Scheme of work for Learning English through Songs and Poems

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1 Scheme of work for Focus Part 1 INTRODUCING DIFFERENT POETRY FORMS Suggested Time Allocation Period 1-12 Knowledge, skills & attitudes to be developed Suggested activities Teaching resources Suggested activities Remarks Introduce Narrative Poems Period 1-2 Develop the concept of rhyming Identify the functions and structures of narrative poems, which tell stories Understand the themes and how narrative poems are organized through looking into 2-3 samples Read aloud pairs of rhyming words to teach what rhyming is Discuss in groups what the main features of narrative poems are after reading two examples Act out the sample stories in groups as a way to develop interest Sample narrative poems, preferably being put on PowerPoint or big posters for the sake of easy presentation Colour pencils and paper for drawing Rhyming worksheet Translate the narrative poem given in a prose so as to get familiarized with the structures and organizations of narrative poems Narrative poems is first taught because this poetry type is the easiest to be understood as the themes and organizations are rather explicit Moreover, the structure of narrative poems is rather comprehensible to, as they should know how a story is usually written. Introduce Ballads Period 3-4 Identify the functions of ballads and the differences between ballads and narrative poems Identify the characteristics of ballads, i.e. ballad meter and incremental repetition Identify the theme of Deduce the rhythmic and stressing features of ballads by listening to the teacher Sing the sample ballads with as a motivation booster Discuss in groups how does the given ballad rhyme and stress Sample ballads. If possible, use those with music. The Rime of the Ancient Mariner can be used as an example as it contains explicit stress pattern and the words are easy to Ask to identify the ballad meter while teacher reads aloud another ballad Ballads are suggested being taught right after narrative poems because, like narrative poems, the stories of ballads are usually told in very explicit ways and understandable to For more-able learners, teachers can ask them 1

2 sample ballads to rearrange a ballad sentence by sentence and read it aloud before class. Peers evaluate whether the words are correctly arranged semantically and phonetically Introduce lyric poems Period 5-6 Identify the function and basic structures of lyric poems, which are short poems with one speaker who expresses thought and deep feelings Contrast the functions and structures of lyrics poems and that of narrative poems and ballads Compare the functions of lyric poems with that of narrative poems / ballads In groups, try to identify the main theme of the sample poem Deduce the characteristics of sonnets Sample lyric poems and sonnets One very good example is the stream, of which the language is comprehensible to Despite the word lyric, please be noted that lyric poems are not necessarily sung with music It is not necessary to look into the main theme and the use of words in detail at this stage. This can be done in Part 2 of this module. Introduce to sonnet, a popular common type of lyric poetry Identify the theme of sample poems Consolidation Period 7 (1 period) Read more examples of narrative poems, ballads and lyric poems Consolidate and review what have been taught in the previous 6 periods Consolidate the concept of rhyming In groups, identify the poetry form of the poem given Explain to the class with reference to the features of the poem s function and structure A poem for each group PowerPoint or transparency showing the poems that the have to work on Peer and teacher of how well the poetry forms is analyzed Poetry is new to most, it is not advisable to cover too many forms intensively A revision session is therefore conducted to consolidate what have learnt before moving to new 2

3 topics Introduce haikus Period 8-9 Understand the concept of syllables Understand the features of haikus, which is very short poems with 17 or fewer syllabus Identify the typical content of haiku, which is usually focused on what a person witnesses in everyday life that is more outstanding than normal Read aloud some sample haikus and find out their features like number of lines, number of syllabus and the syllabus structures Guided by teachers, explore the underlining meanings of 2 or 3 haikus Several sample haikus, for example, works of Japanese haiku master Issa. Identify the syllables in a haikus and ask to count the number of syllables The concept of syllable should be re-visited before teaching haikus if are weak Introduce limericks Period Identify the structure of limericks, which are written with one two-line rhymed poem and one three-line rhymed poem Discover the function of limericks, which are meant to be funny Identify special features of limericks, like the use of onomatopoeia, idioms and puns In groups, work out the rhyming structure of the limerick given Listen to the teacher and fill in the blanks for the missing rhyming words Several sample limericks Activity worksheets The structure of limerick is relatively less complicated than those of ballads and haikus. Therefore, teachers may have some time for teaching how to appreciate the use of words and idioms Consolidation Period 12 (1 period) Consolidate what have learnt in the previous lessons Consolidate the concept of rhyming and syllables In groups, identify the poetry form of the poem assigned by the teacher Invite to explain in front of the class with reference to the features of the poem s Samples of the poetry types covered during the course so far Peer and teacher of how well the poetry forms are analyzed Teachers are encouraged to review all the poetry forms at this stage before stepping into next teaching stage 3

