1 Ozgur Aktunc Assistant Professor of Software Engineering St. Mary s University
2 WORLD INTERNET USAGE AND POPULATION STATISTICS World Regions Population ( 2010 Est.) Internet Users Dec. 31, 2000 Internet Users Latest Data Penetration (% Population) Growth Users % of Table Africa 1,013,779,050 4,514, ,931, % 2,357.3 % 5.6 % Asia 3,834,792, ,304, ,094, % % 42.0 % Europe 813,319, ,096, ,069, % % 24.2 % Middle East 212,336,924 3,284,800 63,240, % 1,825.3 % 3.2 % North America 344,124, ,096, ,224, % % 13.5 % Latin America/Caribbean 592,556,972 18,068, ,689, % 1,032.8 % 10.4 % Oceania / Australia 34,700,201 7,620,480 21,263, % % 1.1 % WORLD TOTAL 6,845,609, ,985,492 1,966,514, % % % Source:
4 In U.S. there are 228M mobile phone users, M of them have Web access Source: The Nielsen Company
5 More than 500 million active users 50% of active users log on to Facebook in any given day People spend over 700 billion minutes per month on Facebook Twitter have 175 million registered users. 95M tweets are written per day. Source: The Nielsen Company
6 WWW is transforming our lives. Economy, industry, education, healthcare, entertainment WWW is globally and permanently available. WWW itself is transforming too. From purely informational to applicationoriented. From published content to user generated content.
7 Web applications are developed ad hoc. Similar to software development practices of 60s. Quality issues in production leading to operation and maintenance problems. As applications are strongly interlinked, problems spread from one application to another. What caused these issues and how can we improve the current situation?
8 Document centric approach An authoring viewpoint is not adequate for the development of software intensive Web applications. Assumed simplicity of Web applications development The tools allow the simple generation of Web environments with emphasis on visual design rather than internal structuring and programming. Know how from relevant disciplines cannot be applied or is not used Software Engineering sometimes is not adequate due to special characteristics of Web. Concepts and techniques from other disciplines from other disciplines, such as HCI, are ignored.
9 Problems Percentage Failure to meet business needs 84% Project schedule delays 79% Budget overrun 63% Lack of functionality 53% Poor quality and deliverables 52%
10 Application of systematic and quantifiable approaches to cost effective development of high quality Web systems. The approaches can be Concepts Methods Techniques Tools Web Engineering is also the scientific discipline concerned with the study of these approaches.
11 Web Engineering is not a one time event; rather it is a process related to the whole lifecycle of a web system, similar to Software Engineering. Both disciplines are still not mature compared to established engineering disciplines. (Web Engineering is much less mature!) Despite some similarities, the special characteristics of Web systems require the development of new approaches.
12 Variety of people involved in development programmers, database experts, designers, content providers, system administrators, project managers, Typically developed for unknown set of users with no training Intrinsic characteristics of web applications reliance on communication technologies multi platform accessibility hypertext based interaction range of technologies Speed of development and evolution
14 first hypertext system described 1965 hypertext coined by Ted Nelson 1987 HyperCard on Mac 1991 WWW published by Tim Berners Lee 1994 World Wide Web Consortium 1998 Google 2000 Dot com burst 2004 Web 2.0 Future Semantic Web, Web 3.0
18 Environment to deliver all kinds of information and services multimedia of different types and formats (images, video, animations, audio) software distribution applications (search engines, currency converters, kitchen design,... ) complex systems (e Commerce, enterprise planning,...) Platform for collaboration discussion forums social networking sites (Facebook, ) collaborative authoring (Wikipedia,... ) web conferencing and meeting systems (Sharepoint,..)
19 Users and usability Information sources Technologies Maintenance Legal, Social and Ethical Issues
20 Generally unknown expectations, behavior patterns not known at development time more difficult to design interface no training dealing with globalization different cultures, languages, etc.
