Data Converter Fundamentals. Introduction


 Marianna Berry
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Data Converter Fundamentals slide of 33 Introduction Two main types of converters NyquistRate Converters Generate output having a onetoone relationship with a single input value. Rarely sample at Nyquistrate because of need for antialiasing and reconstruction filters. Typically 3 to 20 times input signal s bandwidth. Oversampling Converters Operate much faster than Nyquistrate (20 to 52 times faster) Shape quantization noise out of bandwidth of interest, post signal processing filters out quantization noise. slide 2 of 33
2 Ideal D/A Converter B in D/A V out defined to be an Nbit digital signal (or word) B in b i equals or 0 (i.e., b i is a binary digit) is MSB while is LSB b Assume B in = b 2 + b b N 2 N B in b N is positive unipolar conversion () slide 3 of 33 Ideal D/A Converter Output voltage related to digital input and reference voltage by Max V out = ( b 2 + b b N 2 N ) = B in V out is ( 2 N ) Multiplying DAC realized by allowing to be another input signal Ideal DAC has welldefined values (not same for A/D) (2) slide 4 of 33
3 V out Ideal DAC Converter 2bit DAC 3/4 /2 / =  = LSB (00) B in and 2 N LSB = N slide 5 of 33 Example An 8bit D/A converter has = 5 V. What is the output voltage when B in = 0000? B in = = V out = B in = 3.56 V Find. VLSB = = 9.5 mv (3) (4) (5) slide 6 of 33
4 Ideal A/D Converter V in A/D B out ( b 2 + b b N 2 N ) = V in ± V x (6) where  V 2 LSB V x < V 2 LSB (7) slide 7 of 33 Ideal A/D Converter B = /4 = LSB out /4 /2 3/4 V 0 V V in A range of valid input values produces same digital output word quantization error. No quantization error in D/A converter case. slide 8 of 33
5 Ideal A/D Converter Transitions offset by 0.5 so midpoint are same as D/A case Quantizer Overload Quantization error limited to ± 2 otherwise quantizer is said to be overloaded. Overloading occurs when input signal is beyond one of the two last transition voltages. In 2bit example, input should be greater than 8 and less than 7 8 slide 9 of 33 Quantization Noise V in A/D B V D/A + V Q Quantization noise V in V V 2 LSB V Q t (Time) V 2 LSB T t (Time) V Q V V in = V V in V Q or = + (8) slide 0 of 33
6 Quantization Noise V Q V in V V in V V = V in + V Q Quantizer Model Above model is exact approx made when assumptions made about Often assume V Q is white, uniformily distributed number between ± V 2 LSB V Q slide of 33 Quantization Noise Average of quantization noise is zero. Power of quantization noise can be shown to equal V Qrms = Each extra bit results in noise power decrease of 6dB Noise power is independent of sampling frequency If assume input signal is a sinusoid of peak amplitude of 2 ( ) V in( rms) SNR ( 2 2) = log = 20 log V Qrms ( ) ( 2) SNR = 6.02N +.76 db (9) slide 2 of 33
7 SNR (db) Quantization Noise 0bit Best possible SNR ( V = V ) pp ref V ( db) in SNR reaches max when input signal is max (might improve SNR if oversampling used) slide 3 of 33 Example A 200mV pp sinusoidal signal is applied to an ideal 2bit A/D converter for which = 5 V. Find the SNR of the digitized output signal. First, find max SNR if fullscale sinusoidal waveform of ±2.5 V applied SNR max = = 74 db Since input is only ± 00mV it is 28 db below full scale, so SNR of digitized output is SNR = = 46 db (0) () slide 4 of 33
8 Signed Codes Often need converters for both positive and negative signals signed codes Sign Magnitude Neg numbers simply invert MSB s Complement Neg numbers invert all bits Offset Binary Assign to most negative number and count up 2 s Complement Invert MSB of offset binary case or... Neg numbers are LSB larger than s complement slide 5 of 33 Number Normalized number Signed Codes Sign magnitude s complement Offset binary 2 s complement +3 +3/ / / ( 0) ( 0) (00) () / / / / s complement most common when doing signal processing slide 6 of 33
9 2 s Complement Offset Binary s Complement Each have wraparound behaviour slide 7 of 33 2 s Complement Benefits Addition of both positive numbers is done with simple addition (nothing extra needed) Subtraction of A B done by complementing bits of B and adding LSB into carryin of adder Can go above max as long as final result is within range (no overflow hardware needed) Example 2+3+(4) = = = 00 Final result of correct though temp result of 3 obtained slide 8 of 33
10 Performance Limitations For D/A measure, use output voltage levels For A/D measure, use transition points (easier than midpoints) B out = /4 = LSB /4 /2 3/4 V 0 V V in slide 9 of 33 Offset and Gain Error V out /4 /2 /4 Offset error Ideal Gain error (00) B in slide 20 of 33
11 Offset and Gain Error D/A converter units of LSB: A/D converter deviation of V E out off( D A) = V 0 0 from 2 LSB E off A D V 0 0 ( ) = LSB 2 With gain error, set offset error to zero V E out gain( D A) = V E gain( A D) = V out V ( 2 N ) ( 2 N 2) (2) (3) (4) slide 2 of 33 Resolution Resolution and Accuracy Number of distinct analog levels n Nbit resolution can resolve 2 N distinct analog levels. Absolute Accuracy Difference between the expected and actual transfer responses includes offset, gain and linearity errors Relative Accuracy After offset and gain errors removed also called maximum integral nonlinearity error A 2bit accuracy implies that the converter s error is less than the fullscale value divided by 2 2 slide 22 of 33
12 Resolution and Accuracy A converter may have 2bit resolution with only 0 bit accuracy Another converter may have 0bit resolution with 2bit accuracy. Accuracy greater than resolution means converter s transfer response is very precisely controlled better than the number of bits of resolution. Example A two bit D/A (resolution 2bits) with output levels at 0.0, /4, 2/4, 3/4 is ideal (infinite bit accuracy since no errors) slide 23 of 33 Integral Nonlinearity (INL) Error V out Integral nonlinearity error (bestfit) 3/4 /2 Integral nonlinearity error (endpoint) / (00) B in slide 24 of 33
13 INL Error After both offset and gain errors removed, integral nonlinearity (INL) error is deviation from a straight line. Can use endpoint or best fit straight lines endpoint more conservative INL plotted for each digital word INL 0.5LSB max INL (00) B in Maximum INL also referred to as relative accuracy slide 25 of 33 Differential Nonlinearity (DNL) Error Ideally, each step is LSB away from adjacent level DNL defined as variation in step sizes from LSB (once gain and offset errors removed) Example Max DNL = 0.5 LSB has at least one step size which is either 0.5 LSB or.5 LSB As in INL error, DNL plotted for each digital word and max is maximum magnitude. DNL 0.5LSB max DNL (00) B in step size between 00 and 0 is.5 LSB step size between 0 and is 0.7 LSB slide 26 of 33
14 Monotonic D/A Converters Monotonicity Where output alway increases as input increases no negative slope in transferresponse Important for some control loop applications If max DNL < LSB, converter is monotonic Can be monotonic and have DNL > LSB If max INL < 0.5 LSB, converter is monotonic Missing Code A/D Converters Similar to monotonic but for A/D converter Increasing analog input skips some digital codes If max DNL < LSB or max INL < 0.5 LSB, no missing codes slide 27 of 33 Converter Speed A/D Conversion Time and Sampling Rate Conversion time time for a single measurement Sampling rate max sampling rate (typically inverse of conversion time) Note that converter might have latency due to pipelining D/A Settling Time and Sampling Rate Settling time time for converter to settle to within a specified resolution (typically 0.5 LSB) Sampling rate max rate (typically inverse of settling time) slide 28 of 33
15 SamplingTime Uncertainty Error due to variations in sampling time Consider fullscale sine wave: V in = sin( 2πf 2 in t) Rate of change is max at zero crossing If sampling time has variation t, then to keep V less than LSB, require that t < = πf in 2 N πf in Example 250 MHz sinusoidal signal must keep t < 5 ps for 8bit accuracy Same 5ps for 6bit accuracy and MHz sinusoid (5) slide 29 of 33 Dynamic Range Ratio of rms value of max amplitude input sinusoid to rms output noise plus distortion Can be expressed as N, effective number of bits SNR = 6.02N +.76 db Often a function of freq of input signal (lower SNR as freq increases) more realistic than only using INL and DNL Note, distortion of some converters not a function of input signal level Other converters (such as oversampling), distortion decreases as signal level decreases (similar to other analog circuits) (6) slide 30 of 33
16 3bit D/A converter, Example = 4V, with following values { 0.0 : :.002 :.50 :.996 : : : 3.49} LSB 2 3 = 0.5 V Offset voltage is mv resulting in Gain error E gain D A 0.0 ( ) = = LSB 0.5 E off D A ( ) = ( 2 3 ) = 0.04 LSB 0.5 For INL and DNL errors, first remove both offset and gain errors (7) (8) slide 3 of 33 Offset error removed by subtracting LSB Gain error removed by subtracting off scaled values of gain error. Example new value for.002 (scaled to LSB) given by ( 0.04 ) =.993 Offsetfree, gainfree, scaled values are { 0.0 : :.993 : : : : : 7.0} INL errors Since now in units of LSBs, given by difference between values and ideal values { 0 : : : : : :0.004:0} DNL errors difference between adjacent values and LSB { : : : : : : 0.004} (9) (20) (2) (22) slide 32 of 33
17 Example A fullscale sinusoidal is applied to a 2bit A/D If fundamental has a normalized power of W and remaining power is 0.5 µw, what is the effective number of bits for the converter? SNR = 6.02N eff +.76 In this case, SNR given by resulting in SNR = 0 log = 63 db N eff = = 0.2 effective bits 6.02 (23) (24) (25) slide 33 of 33
b 1 is the most significant bit (MSB) The MSB is the bit that has the most (largest) influence on the analog output
CMOS Analog IC Design  Chapter 10 Page 10.05 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A DIGITALANALOG CONVERTER b 1 is the most significant bit (MSB) The MSB is the bit that has the most (largest) influence on the analog output
More informationAVR127: Understanding ADC Parameters. Introduction. Features. Atmel 8bit and 32bit Microcontrollers APPLICATION NOTE
Atmel 8bit and 32bit Microcontrollers AVR127: Understanding ADC Parameters APPLICATION NOTE Introduction This application note explains the basic concepts of analogtodigital converter (ADC) and the
More informationThe counterpart to a DAC is the ADC, which is generally a more complicated circuit. One of the most popular ADC circuit is the successive
The counterpart to a DAC is the ADC, which is generally a more complicated circuit. One of the most popular ADC circuit is the successive approximation converter. 1 2 The idea of sampling is fully covered
More informationNyquist data converter fundamentals Tuesday, February 8th, 9:15 11:35
Sampling switches, charge injection, Nyquist data converter fundamentals Tuesday, February 8th, 9:15 11:35 Snorre Aunet (sa@ifi.uio.no) Nanoelectronics group Department of Informatics University of Oslo
More informationCONVERTERS. Filters Introduction to Digitization DigitaltoAnalog Converters AnalogtoDigital Converters
CONVERTERS Filters Introduction to Digitization DigitaltoAnalog Converters AnalogtoDigital Converters Filters Filters are used to remove unwanted bandwidths from a signal Filter classification according
More informationDigital to Analog Converter
Digital to Analog Converter Jungchul Lee Kamran Jeelani Jonathan Beckwith Topics of Discussion What is a DAC? Types of DAC Circuits esistorstring DAC NBit Binary weighted DAC Ladder DAC Specifications
More informationDigitaltoAnalog Conversion
ANALOG.PPT(01/10/2009) 4.1 Lecture 10 DigitaltoAnalog Conversion Objectives Understand how a weightedresister DAC can be used to convert numbers with binary or nonbinary bit weightings Understand the
More information1995 MixedSignal Products SLAA013
Application Report 995 MixedSignal Products SLAA03 IMPORTANT NOTICE Texas Instruments and its subsidiaries (TI) reserve the right to make changes to their products or to discontinue any product or service
More informationABCs of ADCs. AnalogtoDigital Converter Basics. Nicholas Gray Data Conversion Systems Staff Applications Engineer
ABCs of ADCs AnalogtoDigital Converter Basics Nicholas Gray Data Conversion Systems Staff Applications Engineer November 24, 2003 Corrected August 13, 2004 Additional Corrections June 27, 2006 1 Agenda
More informationDIGITALTOANALOGUE AND ANALOGUETODIGITAL CONVERSION
DIGITALTOANALOGUE AND ANALOGUETODIGITAL CONVERSION Introduction The outputs from sensors and communications receivers are analogue signals that have continuously varying amplitudes. In many systems
More informationSection 3. Sensor to ADC Design Example
Section 3 Sensor to ADC Design Example 31 This section describes the design of a sensor to ADC system. The sensor measures temperature, and the measurement is interfaced into an ADC selected by the systems
More informationAnalog and Digital Interfacing
Analog and Digital Interfacing BJ Furman Spring, 1999 DAC & ADC DigitaltoAnalog Conversion (DAC) Converts a binary word from computer to a scaled analog voltage Used for controlling systems that require
More informationAnalog to Digital, A/D, Digital to Analog, D/A Converters. An electronic circuit to convert the analog voltage to a digital computer value
Analog to Digital, A/D, Digital to Analog, D/A Converters An electronic circuit to convert the analog voltage to a digital computer value Best understood by understanding Digital to Analog first. A fundamental
More informationOutline. Analog to Digital Converters. Overview of architectures for implementing analog to digital conversion INF4420
INF4420 Analog to Digital Converters Jørgen Andreas Michaelsen Spring 2013 1 / 34 Outline Overview of architectures for implementing analog to digital conversion Spring 2013 Analog to Digital Converters
More informationDAC Digital To Analog Converter
DAC Digital To Analog Converter DAC Digital To Analog Converter Highlights XMC4000 provides two digital to analog converters. Each can output one analog value. Additional multiple analog waves can be generated
More informationThe Good, the Bad, and the Ugly Aspects of ADC Input Noise Is No Noise Good Noise? by Walt Kester
INTRODUCTION The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly Aspects of ADC Input Noise Is No Noise Good Noise? by Walt Kester MT004 TUTORIAL All analogtodigital converters (ADCs) have a certain amount of "inputreferred
More informationAnalog/Digital Conversion. Analog Signals. Digital Signals. Analog vs. Digital. Interfacing a microprocessorbased system to the real world.