4 function and structure Part 2 INTORDUCE POETIC FEATURES Period Introduce similes Period Develop the concept of similes Identify the functions and structures of simile, that is, a figure of speech in which two essentially unlike things are compared, often in a phrase introduced by like or as Learn the vocabulary used in similes Give samples of simile from more familiar genre like story to enhance discovery learning Ask to deduce the structure and techniques of similes Analyses some similes in big poster with Show how similes are used in poems Sample similes put on big posters to enhance whole class discussion Colour pencils and paper to construct a colour scheme of different components of a simile Simile worksheet, e.g. matching things which can be compared with simile Write simile sentences in groups Simile is first taught because it is the easiest and most popular type of technique found in different genres To be able to write creatively by using similes Introduce metaphors Period Identify the functions and structure of metaphor, i.e. A figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit comparison To be able to distinguish metaphors from simile Elicit a simile sentence from Show the metaphor version of the simile sentence Illustrate the use of metaphors by showing examples Discuss in groups the differences between similes and metaphors Sample metaphors from poems and other text types Ask to link two comparable objects by using a metaphor Ask to write creatively by using similes and metaphors Metaphor is taught after simile because they bare similar function and characteristics, in other words, their structures are easily merged. Thus, teachers should pay more emphasis on the comparisons Learn the vocabulary 4

5 used in metaphor Write creatively using metaphors Introduce rhymes Period Identify the function and structures of rhymes, i.e. correspondence of terminal sounds of words or of lines of a verse. And also, a poem or verse having a regular correspondence of sounds, especially at the ends of lines Brainstorm rhyming words Write literally and creatively by using rhymes Show several rhymed words and let have a taste of rhymes Provide one word to each group and ask them to list out all possible rhymed words Provide examples of rhymes used in poetry. Ask to read aloud and analyze Start a rhyming word game by asking 1 student to suggest a word, the game continues as other are required to brainstorm more rhyming words Rhyming word cards PowerPoint of the rhymed poems Ask to group words which are rhymed Ask to fill in the blanks in poems using rhymed words Ask in groups to write poems with rhymes Peer evaluation Create simple poems as a formative Rhymes should have been introduced in primary level, hence, teachers should give more autonomy for to write with rhymes and enhance more discovery learning With the rhyming words brainstormed, in group create simple poems with teacher s assistance. The poems are posted in the classroom Introduce rhythm Period Realize the use of rhythms in poem, i.e. the pattern or flow of sound created by the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables in accentual verse or of long and short syllables in quantitative verse. Teachers bring in mini drums to ask tap according to the syllables of a stanza of a poem Analyze the use of rhythms in poems A mini drum or other percussions which can be used to tap Sample poems which contain rhythms Ask in groups to modify or change the rhythm of a poem Peer evaluation For more able, teachers can introduce the technical terms like iambic rhythm 5

6 Identify different kinds of rhythm used in different poems Write creatively by using rhythms Revision and PART 3 INTRODUCE DIFFERENT SONGS Period Review the four main techniques used in poems Let have a chance to analyze a poem according to the above four aspects Show one sample poem which contains the four discussed techniques and analyze with PowerPoint of the sample poems Test paper Write a poem individually by making use of the techniques discussed before as a formative Period The following types of songs covered are only suggested for reference, teachers can introduce other suitable types of songs according to needs Introduce songs about friendship Period (3 periods) