d o b e p r e c h á d z a l o o b d o b i a m i k t o r é p r i a m v z ý v a l i p o r ô z n ý c h s m e r o d a t n ý c h f i l o z o f i c k ý c h s y s t é - m o c h, č i p o d n e t o c h. N a k o n i e c f i l o z o f i a v t e j d o b e ž i l a h l a v n e v P r u s k e j r í š i č i n e s k ô r v N e m e c k u. P o d o b e o s v i e t e n s t v a, c e z r o m a n t i z m u s s a d o s t á v a m e k H e g l o v m u u k o n č e n i u f i l o z o f i e, k t o r é s a r o z v í j a d o r ô z n y c h s m e r o v a N e m č i n a s a s t á v a r e č o u f i l o z o f o v. S á m N i e t z s c h e n a t o - t o p o u k a z u j e, k e ď v o s v o j o m Z a r a t h u s t r o v i, Z a r a t h u s t r o - v o u r e č o u h o v o r í H o s t i a m o j i, v y v y š š í ľ u d i a, c h c e m s v a m i h o v o r i ť p o n e m e c k y a z r e t e ľ n e. 12 A v š a k a k o s i m ô ž e m e v š i m n ú ť a j v t o m t o c i t á t e, n a n e d o k o n a l o s ť r e č i u k a z u j e p o c e l ý č a s v o s v o j e j p r á c i v T a k v r a v e l Z a r a t - h u s t r a. N i e t z s c h e v y š t u d o v a l l i n g v i s t i k u, p ô s o b i l a k o j e j p r o f e s o r, p r e t o j e v i a c a k o n e p r a v d e p o d o b n é, ž e b y c h y b y v j e h o p r á c i n e m a l i u r č i t ý s y m b o l, k t o r ý m m ô ž e b y ť p o u - k a z o v a n i e n a n e s c h o p n o s ť ľ u d s k e j r e č i u c h o p o v a ť v š e t k y f e n o m é n y, k t o r é s a n á m z j a v u j ú t e d a o č o m n e s k ô r p í š e W i t t g e n s t e i n : O č o m n e m o ž n o h o v o r i ť, o t o m t r e b a m l - č a ť. 13. N i e t z s c h e p r e t o p o u ž í v a m n o ž s t v o p r e v z a t ý c h t e r m í n o v z F r a n c ú z š t i n y, G r é č t i n y, A n g l i č t i n y č i L a t i n č i - n y, a l e a k o j a z y k p r e f i l o z o f o v a n i e m u o s t á v a n e m č i n a. A k o f i l o l ó g p r i s t u p u j e k p o j m o m o b z v l á š ť o b o z r e t n e s d ô r a z o m n a t o, a b y v j e h o p o j m o c h b o l i č o n a j v ý s t i ž - n e j š i e z a c h y t á v a n é j e h o p r e d s t a v y ( p r e t o j e n e m a l ý p r o b - l é m s p r á v n a i n t e r p r e t á c i a j e h o d i e l, č i č a s t á r ô z n o r o d o s ť i n t e r p r e t á c i i, d o k o n c a i c h m o ž n á v i a c z n a č n o s ť ). Z j e h o 12 NIETZSCHE, Friedrich: Tak vravel Zarathustra. Bratislava: Iris, 2002, s WITTGENSTEIN, Ludwig: Tractatus logico-philosophicus. Bratislava: Kalligram, 2003, s

13 s p ô s o b u p í s a n i a c í t i ť, ž e N e m e c k o j e s ú d o b o u m ä k k o u f i - l o z o f i e, a v š a k p o d ľ a j e h o n á z o r u j e t á t o f i l o z o f i a a ž n a p á r i n d i v i d u a l í t n e p r o s p e š n á, n e s c h o p n á A n t i c k é h o s p ô - s o b u u ž í v a n i a f i l o z o f i e, t e d a s k u t o č n é h o p r e ž í v a n i a f i l o - z o f i e. N i e t z s c h e z a č a l p o c i ť o v a ť n a c i o n á l n e t l a k y v N e m e c k u, t á t o h r d o s ť n a n á r o d v ň o m v y p r o v o k u j e a ž k v ý b u c h o m g e r m a n o f ó b i e, k t o r ý m i s a s t á v a v š e o b e c n e z n á m y m. P r i č í t a n í s p i s u E c c e H o m o v č a s t i P r í p a d W a g n e r č a s ť d r u h á s a j e h o v ý b u š n o s ť v o č i N e m c o m p r e - j a v u j e p l n e a n e s k r y t e. P o u k a z u j e n a n e č e s t n é p r a k t i k y N e m e c k é h o h i s t o r i c i z m u, s t a v i a s a p r o t i N e m e c k e j m o r á l - k e a K a n t o v m u i m p e r a t í v u, K a n t a p r á v e N i e t z s c h e v i n i l z a v z n i k p r i n c í p u k t o r ý j e p r i n c í p o m k d e G e r m á n i s ú s t a - n o v o v a t e ľ m i m o r á l k y. T u m i v š a k n i č n e m á b r á n i ť, a b y s o m b o l h r u b ý a N e m c o m p o v e d a l p á r t v r d ý c h p r á v d : k t o i n ý t o r o b í? - H o