Analog/Digital Conversion Analog Signals Interacing a microprocessorbased system to the real world. continuous range x(t) Analog and digital signals he bridge: Sampling heorem Conversion concepts Conversion
More informationCharacterizing Digital Cameras with the Photon Transfer Curve
Characterizing Digital Cameras with the Photon Transfer Curve By: David Gardner Summit Imaging (All rights reserved) Introduction Purchasing a camera for high performance imaging applications is frequently
More informationChapter 20 DAC, DAC AND ANALOG DIGITAL MIX INTERFACES
Chapter 20 DAC, DAC AND ANALOG DIGITAL MIX INTERFACES Lesson 2 DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTER (DAC or D/A) Ch20L2"Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006 2 Outline DAC DAC Circuit
More informationApplication Report. 1 Introduction. 2 Resolution of an AD Converter. 2.1 SignaltoNoise Ratio (SNR) Harman Grewal... ABSTRACT
Application Report SLAA323 JULY 2006 Oversampling the ADC12 for Higher Resolution Harman Grewal... ABSTRACT This application report describes the theory of oversampling to achieve resolutions greater than
More informationOPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS. o/p
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS 1. If the input to the circuit of figure is a sine wave the output will be i/p o/p a. A half wave rectified sine wave b. A fullwave rectified sine wave c. A triangular wave d. A
More informationELG3336: Converters Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) Digital to Analog Converters (DACs) 111 110 101 100 011 010
ELG3336: Converters Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) Digital to Analog Converters (DACs) Digital Output Dout 111 110 101 100 011 010 001 000 ΔV, V LSB V ref 8 V FS 4 V 8 ref 7 V 8 ref Analog Input V
More informationHigh Sensitivity Receiver Applications Benefit from Unique Features in 16bit 130Msps ADC
High Sensitivity Receiver Applications Benefit from Unique Features in 16bit 130Msps ADC RF IN RF BPF IF BPF LTC2208 ADC DDC/DSP LO1 ADC Driver Wireless receiver design requires extreme care in dealing
More informationR f. V i. ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response
ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response Objective: Design a practical differentiator circuit using common OP AMP circuits. Test the frequency response
More informationThe Effective Number of Bits (ENOB) of my R&S Digital Oscilloscope Technical Paper
The Effective Number of Bits (ENOB) of my R&S Digital Oscilloscope Technical Paper Products: R&S RTO1012 R&S RTO1014 R&S RTO1022 R&S RTO1024 This technical paper provides an introduction to the signal
More informationMICROPHONE SPECIFICATIONS EXPLAINED
Application Note AN1112 MICROPHONE SPECIFICATIONS EXPLAINED INTRODUCTION A MEMS microphone IC is unique among InvenSense, Inc., products in that its input is an acoustic pressure wave. For this reason,
More informationPrecision Fully Differential Op Amp Drives High Resolution ADCs at Low Power
Precision Fully Differential Op Amp Drives High Resolution ADCs at Low Power Kris Lokere The op amp produces differential outputs, making it ideal for processing fully differential analog signals or taking
More informationDigital to Analog and Analog to Digital Conversion
Real world (lab) is Computer (binary) is digital Digital to Analog and Analog to Digital Conversion V t V t D/A or DAC and A/D or ADC D/A Conversion Computer DAC A/D Conversion Computer DAC Digital to
More informationANALOGDIGITAL CONVERSION
FUNDAMENTALS OF SAMPLED DATA SYSTEMS ANALOGDIGITAL CONVERSION 1. Data Converter History 2. Fundamentals of Sampled Data Systems 2.1 Coding and Quantizing 2.2 Sampling Theory 2.3 Data Converter AC Errors
More informationEXPERIMENT 1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF OPAMP
1.17 EXPERIMENT 1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF OPAMP 1.2.1 OBJECTIVE 1. To sketch and briefly explain an operational amplifier circuit symbol and identify all terminals 2. To list the amplifier stages in a typical
More informationFrequency Response of Filters
School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II Laboratory Experiment 2 Frequency Response of Filters 1 Introduction Objectives To
More informationDigitaltoAnalog Conversion
DigitaltoAnalog Conversion Curtis A. Nelson Engr355 1 Introduction Connecting digital circuitry to sensor devices is simple if the sensor devices are inherently digital themselves. Switches, relays,
More informationLecture  4 Diode Rectifier Circuits
Basic Electronics (Module 1 Semiconductor Diodes) Dr. Chitralekha Mahanta Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Lecture  4 Diode Rectifier Circuits
More informationAnalogtoDigital Converter Testing
AnalogtoDigital Converter Testing Kent H. Lundberg Analogtodigital converters are essential building blocks in modern electronic systems. They form the critical link between frontend analog transducers
More informationOperational Amplifiers: Part 2. Nonideal Behavior of Feedback Amplifiers DC Errors and LargeSignal Operation
Operational Amplifiers: Part 2 Nonideal Behavior of Feedback Amplifiers DC Errors and LargeSignal Operation by Tim J. Sobering Analog Design Engineer & Op Amp Addict Summary of Ideal Op Amp Assumptions
More informationSIGNAL GENERATORS and OSCILLOSCOPE CALIBRATION
1 SIGNAL GENERATORS and OSCILLOSCOPE CALIBRATION By Lannes S. Purnell FLUKE CORPORATION 2 This paper shows how standard signal generators can be used as leveled sine wave sources for calibrating oscilloscopes.
More informationAnalog Expansion Modules Input Specifications
S72 Programmable ontroller System Manual Analog Expansion Modules Specifications Table A15 Analog Expansion Modules Order Numbers Order Number Expansion Model EM Inputs EM Outputs emovable onnector 6ES7
More informationPCM Encoding and Decoding:
PCM Encoding and Decoding: Aim: Introduction to PCM encoding and decoding. Introduction: PCM Encoding: The input to the PCM ENCODER module is an analog message. This must be constrained to a defined bandwidth
More informationBinary Numbering Systems
Binary Numbering Systems April 1997, ver. 1 Application Note 83 Introduction Binary numbering systems are used in virtually all digital systems, including digital signal processing (DSP), networking, and
More informationANALOGDIGITAL CONVERSION
TESTING DATA CONVERTERS ANALOGDIGITAL CONVERSION 1. Data Converter History 2. Fundamentals of Sampled Data Systems 3. Data Converter Architectures 4. Data Converter Process Technology 5. Testing Data
More informationThis representation is compared to a binary representation of a number with N bits.
Chapter 11 AnalogDigital Conversion One of the common functions that are performed on signals is to convert the voltage into a digital representation. The converse function, digitalanalog is also common.
More informationUNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Experiment No. 5  GainBandwidth Product and Slew Rate Overview: In this laboratory the student will explore
More informationTaking the Mystery out of the Infamous Formula, "SNR = 6.02N + 1.76dB," and Why You Should Care. by Walt Kester
ITRODUCTIO Taking the Mystery out of the Infamous Formula, "SR = 6.0 + 1.76dB," and Why You Should Care by Walt Kester MT001 TUTORIAL You don't have to deal with ADCs or DACs for long before running across
More informationIntroduction to Digital Audio
Introduction to Digital Audio Before the development of highspeed, lowcost digital computers and analogtodigital conversion circuits, all recording and manipulation of sound was done using analog techniques.
More informationLC 2 MOS Signal Conditioning ADC with RTD Excitation Currents AD7711
FEATURES ChargeBalancing ADC 24 Bits, No Missing Codes 0.0015% Nonlinearity 2Channel Programmable Gain Front End Gains from 1 to 128 1 Differential Input 1 SingleEnded Input LowPass Filter with Programmable
More informationCBS RECORDS PROFESSIONAL SERIES CBS RECORDS CD1 STANDARD TEST DISC
CBS RECORDS PROFESSIONAL SERIES CBS RECORDS CD1 STANDARD TEST DISC 1. INTRODUCTION The CBS Records CD1 Test Disc is a highly accurate signal source specifically designed for those interested in making
More informationThe front end of the receiver performs the frequency translation, channel selection and amplification of the signal.
Many receivers must be capable of handling a very wide range of signal powers at the input while still producing the correct output. This must be done in the presence of noise and interference which occasionally
More informationDigital To Analog Converter with Sine Wave Output
Digital To Analog Converter with Sine Wave Output Overview In this Lab we will build a resistive ladder network and use the BASIC Stamp to generate the digital data for the D/A conversions. PBASIC will
More informationTiming Errors and Jitter
Timing Errors and Jitter Background Mike Story In a sampled (digital) system, samples have to be accurate in level and time. The digital system uses the two bits of information the signal was this big
More informationOp Amp Bandwidth and Bandwidth Flatness. OPEN LOOP GAIN db. Figure 1: Frequency Response of Voltage Feedback Op Amps
TUTORIAL Op Amp Bandwidth and Bandwidth Flatness BANDWIDTH OF VOLTAGE FEEDBACK OP AMPS The openloop frequency response of a voltage feedback op amp is shown in Figure 1 below. There are two possibilities:
More informationAC 20123923: MEASUREMENT OF OPAMP PARAMETERS USING VEC TOR SIGNAL ANALYZERS IN UNDERGRADUATE LINEAR CIRCUITS LABORATORY
AC 2123923: MEASUREMENT OF OPAMP PARAMETERS USING VEC TOR SIGNAL ANALYZERS IN UNDERGRADUATE LINEAR CIRCUITS LABORATORY Dr. Tooran Emami, U.S. Coast Guard Academy Tooran Emami received her M.S. and Ph.D.
More information12bit DigitalAnalog Converter
12bit DigitalAnalog Converter ECE262 Analog Circuit Design Team Member Jae Shik Lim Chao Chen Lingzhao Xie Agenda Abstract Background Block Diagram Module Level Design System Level Design Design Review
More informationBasic Op Amp Circuits
Basic Op Amp ircuits Manuel Toledo INEL 5205 Instrumentation August 3, 2008 Introduction The operational amplifier (op amp or OA for short) is perhaps the most important building block for the design of
More informationDepartment of Electrical and Computer Engineering BenGurion University of the Negev. LAB 1  Introduction to USRP
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering BenGurion University of the Negev LAB 1  Introduction to USRP  11 Introduction In this lab you will use software reconfigurable RF hardware from National
More informationVoiceis analog in character and moves in the form of waves. 3important wavecharacteristics:
Voice Transmission Basic Concepts Voiceis analog in character and moves in the form of waves. 3important wavecharacteristics: Amplitude Frequency Phase Voice Digitization in the POTS Traditional
More informationPrecision Diode Rectifiers
by Kenneth A. Kuhn March 21, 2013 Precision halfwave rectifiers An operational amplifier can be used to linearize a nonlinear function such as the transfer function of a semiconductor diode. The classic
More informationFREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYZERS
FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYZERS Dynamic Response Analyzers Servo analyzers When you need to stabilize feedback loops to measure hardware characteristics to measure system response BAFCO, INC. 717 Mearns Road
More informationImproving A D Converter Performance Using Dither
Improving A D Converter Performance Using Dither 1 0 INTRODUCTION Many analogtodigital converter applications require low distortion for a very wide dynamic range of signals Unfortunately the distortion
More informationTYPICAL APPLICATION LTC7543/LTC8143 LTC7543/LTC Multiplying DAC Has Easy 3Wire Serial Interface. Integral Nonlinearity over Temperature
TYPICAL APPLICATION V IN Multiplying DAC Has Easy Wire Serial Interface 5V Integral Nonlinearity over Temperature.0 CLOCK DATA LOAD 5 5 6 V DD R FB STB LTC5 LTC8 LD DGND AGND pf + LT 09 V OT 5/8 TA0 INTEGRAL
More informationMaterial and Equipment NI ELVIS 741 Op Amp, 5k pot, Assorted Resistors (10k, 100k, 220k (2), 100 (2), 560 )
Lab 8 Operational Amplifier Characteristics Purpose The purpose of this lab is to study the nonideal characteristics of the operational amplifier. The characteristics that will be investigated include
More informationMATRIX TECHNICAL NOTES
200 WOOD AVENUE, MIDDLESEX, NJ 08846 PHONE (732) 4699510 FAX (732) 4690418 MATRIX TECHNICAL NOTES MTN107 TEST SETUP FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF XMOD, CTB, AND CSO USING A MEAN SQUARE CIRCUIT AS A DETECTOR
More informationWHAT DESIGNERS SHOULD KNOW ABOUT DATA CONVERTER DRIFT
WHAT DESIGNERS SHOULD KNOW ABOUT DATA CONVERTER DRIFT Understanding the Components of WorstCase Degradation Can Help in Avoiding Overspecification Exactly how inaccurate will a change in temperature make
More informationSignaling is the way data is communicated. This type of signal used can be either analog or digital
3.1 Analog vs. Digital Signaling is the way data is communicated. This type of signal used can be either analog or digital 1 3.1 Analog vs. Digital 2 WCB/McGrawHill The McGrawHill Companies, Inc., 1998
More informationCHAPTER 6 Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL CHAPTER 6 Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance 1. State the fundamental concepts of Fourier analysis. 2. Determine the output of a filter for a given input consisting of sinusoidal
More informationHideo Okawara s Mixed Signal Lecture Series. DSPBased Testing Fundamentals 46 Perpin Signal Generator
Hideo Okawara s Mixed Signal Lecture Series DSPBased Testing Fundamentals 46 Perpin Signal Generator Advantest Corporation, Tokyo Japan August 2012 Preface to the Series ADC and DAC are the most typical