21 Dealing with a range of information sources and systems database systems file systems multimedia storage devices Variety of types and formats of multimedia content images, sound, animation, video,... in different formats documents of different forms text in different languages (alphabets) clients may only be able to handle certain formats certain formats may be specific to certain clients
23 Web sites evolve continuously without specific releases Maintenance cycles may be days or even hours Content, functionality, structure and presentation may change significantly from one moment to the next Necessary to provide some sort of controls over changes accuracy and quality of content translation of content into different languages conforms to corporate presentation guidelines modifications to structure and navigation modifications to services
24 Copyright content links Privacy Criminal Activities Libel versus Freedom of Speech Internationalization of Laws Access for the disabled and minorities
25 Web 2.0 websites allow users to do more than just retrieve information. Provides the user with more user interface, software and storage facilities, all through their browser. (Network as platform computing) Users can provide the data that is on a Web 2.0 site and exercise some control over that data. Wikipedia, blogger, twitter, youtube, facebook
26 Rich user experience User participation Dynamic content Metadata Web standards
27 More technologies Better usability Semantic Web Knowledge management on the Web Linking and integrating existing knowledge Locating new knowledge The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. Tim Berners Lee, James Hendler, Ora Lassila, The Semantic Web, Scientific American, May 2001
28 demo.xhtml W3C recommendations
29 What are the factors that influence User Interfaces?
30 = Quality Learnability Efficiency Productivity Memorability Little re learning required Error handling and tolerance Satisfaction #1 principle of Agile Manifesto: Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software.
31 Studies find 58% to 74% failure at achieving a task at a site! Lower rate when need a sequence of steps emarketer study: 61.5% success rate Source: Keys to E Commerce Success, Nov. 2,
32 Ultimate currency is the user s time There is too much content on the WWW In traditional media, inertia helps keep people reading On the web, it is almost as easy to go to the competitor as to go to your next page Web content must give immediate benefits to the users or they will allocate their time to other sites
33 Sit down and use software and web systems. Users do not read manuals. Usability is critical to software sales Make them User friendly for all, not only for smart people. Human computer interaction (HCI) trained people build better interfaces Programmers don t think like end users Exposure to different kinds of interfaces, problems User model, not system model Guidelines
34 When I taught a user interface class at the University of Virginia, I d bring in a working VCR on the first day. I would put it on a desk in front of the room. I would pull out a sledgehammer. I would destroy the VCR. Then I would say: When we make something hard to use, people get upset. They become so angry that they want to destroy it. We don t want to create things that people will want to destroy. Randy Pausch, The Last Lecture
35 Problem April 19, 1991
36 There are well defined usability methods and techniques, especially from industrial engineering. Usability is not just opinions, luck, or domain experience. It is very expensive to not do usability engineering. Interfaces will be re designed: before or after release. Studies show that usability engineering saves money.
37 Based on data from 42 cases where usability metrics were available for website redesigns. Website usability is dominated by users' ability to avoid errors in navigation and interpret new information. The average business metrics improvement after a usability redesign is now 83%. This is substantially less than 6 years ago, but ROI remains high because usability is still cheap relative to gains. Jakob Nielsen January
38 Novices will be more effective quicker. Make experts more efficient Efficiency is important to customers, especially with shrinking workforces and outsourcing. Reduce errors. Increased pride of ownership. If you like a company s product, you tend to stay with it in the future, e.g. car buying experience. Productivity and satisfaction.
39 Reduce calls to the support center. Reduced support costs in general. Reduced complaints from customers. Can help identify what is really needed. What will be useful and what is not needed. Easier to demonstrate and sell. Greater usage of features = realized value Competitive differentiation > Revenue and profit
40 Palm succeeded where other handhelds had failed due to a focus on usability: Fit into pocket. Reliable text input. Commands immediately available. Apple ipod created a Dial design and a new UI. Apple iphone also has a unique UI. Wii vs Xbox or Playstation.
41 Importance of HCI and UI is understood by industry and government. Plenty of jobs Money for research. Significant time and code devoted to HCI.
42 If the customer cannot find your product, then it won t be bought. Your competitors are only one click away. All Web sites are compared to the best. e.g. People expect to have the same features on any bookseller online as Amazon has.
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