v o r í m o i c h n e č e s t n o s t i i n h i s t o r i c s. N e m e c k ý h i s t o r i c i n i e l e n ž e c e l k o m s t r a t i l i v e ľ k ú v í z i u p r e p r i e b e h d e j a k u l t ú r n e h o d n o t y, a l e s ú n a p o s p o l G a š - p a r k a m i p o l i t i k y ( a l e b o c i r k v i - ) : t ú t o v e ľ k ú v í z i u d o k o n - c a d a l i d o k l i a t b y. N a j p r v t r e b a b y ť n e m e c k ý, b y ť t e j r a s y, a u ž s a m ô ž e r o z h o d o v a ť o v š e t k ý c h h o d n o t á c h a n e h o d n o t á c h i n h i s t o r i c i s u r č i a s a.... N e m e c k ý j e a r g u m e n t, D e u t s c h l a n d, D e u t s c h l a n d ü b e r a l l e s j e p r i - c í p, G e r m á n i p r e d s t a v u j ú s v e t o v ý m o r á l n y p o r i a d o k v d e j i n á c h ; 14 V z h ľ a d o m n a t i e t o a ď a l š i e r ô z n e s ú d y v o č i n e m e c k é m u n á r o d u, j e n a o z a j o d v á ž n e m y s l i e ť s i, ž e N i e t z s c h e b o l i n i c i á t o r o m č i p r o p a g á t o r o m n a c i z m u, a l e - b o v ô b e c, ž e b y k e d y h o v o r i l o n a d r a d e n o s t i j e d n e j r a s y n a ú k o r o s t a t n ý c h r á s. V j e h o s p i s o c h j e m o ž n é n a h l i a d - n u ť t o, ž e e x i s t o v a l i n á r o d y, k t o r é d o k á z a l i b y ť n a d r a d e - n é, a l e a k o p o u k a z u j e v o s v o j o m d i e l e T a k v r a v e l Z a r a t - 14 NIETZSCHE, Friedrich: Ecce homo, Bratislava: Iris, 2004, s.81 13

14 h u s t r a, n a d r a d e n o s ť m a l a s v o j u p r í č i n u v j e d n e j, p r í p a d - n e v i a c e r ý c h o s o b á c h, n i e v n á r o d e a k o c e l k u. T á t o n a d - r a d e n o s ť b o l a s p ô s o b e n á b o j o m z a s p r á v n u v e c, z m y s e l t o h t o t v r d e n i a s a d á n a h l i a d n u ť v o z v o l a n í o d Z a r a t h u s t r u v s p i s e T a k v r a v e l Z a r a t h u s t r a v k a p i t o l e O v o j n e a ľ u ď o c h v o j n y : H o v o r í t e, ž e d o b r á v e c a j v o j n u p o s v ä - t í? J a v á m v r a v í m : d o b r á v o j n a k a ž d ú v e c p o s v ä t í! 15. N e h o v o r í o v o j n e m e d z i n á r o d m i a l e o b o j i, o b o j i p r o t i - k l a d o v, k t o r é s ú k u s e b e k l a d e n é, a l e z a t ý m t o b o j o m m u - s í b y ť u r č i t ý z á m e r, k t o r ý j e d i n e v o v o j n e ( b o j i ) m ô ž e d o k á z a ť s v o j e o p o d s t a t n e n i e. T e d a j e h o z a č l e n e n i e s a d o P r u s k e j a r m á d y, n a p r i e k t o m u, ž e t a k k o n a ť n e m u s e l, n e - m ô ž e m e b r a ť a k o u k á ž k u j e h o n á r o d n é h o p o v e d o m i a, a l e s k ô r a k o j e h o p r e s v e d č e n i e, ž e b o j u j e z a s p r á v n u v e c. P o d o b n e j e j e h o z a n i e t e n i e k b o j u z a s p r á v n u v e c v i d i - t e ľ n é v p r í p a d e j e h o b o j a z a o č i s t e n i e ľ u d s k ý c h p r e d s u d - k o v, h l a v n e v o h ľ a d e k m o r á l k e. O n s á m j e z á s t a n c o m p u - d o v é h o, v ô ľ o v é h o s p r á v a n i a s a, t v r d í, ž e l e n t a k č l o v e k m ô ž e b y ť s k u t o č n e š ť a s t n ý. Z a p r í k l a d ľ u d í k t o r ý s ú š ť a s t n ý d á v a s t a r ý c h G r é k o v, e š t e z d ô b k e d y v š e t k o b o l o v y s v e t ľ o v a n é p o m o c o u m ý t o v, k e d y z o d p o v e d n o s ť z a a k é - k o ľ v e k č i n y b o l a n a b o h o c h, č i ž e č l o v e k s a n e z a o b e r a l t ý m, č o m u s í a l e i b a t ý m č o c h c e, P l a t ó n a p o v a ž u j e z a p o č i a t o k k o n c a š ť a s t n é h o p r e ž í v a n i a ľ u d s k é h o ž i v o t a. V o s v o j e j G e n e a l ó g i i m o r á l k y p r i a m o ú t o č í n a z a k l a d a t e ľ o v a k e j k o ľ v e k v i e r y, n o h l a v n e n a k r e s ť a n s t v o ( z j a v n e p r e - t o, l e b o m u b o l o n a j b l i ž š i e, p o d o b n e a k o ú t o č e n i e n a N e m c o v ). P r á v e v t ý c h t o j e h o n a h l i a d n u t i a c h, c e z t o, č o j e m u n a j b l i ž š i e v i d í m u r č i t ú s p o j i t o s ť s m o d e r n o u e x i s - t e n c i o n á l n o u f i l o z o f i o u, č i v ô b e c m ô ž e m e v i d i e ť a k o o d - k a z k t o r ý, n á m p o m ô ž e p r i v i e s ť n a š u i n t e n c i o n a l i t u 15 NIETZSCHE, Friedrich: Tak vravel Zarathustra. Bratislava: Iris, 2002 s

15 s p r á v n y m s m e r o m k n a h l i a d n u t i u j e h o f i l o z o f i e. T v r d í m, ž e j e d i n e t a k, a k s v o j u o p t i k u n a h l i a d a n i a n a f i l o z o f i u F r i e d r i c h a N i e t z s c h e h o n a s t a v í m e a k o n a h l i a d a n i e n a f i - l o z o f i u, k t o r á r e f l e k t u j e s v o j e n a j b l i ž š i e r e á l n e o k o l i e, m ô ž e m e s p r á v n e p o c h o p i ť o d k a z o m t e j t o f i l o z o f i e. T e d a a k o p r v é m u s í m e b r a ť v z r e t e ľ j e h o v z d e l a n i e, d o b u a p r o s t r e d i e v k t o r o m ž i l. 15

16 2. N A D Č L O V E K F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e p r i c h á d z a s o š o k u j ú c o u t e ó r i o u, k e d y o d m i e t a u k o n č e n i e e v o l ú c i e a k o n a j v y š š í m u s k u t o č n e n í m v č l o v e k u a h o v o r í o ď a l š e j n u t n e j e v o l ú c i i a t o o e v o l ú c i i s m e r u j ú c e j k v ý v i n u č l o v e k a v t a k z v a n é h o n a d č l o v e k a. T á t o e v o l ú c i a n i e j e b e z p o d m i e n e č n á, p o d - m i e n k o u j e o s l o b o d e n i e s a č l o v e k a o d d e t e r m i n u j ú c i c h f a k t o r o v v j e h o ž i v o t e a s p r á v n e p o c h o p e n i e j e h o v l a s t - n e j v ô l e, k t o r ú m u s í z a č a ť b e z p o d m i e n e č n e u s k u t o č ň o v a ť. T e n t o p r o c e s, p r e m e n u č l o v e k a v n a d č l o v e k a o p i s u j e v o s v o j e j p r á c i n a z v a n e j T a k v r a v e l Z a r a t h u s t r a, k t o r á j e p o d ľ a j e h o s l o v u v á d z a n ý c h v p r á c i E c c e H o m o z á k l a - d o m k p o c h o p e n i u j e h o f i l o z o f i e a f i l o z o f i a F r i e d r i c h a N i e t z s c h e h o j e m o ž n á p o c h o p i ť j e d i n e a k s a p r e ž i j e T a k v r a v e l Z a r a t h u s t r a V t o m t o d i e l e j e p o d ľ a N i e t z s c h e h o u k r y t ý c e l ý j e h o p o - h ľ a d n a s v e t. N i e t z s c h e s a k t o m u t o d i e l u v o s v o j e j p r á c i E c c e H o m o v y j a d r u j e a k o p r i m á r n e l i t e r á r n e j p r á c i, a v - š a k s o h ľ a d o m n a t o, k t o t o t o d i e l o b u d e č í t a ť, t e d a h l a v - n e a k h o b u d e č í t a ť s ú d o b ý m o d e r n ý č l o v e k, m a l b y k n e m u p r i s t u p o v a ť a k o k d i e l u l i t e r á r n e m u, l e b o p o d ľ a N i e t z s c h e h o n i e j e v j e h o m o c i t o m u t o d i e l u p o r o z u m i e ť. T a k a k o h o v o r í H e r a k l e i t o s : V o č i r e č i p l a t n e j v ž d y n e c h á p a v í s ú ľ u d i a, a k o p r e d - t ý m, n e ž j u p o č u l i, t a k p o t o m č o b u d ú p o č u ť p o p r v é. A j k e ď s a v š e t k o d e j e p o d ľ a t e j t o r e č i, p o d o b a j ú s a n e s k ú s e - n ý m, k e ď z a k ú š a j ú t a k é t o s l o v a a d i e l a, a k o i c h j a v y k l a - d á m 16 Z j a v n e o v p l y v n e n ý H e r a k l e i t o m, j e p r e s v e d č e n ý, ž e n i e č o m u č o č l o v e k p o č u j e p r v ý k r á t, n i e j e m o ž n é p o - 16 KRATOCHVÍL, Zdeněk: Délský potápěč k Hérakleitově řeči, Praha: HERMAN & SYNOVÉ, 2006, s

17 c h o p i ť o k a m ž i t e, t a k a k o k e ď d i e ť a p r v ý k r á t p o č u j e z v u - k y. V z h ľ a d o m n a t o, ž e j a v t o m t o d i e l e n a c h á d z a m r e l e - v a n t n é o d k a z y n a f i l o z o f i u v z ť a h u j ú c u s a n a ž i v o t č l o v e - k a a z r o d n a d č l o v e k a, s t a v i a m s a k t o m u t o d i e l u a k o k s č a s t i f i l o z o f i c k é m u a p r e t o h o b u d e m v o s v o j e j p r á c i p r i m á r n e p o u ž í v a ť k o z r e j m o v a n i u m y š l i e n o k v z ť a h u j ú - c i c h s a k n a d č l o v e k u v p o n í m a n í F r i e d r i c h a N i e t z s c h e h o. Z a r a t h u s t r a b o l s k u t o č n á h i s t o r i c k á p o s t a v a, k t o r á b o l a h l á s a t e ľ o m n o v é h o n á b o ž e n s t v a č i l e p š i e p o v e d a n é r e f o r - m y d o v t e d a j š i e h o n á b o ž e n s t v a, k t o r é s a n e s k ô r s t a l o š t á t n y m n á b o ž e n s t v o m v I r á n e. J e v h o d n é t e r a z t u u v i e s ť n i e k o ľ k o ž i v o t o p i s n ý c h p o d r o b n o s t í z o ž i v o t a Z a r a t h u s t r u n a k o ľ k o d i e l o F r i e d r i c h a N i t z s c h e h o j e p l n é o d k a z o v n a ž i v o t t o h t o r e f o r m á t o r a n á b o ž e n s t v a Z a r a t h u s t r a a k o h i s t o r i c k á p o s t a v a Z a r a t h u s t r a p ô s o b i l n i e k e d y v o b d o b í m e d z i r o k m i a ž p r e d K r i s t o m. P r e s n e j š i e o h r a n i č e n é o b d o b i e j e h o ž i v o t a, v y c h á d z a j ú c z ú d a j o v o d M i r c e a E l i a d e h o z j e h o p r á c e D e j i n y n á b o ž e n s k é h o m y s l e n i a, h o v o r i a o o b d o b í m e d z i r o k m i a p r e d K r i s t o m. S t a r š i e č a s o v é ú d a j e, k t o r é p o u k a z u j ú n a o b d o b i e p ô s o b e n i a Z a - r a t h u s t r u s ú s p ô s o b e n é a r c h a i c k ý m j a z y k o m g á t h ( k t o r ý c h a u t o r s t v o s a p r i p i s u j e Z a r a t h u s t r o v i ) a i c h a n a l ó g i e s v é d a m i. Z a r a t h u s t r a k á z a l p a s t i e r o m, k t o r í m a l i s v o j i c h n á č e l n í k o v a j k ň a z o v. S v o j í m p o s o l s t v o m n a p á d a l t ý c h t o k ň a z o v, n á s l e d k o m č o h o m u s e l o d í s ť z o s v o j h o d o m o v a, n a k o n i e c s a m u d a r í u s a d i ť v k m e n i F r i j a n o v, k t o r é h o n á - č e l n í k a s a m u p o d a r í o b r á t i ť n a s v o j u v i e r u. Z g á t h s a d á v y č í t a ť n i e k o ľ k o ú d a j o v o Z a r a t h u s t r o v e j m i s i o n á r s k e j č i n n o s t i. P r o r o k j e o b k l o p e n ý s k u p i n o u p r i a t e ľ o v 17

18 a ž i a k o v, p r e z í v a n ý c h c h u d o b n í ( d r i g u ), p r i a t e - l i a ( f r j a ), v e d i a c i ( v í d v a ), z d r u ž e n í ( u r v a t h a ). 17 P r o t i t o m u t o Z a r a t h u s t r o v m u s p o l o č e n s t v u s a s t a v i a i n ý s p o - l o k, t z v. m u ž s k ý s p o l o k a m e d z i t ý m i t o s p o l o č e n s t v a m i s a v e d ú t v r d é b o j e. N a b á d a p r i a t e ľ o v : P r e t o k l a m á r o v r o z s e k a j t e s v o j o u z b r a ň o u Z a r a t h u s t r a v y z ý v a p r i a t e ľ o v, z o s ú č a s n é h o p o h ľ a d u, k u k r u t é m u z a o b c h á d z a n i u s n e p r i a t e ľ m i, k d e n e p r i a t e l i a s ú h l a v n e v š e t c i t í, k t o r í z á m e r n e p o d v á d z a j ú, n e h o v o r i a p r a v d u. T a k t i e ž Z a r a t h u s - t r a o d m i e t a o b e t o v a n i e d o b y t k a b o h o m. Z a r a t h u s t r a o d - m i e t a ž i v o t n a z á k l a d e m ý t u, p ý t a s a B o h a n a o t á z k y b y - t o s t n é h o c h a r a k t e r u a t u b y s o m v i d e l j e d e n z d ô v o d o v N i e t z s c h e h o i n š p i r o v a n i a s a t ý m t o p o s l o m n o v ý c h m y š - l i e n o k. M y š l i e n o k r o z b í j a j ú c i c h d o t e r a j š i e m r a v n é h o d n o - t y. Z á k l a d n o u m r a v n o u h o d n o t o u v p r í p a d e Z a r a t h u s t r u j e h o d n o t a s l o b o d y, č l o v e k s i m ô ž e s l o b o d n e z v o l i ť d o b r o č i z l o. T o t o s a n e s k ô r p r e n á š a d o d n e š n é h o n á b o ž e n s t v a a k e j k o ľ v e k v i e r y. A v š a k u N i e t z s c h e h o z a v á ž i l a v i a c i n á z v e s ť a t o t á, ž e č l o v e k m á n a s l e d o v a ť p r í k l a d B o h a, t e d a v p r í p a d e Z a r a t h u s t r u, p r í k l a d A h u r a M a z d y. T o t o n a s l e - d o v a n i e s i č l o v e k v o l í s l o b o d n e, o b d o b u t a k é h o t o c h á p a - n i a B o h a m ô ž e m e v i d i e ť n a p r í k l a d v s ú č a s n e j k r e a č n o - e v o l u č n e j o n t o l ó g i i, k t o r á p o d o b n e a k o u Z a r a t h u s t r u p o - n e c h á v a s l o b o d u v č l o v e k u a B o h a p o n e c h á v a a k o u k a z o - v a t e ľ s p r á v n e h o s m e r u e v o l ú c i e k v y š š e j f o r m e b y t o s t n é - h o u p l a t n e n i a s a č l o v e k a. Z a r a t h u s t r o v a o n t o l ó g i a n a - p r i e k t o m u, ž e A t h u r a M a z d a j e o t c o m n i e k o ľ k ý c h b y t o s t í n i e j e v n a j p r í s n e j š o m s l o v a z m y s l e d u a l i s t i c k á. 18 Ď a l š í m i n š p i r a t í v n y m k r o k o m p r e N i e t z s c h e h o v ž i v o t e Z a r a t h u s - t r u j e n e s p o r n e t o, ž e s p r a v o d l i v o s ť z v í ť a z í n a d t v o r e n í m z l a a k o a j t o, ž e Z a r a t h u s t r a s á m s e b a u r č u j e z a s p a s i t e - 17 ELIADE, Mircea: Dejiny náboženského myslenia Praha: Oikoymenh,1995, s Pozri: ELIADE, Mircea: Dejiny náboženského myslenia. Praha: Oikoymenh,1995, s

19 ľ a. N e z a n e d b a t e ľ n ú i n š p i r á c i u t ý m t o d e j a t e ľ o m m ô ž e m e v i d i e ť t i e ž v t o m, ž e o d r a z y j e h o n a j n á d h e r n e j š í c h m ý t o v n a c h á d z a m e a j v G o e t h o v o m F a u s t o v i U r č u j ú c e v l a s t n o s t i n a d č l o v e k a a k o n o v é h o d r u h u. D i e l o T a k v r a v e l Z a r a t h u s t r a j e r o z d e l e n é d o š t y - r o c h h l a v n ý c h č a s t í. T o t o r o z d e l e n i e j e u r č o v a n é n á v r a t - n o s ť o u, k t o r á j e u k a z o v a n á a k o n e u s t á l e a n u t n é s a v r a - c a n i e č l o v e k a, č i n a d č l o v e k a k z d r o j u s v o j i c h a k t u a l í t, k t o r é m u u r č u j ú j e h o ď a l š i e s m e r o v a n i e k v ý v i n u. Š t v r t á k a p i t o l a j e a k b y s m e j u p o n í m a l i v o f o r m e l i t e r á r n e j k r i - t i k y n á d h e r n ý m v y v r c h o l e n í m a p o u k á z a n í m n a k o n e č n ú p o s l e d n ú n e m e n n o s ť u k a z u j ú c u s a p r i a m o v b y t í. Z a r a t h u s t r a v N i e t z s c h e h o d i e l e o d c h á d z a z d o m o v a z a n e o b j a s n e n ý c h o k o l n o s t í a v š a k, p r a v d e p o d o b n e s a t e n - t o o d c h o d k r y j e s o d c h o d o m Z a r a t h u s t r u h i s t o r i c k e j p o s t a v y. N i e t z s c h e p o e t i c k y o p i s u j e s p ô s o b Z a r a t h u s t r o - v e j p r e m e n y z č l o v e k a n a Z a r a t h u s t r u. Z a r a t h u s t r a s a p o d e s i a t i c h r o k o c h ž i v o t a v o s v o j e j s a m o t e r o z h o d o l k n á v r a t u m e d z i ľ u d í, p o d ľ a N i e t z s c h e h o s l o v, s a r o z h o - d o l o p ä ť s t a ť č l o v e k o m, č í m s a z a č a l j e h o z á n i k, k t o r ý s i m ô ž e m e v y s v e t ľ o v a ť a k o z á n i k Z a r a t h u s t r u o s e b e. H n e ď v t e j t o p r v e j č a s t i a p r e d h o v o r e j e k r á s n e v i d i e ť o d k a z k e x i s t e n c i a l i z m u k e d y Z a r a t h u s t r a s a p o z n á v a c e z s e b a, v n í m a n í m s e b a : T u s a k o c h a l s v o j í m d u c h o m a s v o j o u s a m o t o u a a n i p o d e s i a t i c h r o k o c h s a i c h n e n a b a ž i l. N a - p o k o n s a v š a k p r e m e n i l o e h o s r d c e a j e d n é h o r á n a v s t a l s r a n n o u z o r o u, p r e d s t ú p i l p r e d s l n k o a t a k t o s a m u p r i - h o v o r i l : T y v e ľ k á h v i e z d a! A k é b y b o l o š ť a s t i e k e b y s i 19

20 n e m a l a k o m u s v i e t i ť? 19 J e ť a ž k o v k l a d a ť d o t a k ý c h t o s l o v a k ý k o ľ v e k v ý z n a m, j a v š a k n a z á k l a d e v l a s t n ý c h s k ú s e n o s t i s a o d v á ž i m t v r d i ť, ž e v t ý c h t o s l o v á c h m ô ž e - m e v i d i e ť o t á z k u t y p u - A k é b y b o l o m o j e š ť a s t i e a k b y s o m n e m o h o l u k á z a ť s v o j e p o z n a n i e? P r e č o b y s o m i n a k p o z n a l? V t o m t o p o h n u t í m y s l e s a v y d á v a Z a r a t h u s t r a s p r o s t r e d k o v a ť ľ u ď o m s v o j e n a h l i a d n u t i e, k t o r é u s k u t o č - n i l v o s v o j e j s a m o t e. V p r v e j č a s t i, p r e d h o v o r e, t e d a n a - h l i a d a m e z á k l a d n é p o z n a n i a Z a r a t h u s t r u s p r o s t r e d k o v a n é n a h l i a d a n í m d o h ĺ b k y ľ u d s k e j d u š e. Z a r a t h u s t r a v s e b e p o z n a l t o, ž e č l o v e k m á k o n a ť t a k, a b y h o j e h o k o n a n i e r o b i l o š ť a s t n ý m, p o z n a l t o, ž e č l o v e k m u s í b y ť p r o s t r i e d - k o m p r e d o s i a h n u t i e n a d č l o v e k a, ž e s v o j e p o z n a n i e m u s í p o s k y t n ú ť ď a l e j, a b y p r i p r a v i l ľ u d í n a p r í c h o d n a d č l o v e - k a a z á r o v e ň a b y m o h o l b y ť š ť a s t n ý, p o z n a l t o, ž e š ť a s t - n ý m s a s t a n e l e n n a z á k l a d e u s k u t o č ň o v a n i a s v o j e j v ô l e a p r e t o z á k l a d o m p r e u s k u t o č ň o v a n i e s v o j h o š ť a s t i a, j e p o z n a n i e v l a s t n e j v ô l e. U ž v s a m o t n o m p r e d h o v o r e p r i - c h á d z a Z a r a t h u s t r a d o k o n f l i k t u s o s v o j í m o k o l í m, n i e p r e t o, ž e b y o n t e n t o k o n f l i k t v y t v á r a l, a l e z i s ť u j e, ž e ľ u d i a n i e s ú p r i p r a v e n ý j e h o p o s o l s t v o p r i j a ť. Z i s ť u j e, ž e n i e j e a n i z ď a l e k a t a k ý m ú d r y a k o b y m a l. O d m i e t a ľ u d - s k ý p o h ľ a d n a m ú d r o s ť a h o v o r í o m ú d r o s t i n a b á z e ž i v o - č í š n y c h p u d o v, o m ú d r o s t i, k t o r á s a n e r i a d i r o z u m o m, a l e n a z á k l a d e n a h l i a d n u t i a s k u t o č n e j v ô l e v h ĺ b k e j e d i n c a. K i e ž b y s o m b o l m ú d r e j š í! K i e ž b y s o m b o l m ú d r y o d p r i r o d z e n o s t i, a k o m ô j h a d 20. P o p r e d h o v o r e N i e t z s c h e p o k r a č u j e v s p i s e Z a r a t h u s t r o v ý m i r e č a m i, v k t o r ý c h Z a - r a t h u s t r a p o u k a z u j e n a z á k l a d n é n a z r e t i a v b y t í č l o v e k a, k t o r é p o z n a l. N i e t z s c h e t u p o u k a z u j e n a r ô z n e f o r m y v n í m a n i a č l o v e k a, a k o i n a r ô z n u o r i e n t á c i u č l o v e k a v o 19 NIETZSCHE, Friedrich: Tak vravel Zarathustra. Bratislava: Iris, 2002, s Tamže: s

21 s v e t e, k t o r é n a h l i a d o l s k r z e v l a s t n é b y t i e. V č a s t i k t o r ú n a z ý v a O t r o c h p r e m e n á c h p r e d s t a v u j e d u c h a v t r o c h p o d o b á c h. T á t o p r e m e n a d u c h a s a t ý k a č l o v e k a, t o h t o d u - c h a p r i r o v n á v a v o s v o j i c h p r e m e n á c h ť a v e, l e v o v i a d i e ť a ť u. T á t o p r e m e n a j e v l a s t n e p r e m e n o u, k t o r o u m u - s í p r e j s ť č l o v e k a k s a m á s t a ť n a d č l o v e k o m. Ť a v a j e s y m - b o l p r e ť a ž n é h o d u c h a, d u c h, k t o r é h o r o b i a š ť a s t n ý m j e h o p o v i n n o s t i, z á ť a ž k t o r á h o r o b í v j e h o o č i a c h p o t r e b n ý m. D u c h k t o r é m u s a h o d í p r i r o v n a n i e l e v í d u c