More informationLC2 MOS Quad 8Bit D/A Converter AD7226
a FEATURES Four 8Bit DACs with Output Amplifiers Skinny 20Pin DIP, SOIC and 20Terminal Surface Mount Packages Microprocessor Compatible TTL/CMOS Compatible No User Trims Extended Temperature Range Operation
More informationA LowPower, VariableResolution AnalogtoDigital
A LowPower, VariableResolution AnalogtoDigital Converter By Carrie Aust Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements
More informationDigital to Analog Conversion Using Pulse Width Modulation
Digital to Analog Conversion Using Pulse Width Modulation Samer ElHajMahmoud Electronics Engineering Technology Program Texas A&M University Instructor s Portion Summary The purpose of this lab is to
More informationDigital Transmission of Analog Data: PCM and Delta Modulation
Digital Transmission of Analog Data: PCM and Delta Modulation Required reading: Garcia 3.3.2 and 3.3.3 CSE 323, Fall 200 Instructor: N. Vlajic Digital Transmission of Analog Data 2 Digitization process
More informationCS263: Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks
CS263: Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks Matt Welsh Lecture 2: RF Basics and Signal Encoding September 22, 2005 2005 Matt Welsh Harvard University 1 Today's Lecture Basics of wireless communications
More informationTESTS OF 1 MHZ SIGNAL SOURCE FOR SPECTRUM ANALYZER CALIBRATION 7/8/08 Sam Wetterlin
TESTS OF 1 MHZ SIGNAL SOURCE FOR SPECTRUM ANALYZER CALIBRATION 7/8/08 Sam Wetterlin (Updated 7/19/08 to delete sine wave output) I constructed the 1 MHz square wave generator shown in the Appendix. This
More informationComputer Networks and Internets, 5e Chapter 6 Information Sources and Signals. Introduction
Computer Networks and Internets, 5e Chapter 6 Information Sources and Signals Modified from the lecture slides of Lami Kaya (LKaya@ieee.org) for use CECS 474, Fall 2008. 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper
More informationTransmitter Characteristics (83D.3.1) Ryan Latchman, Mindspeed
Transmitter haracteristics (83D.3.) Ryan Latchman, Mindspeed Transmit equalizer Transmitter equalizer range The AUI4 chiptochip transmitter includes programmable equalization to compensate for the frequencydependent
More informationAnalog to Digital (AD) and Digital to Analog (DA) Conversion
UNIVERSITY of PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT of ELECTRICAL and SYSTEMS ENGINEERING Electrical Circuits and Systems II Laboratory ESE206 Analog to Digital (AD) and Digital to Analog (DA) Conversion Goals To
More informationFixedPoint Arithmetic
FixedPoint Arithmetic FixedPoint Notation A Kbit fixedpoint number can be interpreted as either: an integer (i.e., 20645) a fractional number (i.e., 0.75) 2 1 Integer FixedPoint Representation Nbit
More information16Channel, 1 MSPS, 12Bit ADC with Sequencer in 28Lead TSSOP AD7490
Data Sheet FEATURES Fast throughput rate: 1 MSPS Specified for VDD of 2.7 V to 5.25 V Low power at maximum throughput rates 5.4 mw maximum at 870 ksps with 3 V supplies 12.5 mw maximum at 1 MSPS with 5
More informationDigital to Analog Converter. Raghu Tumati
Digital to Analog Converter Raghu Tumati May 11, 2006 Contents 1) Introduction............................... 3 2) DAC types................................... 4 3) DAC Presented.............................
More informationOperational Amplifiers
Operational Amplifiers Aims: To know: Basic Op Amp properties eal & Ideal Basic ideas of feedback. inv input noninv input output gnd To be able to do basic circuit analysis of op amps: using KCL, KL with
More informationPeggy Alavi Application Engineer September 3, 2003
OpAmp Basics Peggy Alavi Application Engineer September 3, 2003 OpAmp Basics Part 1 OpAmp Basics Why opamps Opamp block diagram Input modes of OpAmps Loop Configurations Negative Feedback Gain Bandwidth
More informationRF Measurements Using a Modular Digitizer
RF Measurements Using a Modular Digitizer Modern modular digitizers, like the Spectrum M4i series PCIe digitizers, offer greater bandwidth and higher resolution at any given bandwidth than ever before.
