2014 Africa Food Security and Hunger/ Undernourishment Multiple Indicator Scorecard

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1 2014 Africa Food Security and Hunger/ Undernourishment Multiple Indicator Scorecard Information & Analysis on Health, Population, Human & Social Development Summary highlights, findings of scorecard and study at bottom of scorecard, along with key issues, points and definitions. Advancing Multi-sectoral Policy & Investment for Girls, Women, & Children s Health Summary Africa Scorecard on Number of People Undernourishment / Hunger Of With Highest Number Of People in State of Undernourishm ent / Hunger Country Population (For Roughly Equivalent Period Of Study i.e as illustration of scale only) Number of People Undernourish ment / Hunger ( , Millions) Summary Africa Scorecard On Proportion of Total Population Undernourishment / Hunger Of With Highest Proportion Of People Undernourish ment / Hunger Proportion of People Undernourishm ent / Hunger ( ) Food Security Index* s (EIU) Category Scores ( =Most Favorable)) Africa By Most Food Secure By Most Food Secure Food Security Index Scores/100 1 Ethiopia 84,734,000 32,100, Burundi 67.3% South Africa Tanzania 46,218,000 15,700, Eritrea 61.3% Botswana Nigeria 162,471,000 12,100, Zambia 43.1% Tunisia Kenya 41,610,000 11,000, Ethiopia 37.1% Egypt Uganda 34,509,000 10,700, Mozambique 36.8% Morocco Mozambique 23,930,000 9,000, Swaziland 35.8% Ghana 45.4 Joint 7 Madagascar 21,315,000 6,000,000 Joint 7. Congo 33.0% Algeria 45.2 Joint 7 Zambia 13,475,000 6,000,000 Joint 7. Tanzania 33.0% Cote D ivore Burundi 8,575,000 5,900, Zimbabwe 30.5% Uganda Angola 19,618,000 4,900, Uganda 30.1% Cameron Burkina Faso 16,968,000 4,400, Rwanda 29.7% Kenya Cote d Ivoire 20,153,000 4,200,000 Joint 11. Chad 29.4% Senegal Zimbabwe 12,754,000 4,000,000 Joint 11. Sierra Leone 29.4% Benin Chad 11,525,000 3,500, Namibia 29.3% Nigeria 33.0 Joint 14 Eritrea 5,415,000 3,400, Liberia 28.6% Guinea 32.0 Joint 14 Rwanda 10,943,000 3,400, Cent Afr. Rep 28.2% Angola Malawi 15,381,000 3,200, Madagascar 27.2% Ethiopia Senegal 12,768,000 2,800, Kenya 25.8% Niger Cameroon 20,030,000 2,700, Botswana 25.7% Burkina Faso Niger 16,069,000 2,300, Burkina Faso 25.0% Mozambique Sierra Leone 5,997,000 1,800, Angola 24.4% Tanzania Guinea 10,222,000 1,600, Senegal 21.6% Joint 22 Joint 96 Madagascar Congo 4,140,000 1,400, Cote d Ivoire 20.5% Joint 22 Joint 96 Rwanda Cent Afr. Rep 4,487,000 1,300, Malawi 20.0% Sierra Leone 29.0 Joint 23 Liberia 4,129,000 1,200, Gambia 16.0% Malawi 28.3 Joint 23 Mali 15,840,000 1,200, Lesotho 15.7% Zambia 28.1 *Scorecard Research, Analysis, & Design by Africa Health, Human & Social Development Information 1Service (Afri-Dev. Info) Produced in Partnership Africa Coalition on Maternal, Newborn & Child Health;

2 2014 Africa Food Security and Hunger/ Undernourishment Multiple Indicator Scorecard Population No of People Undernourishme nt / Hunger Proportion Undernourishment / Hunger Africa 24 Togo 6,155,000 1,000, Togo 15.5% Mali Namibia 2,324, , Guinea 15.2% Burundi Benin 9,100, , Niger 13.9% Sudan Botswana 2,031, , Cameroon 13.3% Togo Swaziland 1,203, , Mauritania 7.8% Chad 22.1 Joint 29 Gambia 1,776, ,000 Joint 30. Mali 7.3% Dem. Rep 20.8 Congo Joint 29 Lesotho 2,194, ,000 Joint 30. Nigeria 7.3% Cape Verde N/A 30 Mauritania 3,542, , Benin 6.1% Cent. African N/A Rep Joint 31 Gabon 1,534, , Gabon 5.6% Comoros N/A Joint 31 Mauritius 1,307, , Mauritius 5.4% Congo N/A Algeria 35,980,000 NS 34. Algeria <5% Djibouti N/A Cape Verde 501,000 N/A 35 Ghana <5% Equ. Guinea N/A Comoros 754,000 N/A 36. Egypt <5% Eritrea N/A D. R. Congo 67,758,000 N/A 37. Libya <5% Gabon N/A Djibouti 906,000 N/A 38. Morocco <5% Gambia N/A Egypt 82,537,000 N/A 39. South Africa <5% Guinea Bissau N/A Equ. Guinea 720,000 N/A 40. Tunisia <5% Lesotho N/A Ghana 24,966,000 NS Cape Verde N/A Liberia N/A Guinea-Bissau 1,547,000 N/A Comoros N/A Libya N/A Libya 6,423,000 N/A D. R Congo N/A Mauritania N/A Morocco 32,273,000 N/A Djibouti N/A Mauritius N/A Sao Tome & 169,000 N/A Equ. Guinea N/A Namibia N/A Seychelles 87,000 N/A Guinea-Bissau N/A Sao Tome & N/A Somalia 9,557,000 N/A Sao Tome & N/A Seychelles N/A South Africa 50,460,000 NS Seychelles N/A Somalia N/A South Sudan 10,314,000 N/A Somalia N/A South Sudan N/A Sudan 34,318,000 N/A South Sudan N/A Swaziland N/A Tunisia 10,594,000 N/A Sudan N/A Zimbabwe N/A Index Scores Main Sources For Study Summarized In Scorecard: State Of Food and Agriculture 2013; State Of Food Insecurity In The World 2013, Publications of The Food And Agriculture Organization, World Food Program & IFAD; UNICEF State Of The Worlds Children 2012 & 2013; Food Security Index, Economist Intelligence Unit 2013; WHO World Health Statistics 2012 & 2013; OECD Data ; World Bank Data , To Find Out More About Publications Please Contact publications[at]afri- dev.info For Partnerships, Support Or General Information Please Contact contactus[at]afri- dev.info Africa Office: 14 Akintan St. Ogba, Lagos, Nigeria , Intl. Office: 175 Grays Inn Rd, London WC1X 8UE, UK *Scorecard Research, Analysis, & Design by Africa Health, Human & Social Development Information 2Service (Afri-Dev. Info) Produced in Partnership Africa Coalition on Maternal, Newborn & Child Health;

3 Summary Highlights & Findings: *Continental Overview / Trends & Key Issues. Africa remains the region with highest prevalence of undernourishment - with around one in four people out of about 1 billion estimated to be undernourished. While sub- Saharan Africa has the highest prevalence of undernourishment, there has been some improvement over the last two decades. Prevalence of under- nourishment declining from 32.7 percent to 24.8 percent. Northern Africa, by contrast, is characterized by much lower prevalence of undernourishment and by faster progress than sub- Saharan Africa. Overall, Africa is not on track to achieve the MDG target on hunger reduction, reflecting too little progress in both parts of the continent. Addressing malnutrition requires a multisectoral approach that includes complementary interventions in food systems, public health and education - this approach also facilitates the pursuit of multiple objectives, including better nutrition, gender equality and environmental sustainability. Agricultural growth has been found to be much more effective than general economic growth at reducing poverty for the very poor. Growth in agriculture reduces USD 1 a day headcount poverty more than three times faster than growth in non- agricultural sectors. Number of African s Undernourishment / Hunger There are 27 African countries each with over 1 million people in a state of hunger/under nourishment: as follows Ethiopia, Tanzania, Nigeria, Kenya, Uganda, Mozambique, Madagascar, Zambia, Burundi, Angola, Burkina Faso, Cote d Ivoire, Zimbabwe, Chad, Eritrea, Rwanda, Malawi, Senegal, Cameroon, Niger, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Congo, Cent African Rep, Liberia, Mali, and Togo. The 5 African countries with the most number of people in a state of hunger/under nourishment have between 10 million and 32 million people each in a state of hunger/under nourishment (Ethiopia 32.1 million; Tanzania 15.7 million; Nigeria 12.1 million; Kenya 11 million; & Uganda 10.7 million). Significantly 4 out of the 5 countries with the most number of people affected by hunger/undernourishment are in the Horn / East of Africa (Ethiopia 32.1 million; Tanzania 15.7 million; Kenya 11 million; & Uganda 10.7 million). 6 countries of SADC have over 1 million people each affected by hunger/under nourishment - Tanzania 15.7 million; Mozambique 9 million; Madagascar 6 million; Zambia 6 million; Zimbabwe 4 million; Malawi 3.2 million; 11 countries of ECOWAS have over 1 million people each affected by hunger/undernourishment - : Nigeria 12.1 million; Burkina Faso 4.4 million; Cote d Ivore 4.2 million; Senegal 2. 8 million; Niger 2.3 million; Sierra Leone 1. 8 million; Guinea 1.6 million; Liberia 1. 2 million; Mali 1.2 million; Togo 1 million; Proportion Of African s Undernourishment / Hunger There are 20 African countries each with over a quarter of their populations in a state of hunger/under nourishment. The 5 African countries with the highest proportion of citizens in a state of /undernourishment have between 36% and 67% each in a state of hunger (Burundi 67.3%; Eritrea 61.3%; Zambia 43.1%; Ethiopia 37.1%; Mozambique 36.8%). Significantly all the countries in the Horn / East of Africa all have over 25% of their populations affected by hunger/under nourishment. The SADC sub region has 8 of its countries with over 25% of its citizens in a state of hunger/undernourishment: Zambia 43.1%; Mozambique 36.8%; Swaziland 35.8%; Tanzania 33%; Zimbabwe 30.5%; Namibia; 29.3%; Madagascar 27.2%; Botswana 25.7%. Food Security Index s No African country is in the top global 30 most food secure countries. (The top ten global most food secure countries are United States, Norway, France, Austria, Switzerland, Netherlands, Belgium, Canada, New Zealand, Denmark all scoring between 81 and 86 points on a scale of 100). Nevertheless countries making the greatest food security gains in the past year include Ethiopia and Botswana. South Africa is in the only African country in the global top 40 most food secure countries at number 39, with 61 points out of 100 to rank 39 th globally (and No 1 in Africa). *Scorecard Research, Analysis, & Design by Africa Health, Human & Social Development Information 3Service (Afri-Dev. Info) Produced in Partnership Africa Coalition on Maternal, Newborn & Child Health;

4 Only 4 African countries scored have a score of over 50 points out of 100 in the global food security index rankings : South Africa 61 points out of 100 to rank 39 th globally (and No 1 in Africa); Botswana 60 points to rank 43 rd globally (and number 2 in Africa); Tunisia 58 points to rank 47 th globally and number 3 in Africa); Egypt 51.7 points to rank 56 globally (and number 4 in Africa). Aside from South Africa, Tunisia and Egypt, other African continental and sub regional economic giants performed poorly on the global food security index rankings: Kenya at 36.4 points to rank number 80 globally (and 11 in Africa); Nigeria at 33 points to rank number 86 globally (and number 14 in Africa); Ethiopia 31.2 points to rank number 90 globally (and 17 th in Africa). Of the countries for which there is data, the 5 least food secure countries in the world (and in Africa) are DRC with 20.8 points; Chad with 22.1 points; Togo with 22.7 points; Sudan with 25.2 points; and Sudan with 25.2 points. North Africa is the sub region with the most number of countries in the African top 10 of food secure countries - with Tunisia at 58 points out of 100 to rank 47 globally and number 3 in Africa; Egypt with 51.7 points to rank 56 globally (and number 4 in Africa); Morocco with 49.4 points to rank 59 th globally (and 5 th in Africa); and Algeria with 45.2 points to rank 68 th globally (and 7 th in Africa). South Africa is the most food secure country in Africa (and southern Africa) with 61 points out of 100 to rank 39 th globally - and number 1 in Africa. Ghana is the most food secure country in West Africa with 45.4 points out of 100 to rank 67 globally - and number 6 in Africa. Uganda is the most food secure country in East Africa - with 38.3 points out of 100 to rank 77 th globally - and number 9 in Africa. Tunisia is the most food secure country in North Africa - with 58 points out of 100 to rank 47 th globally - and number 3 in Africa. Cameroon is the most food secure country in Central Africa - with 36.9 points out of 100 to rank 78 th globally - and number 10 in Africa. Of the countries for which data is available D.R.C is the least food secure in the world and also in Africa with 20.8 points. Scoring of Food Security Index is based on an affordability, availability, and quality dynamic quantitative and qualitative model, constructed from 27 unique indicators across a set of 107 countries. *Salient Points: Why is nutrition important? Good nutrition is the foundation for human health, well- being, physical and cognitive development, and economic productivity. Nutritional status is a critical indicator of overall human and economic development, and good nutritional status is an essential social benefit in its own right. As an input to social and economic development, good nutrition is the key to breaking intergenerational cycles of poverty, because good maternal nutrition produces healthier children, who grow into healthier adults. Good nutrition reduces disease and raises labour productivity and incomes, including of people working in agriculture.* Effective Multisectoral coordination is essential - because malnutrition has multiple causes poor diets, unclean water, poor sanitation, illness and poor child care multisectoral interventions are required and these need to be coordinated. The first thousand days of children are crucial: Maternal and child undernutrition is the primary pathway through which poverty is transmitted from one generation to the next. About a quarter of all children under the age of five are stunted and about half suffer from one or more deficiencies in a key micronutrient. The critical window for adequate child growth and cognitive development is between conception and 24 months of age. Developmental damage resulting from undernutrition during this period cannot be reversed or regained over time. For this reason, many national and international nutrition initiatives now focus on the first 1,000 days. Gender differences in the rights, resources and responsibilities particularly resources necessary for achieving food and nutrition security for and within the household and responsibilities for food provisioning and caretaking often impede the achievement of household food and nutrition security. Economic growth can raise incomes and reduce hunger, but higher economic growth may not reach everyone - It may not lead to more and better jobs for all, unless policies specifically target the poor, especially those in rural areas. In poor countries, hunger and poverty reduction will only be achieved with growth that is not only sustained, but also broadly shared. Better data for better policy- making: effective policy- making, accountability and advocacy depend on a correct assessment of the nutrition situation. Research indicates that in many countries there is a lack of basic data and indicators with which to evaluate and monitor the nutrition landscape. *Key Definitions: *Scorecard Research, Analysis, & Design by Africa Health, Human & Social Development Information 4Service (Afri-Dev. Info) Produced in Partnership Africa Coalition on Maternal, Newborn & Child Health;

5 Undernourishment. A state, lasting for at least one year, of inability to acquire enough food, defined as a level of food intake insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements. For the purposes of this scorecard, hunger is defined as being synonymous with chronic undernourishment. Food insecurity: A situation that exists when people lack secure access to sufficient amounts of safe and nutritious food for normal growth and development and an active and healthy life. It may be caused by the unavailability of food, insufficient purchasing power, inappropriate distribution or inadequate use of food at the household level. Food insecurity, poor conditions of health and sanitation and inappropriate care and feeding practices are the major causes of poor nutritional status. Food insecurity may be chronic, seasonal or transitory. Food security: A situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Based on this definition, four food security dimensions can be identified: food availability, economic and physical access to food, food utilization and stability over time. Undernutrition: The outcome of undernourishment, and/or poor absorption and/or poor biological use of nutrients consumed as a result of repeated infectious disease. It includes being underweight for one s age, too short for one s age (stunted), dangerously thin for one s height (wasted) and deficient in vitamins and minerals (micronutrient malnutrition). Despite overall progress, marked differences across regions persist. Sub- Saharan Africa remains the region with the highest prevalence of undernourishment, with modest progress in recent years. *Indicates, adaptation or quoted from Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) The state of food and agriculture 2013; and 2013 State of Food Insecurity in the World - The multiple dimensions of food security. Main Sources For Study Summarized In Scorecard: State Of Food and Agriculture 2013; State Of Food Insecurity In The World 2013, Publications of The Food And Agriculture Organization, World Food Program & IFAD; UNICEF State Of The Worlds Children 2012 & 2013; Food Security Index, Economist Intelligence Unit 2013; WHO World Health Statistics 2012 & 2013; OECD Data ; World Bank Data , To Find Out More About Publications Please Contact publications[at]afri- dev.info For Partnerships, Support Or General Information Please Contact contactus[at]afri- dev.info Africa Office: 14 Akintan St. Ogba, Lagos, Nigeria , Intl. Office: 175 Grays Inn Rd, London WC1X 8UE, UK *Scorecard Research, Analysis, & Design by Africa Health, Human & Social Development Information 5Service (Afri-Dev. Info) Produced in Partnership Africa Coalition on Maternal, Newborn & Child Health;

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