h s a v z n i k á z d u c h a ť a ž n é h o, t e n t o d u c h h ľ a d á s p o r, s p o r a b y s o z r e j m i l p r a v d u, t e n t o d u c h s a c h c e s t a ť s l o b o d n ý m, n e c h c e ž i a d n e h o v l á d c u, n e c h c e B o h a. T u t e n t o d u c h s t o j í p r e d n a j v ä č š o u p r e k á ž k o u, p r e d p r e k á ž k o u, k t o r e j m e n o z n i e m u s í š, j e t o p r e k á ž k a k t o r á h o z o t r o č u j e, t ú t o p r e - k á ž k u v š a k d u c h L e v a p r e k o n á v a, n i e j e t o j e d n o d u c h á p r e k á ž k a j e t o p r e k á ž k a v k t o r e j b o l v y c h o v á v a n ý, p r e - k á ž k a t i s í c r o č n ý c h h o d n ô t, ť a ž k é j e s a o s l o b o d i ť a c í t i ť s a s l o b o d n ý m. P r i s v o j i ť s i p r á v o n a n o v é h o d n o t y j e n a j h o r š i e n á s i l i e p r e n o s n é h o ú c t i v é h o d u c h a. V e r u, j e t o p r e ň k r á d e ž a v e c l ú p e ž n e j š e l m y. 21 T ý m j e m y s l e n é, ž e n a j v i a c o d p o r o v a ť n o v ý m h o d n o t á m b u d ú t í, k t o r ý c h t i e t o h o d n o t y n a j v i a c u t l á č a j ú, č l o v e k s n a ž i a c i s a o u p l a t n e n i e s v o j e j v ô l e i m p r i p a d á a k o z l o. K u ď a l š e j p r e m e n e d u c h a p r i c h á d z a p o u p l a t n e n í s i v l a s t n e j v ô l e, p o v y b o j o v a n í s i c e s t y p r e v l a s t n ú v ô ľ u, t o t o p r i n á š a k o n k r é t n e m u d u c h o v i n e v i n n o s ť a z a b u d n u t i e, j e t o n o v ý z a č i a t o k, h r a, j e s a m o s a k r ú t i a c e k o l e s o, j e p r v ý p o h y b, j e p o s v ä t n é Á n o. Á n o p r e s v o j u v l a s t n ú v ô ľ u. 22 V ď a l š e j č a s t i Z a r a t h u s t r a r o z - p r á v a o s p ô s o b o c h m a n i p u l o v a n i a ľ u ď m i, v z m y s l e, ž e i m s t a č í j e d n o d u c h ý i d e á l, č l o v e k s a h o d r ž í, d r ž í s a h o p r e - t o a b y m a l s v o j c i e ľ a n e v y b o č o v a l z r a d u, a b y m a l d o b r ý 21 Tamže: s Tamže: s

22 s p á n o k. O d m i e t a t ý c h, k t o r í o p o v r h u j ú t e l o m a v y z n á v a j ú i b a d u c h a, n e v i d í v n i c h c e s t u k n a d č l o v e k u, t e l e s n o s ť p a t r í č l o v e k u r o v n a k o a k o d u š e v n o, č l o v e k s a m u s í u s k u - t o č ň o v a ť s v o j o u v ô ľ o u r o v n a k o t e l e s n e a k o d u c h o v n e i n a k b y n e m o h o l d o s t á ť p l n é m u š ť a s t i u. N i e t z s c h e m á ť a ž k é s r d c e n a š t á t. T e n t o z n e m o ž ň u j e, a l e b o s ť a ž u j e p r e m e n u č l o v e k a v n a d č l o v e k a, s ť a ž u j e n a z á k l a d e t o h o, ž e č l o v e k j e v ň o m r i a d e n ý n a z á k l a d e n á h o d, p r e t o ž e u ž n i e j e n á r o d o m, k t o r ý s t v o r i l n e j a k ý o t e c n á r o d o v, a l e j e v k l i e t k e u z a v r e t e j ú r a d n í k m i, k t o r ý č l o v e k a n e c h a j ú p i ť i c h j e d n a o m á m e n i e m y š l i e n o k k v l a s t n e j v ô l i. Š t á t n a - z ý v a N i e t z s c h e n o v o u m o d l o u. T a m, k d e p r e s t á v a š t á t, a ž t a m s a z a č í n a č l o v e k, k t o r ý n i e j e z b y t o č n ý : t a m s a z a č í n a p i e s e ň p o t r e b n o s t i, t á j e d i n e č n á, n e n a h r a d i t e ľ n á m e l ó d i a. T a m k d e p r e s t á v a š t á t, - v e ď s a p o z r i t e b r a t i a m o j i! V a r i j u n e v i d í t e, t u d ú h u, t i e m o s t y n a d č l o v e k a? - 23 P o d ľ a N i e t z s c h e h o j e d i n e m i m o š t á t n e z r i a d e n i e, m i m o z á k o n o v v y m y s l e n ý c h n i e p r e č l o v e k a, a l e h l a v n e p r e v l á d c u s a m ô ž e č l o v e k d o s t a ť k p r e m e n e v n a d č l o v e k a. V k a p i t o l e n a z v a n e j O m u c h á c h n a t r h u p o u k a z u j e n a t o, č o v s ú č a s n e j p o s t m o d e r