More informationUSB 3.0 CDR Model White Paper Revision 0.5
USB 3.0 CDR Model White Paper Revision 0.5 January 15, 2009 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY DISCLAIMER THIS WHITE PAPER IS PROVIDED TO YOU AS IS WITH NO WARRANTIES WHATSOEVER, INCLUDING ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY,
More informationKeysight Technologies Understanding the Fundamental Principles of Vector Network Analysis. Application Note
Keysight Technologies Understanding the Fundamental Principles of Vector Network Analysis Application Note Introduction Network analysis is the process by which designers and manufacturers measure the
More informationLock  in Amplifier and Applications
Lock  in Amplifier and Applications What is a Lock in Amplifier? In a nut shell, what a lockin amplifier does is measure the amplitude V o of a sinusoidal voltage, V in (t) = V o cos(ω o t) where ω o
More informationENGR 210 Lab 11 Frequency Response of Passive RC Filters
ENGR 210 Lab 11 Response of Passive RC Filters The objective of this lab is to introduce you to the frequencydependent nature of the impedance of a capacitor and the impact of that frequency dependence
More informationApplication Note Noise Frequently Asked Questions
: What is? is a random signal inherent in all physical components. It directly limits the detection and processing of all information. The common form of noise is white Gaussian due to the many random
More informationA/D Converter based on Binary Search Algorithm
École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Politecnico di Torino Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble Master s degree in Micro and Nano Technologies for Integrated Systems Master s Thesis A/D Converter
More information8bit Digital to Analog converter (DAC)
8bit Digital to Analog converter (DAC) Posted on February 28, 2008, by Ibrahim KAMAL, in General electronics, tagged This article aims to introduce to beginners and intermediate readers a simple solution
More informationUse and Application of Output Limiting Amplifiers (HFA1115, HFA1130, HFA1135)
Use and Application of Output Limiting Amplifiers (HFA111, HFA110, HFA11) Application Note November 1996 AN96 Introduction Amplifiers with internal voltage clamps, also known as limiting amplifiers, have
More informationAnalog signals are those which are naturally occurring. Any analog signal can be converted to a digital signal.
3.3 Analog to Digital Conversion (ADC) Analog signals are those which are naturally occurring. Any analog signal can be converted to a digital signal. 1 3.3 Analog to Digital Conversion (ADC) WCB/McGrawHill
More information6.025J Medical Device Design Lecture 3: AnalogtoDigital Conversion Prof. Joel L. Dawson
Let s go back briefly to lecture 1, and look at where ADC s and DAC s fit into our overall picture. I m going in a little extra detail now since this is our eighth lecture on electronics and we are more
More informationFILTER CIRCUITS. A filter is a circuit whose transfer function, that is the ratio of its output to its input, depends upon frequency.
FILTER CIRCUITS Introduction Circuits with a response that depends upon the frequency of the input voltage are known as filters. Filter circuits can be used to perform a number of important functions in
More information4.3 AnalogtoDigital Conversion
4.3 AnalogtoDigital Conversion overview including timing considerations block diagram of a device using a DAC and comparator example of a digitized spectrum number of data points required to describe
More informationCurrent Probes, More Useful Than You Think
Current Probes, More Useful Than You Think Training and design help in most areas of Electrical Engineering Copyright 1998 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Reprinted from the IEEE 1998
More informationAVR120: Characterization and Calibration of the ADC on an AVR. 8bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. Introduction
AVR120: Characterization and Calibration of the ADC on an AVR Features Understanding Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) characteristics Measuring parameters describing ADC characteristics Temperature, frequency
More informationFeatures. Note Switches shown in digital high state
DAC1020 DAC1021 DAC1022 10Bit Binary Multiplying D A Converter DAC1220 DAC1222 12Bit Binary Multiplying D A Converter General Description The DAC1020 and the DAC1220 are respectively 10 and 12bit binary
More informationLM118/LM218/LM318 Operational Amplifiers
LM118/LM218/LM318 Operational Amplifiers General Description The LM118 series are precision high speed operational amplifiers designed for applications requiring wide bandwidth and high slew rate. They
More information24Bit, 96kHz BiCMOS SignMagnitude DIGITALTOANALOG CONVERTER
49% FPO 24Bit, 96kHz BiCMOS SignMagnitude DIGITALTOANALOG CONVERTER TM FEATURES SAMPLING FREQUEY (f S ): 16kHz to 96kHz 8X OVERSAMPLING AT 96kHz INPUT AUDIO WORD: 20, 24Bit HIGH PERFORMAE: Dynamic
More information8 Bit DigitaltoAnalog Converter
8 Bit DigitaltoAnalog Converter Tim Adams ttexastim@hotmail.com Richard Wingfield wingfiel@cs.utah.edu 8 Bit DAC Project Description: For this project, an 8 bit digitaltoanalog converter was designed.
More informationDesigning a Poor Man s Square Wave Signal Generator. EE100 Lab: Designing a Poor Man s Square Wave Signal Generator  Theory
EE100 Lab:  Theory 1. Objective The purpose of this laboratory is to introduce nonlinear circuit measurement and analysis. Your measurements will focus mainly on limiters and clamping amplifiers. During
More informationT = 1 f. Phase. Measure of relative position in time within a single period of a signal For a periodic signal f(t), phase is fractional part t p
Data Transmission Concepts and terminology Transmission terminology Transmission from transmitter to receiver goes over some transmission medium using electromagnetic waves Guided media. Waves are guided
More information