n e j d o b e j e o č i v i d n é, ž e č l o - v e k j e p o h l t e n ý o b c h o d o m, k d e m o r á l k a č l o v e k a j e n a t a - k e j ú r o v n i, k e d y u ž č l o v e k a n i n e m ô ž e h o v o r i ť p r a v d u p r e t o, a b y p r e ž i l. M y s l í m t ý m o b c h o d n é p r a k t i k y r ô z n ý c h s p o l o č n o s t í ( r e k l a m a, o b a l p r e d á v a ), k e d y a k á k o ľ v e k l o ž, k t o r á d o k á ž e t v o r i ť z i s k j e p o s v ä t n á. V p o d s t a t e v p r v e j č a s t i N i e t z s c h e p o u k a z u j e a r o z v r a c i a z a u ž í v a n é m o d l y v s ú d o b e j s p o l o č n o s t i, k t o r é s a d a j ú a p l i k o v a ť a j n a d n e š n ú d o b u. Z a r a t h u s t r a t e d a v o s v o j e j p r v e j r e č i p o z m e n e s v o j h o s r d c a u p o z o r ň u j e a v y v r a c i a z a u ž í v a n é m o d l y p r e p o t r e b u e v o l ú c i e č l o v e k a, k t o r á m á b y ť z a v ŕ - 23 Tamže: s

23 š e n á v p r e m e n e n a n a d č l o v e k a. V k a ž d e j s v o j e j r e č i z á r o - v e ň u k a z u j e n a s p ô s o b č i m o ž n o s ť o d p ú t a n i a s a o d z a u ž í - v a n ý c h h o d n ô t, č o b u d e m a ť z a n á s l e d o k n a h l i a d n u t i e č i d o k o n c a u s k u t o č n e n i e n a d č l o v e k a č l o v e k o m, k t o r ý d o k á ž e t i e t o h o d n o t y v y t v o r e n é i b a č l o v e k o m p r e k r o č i ť. T r a n s c e n d e n t á l n a r e f l e x i a v š e t k ý c h ľ u d s k ý c h h o d n ô t j e p o d m i e n k o u p r e o r t o t r o p n é u s k u t o č ň o v a n i e č l o v e k a. Z a - r a t h u s t r a o k r e m u ž h o r e u v e d e n ý c h t é m r o z o b e r á v p r v e j č a s t i v i a c e r o i n ý c h p r o b l é m o v, m e d z i k t o r é o k r e m i n é h o p a t r i a a j r o d i n a, e k o l ó g i a, z d r a v i e, l á s k a, m o r á l k a. J e h o r e č i s a d o t ý k a j ú v e ľ k é h o o k r u h u ľ u d s k é h o ž i v o t a. V d r u h e j č a s t i s v o j e j k n i h y v p r v e j k a p i t o l e n a z v a - n e j D i e ť a s o z r k a d l o m N i e t z s c h e p o u k a z u j e n a z n e u ž í - v a n i e f i l o z o f i e v p r o s p e c h z l a. T e d a u k a z u j e n a t o, ž e a k o k o ľ v e k d o b r e v y p r a c o v a n á f i l o z o f i a b ý v a č a s t o z n e - u ž í v a n á a p r e k r ú c a n á t a k, a b y s a h o d i l a t ý m, k t o r ý m a j ú z á u j e m n a z n e u ž í v a n í m o c i, k t o r ú i m t á - k t o r á f i l o z o f i a p o m á h a n a d o b u d n ú ť. O s v o j e j m ú d r o s t i h o v o r í a k o o s v o j b y t n o m o r g a n i z m e, k t o r ý c e z n e h o s p r o s t r e d k ú v a s p r á v n y s p ô s o b p o h ľ a d u n a e x i s t e n c i u. V t o m t o d u c h u p o k r a č u j e v t e j t o č a s t i ď a l e j, p o u k a z u j e n a s p ô s o b y m o ž - n o s t i z n e u ž i t i a f i l o z o f i e, a k o a j n a v y k o n á v a t e ľ o v t ý c h t o z n e u ž i t í. V k a p i t o l e n a z v a n e j N a b l a ž e n ý c h o s t r o v o c h a n a l y z u j e s v o j e f i l o z o f i c k é v ý c h o d i s k á, k d e h o v o r í o i n š p i r á c i i S c h o p e n h a u e r o v o u f i l o z o f i o u, k t o r á m u a j o d p o v e d á n a o t á z k u p r e č o o n s á m ( N i e t z s c h e ) h o v o r í o s m r t i B o h a. 24 N i e t z s c h e v t e j t o k a p i t o l e d á v a j a s n e n a j - a v o, ž e n i e t ý m o č o m s a d o m n i e v a m e s a m á m e z a o b e r a ť, a l e t ý m k a m s m e r u j e n a š a v ô ľ a, t o n á m j e u m o ž n e n é z ľ a h k a n a h l i a d n u ť p r i r e t r o s p e k t í v n o m p o h ľ a d e n a s v o j u d o t e r a j š i u e x i s t e n c i u. K u z i s t e n i u t o h o n a j d ô l e ž i t e j š i e h o 24 Pozri: NIETZSCHE, Friedrich: Tak vravel Zarathustra.2002 s

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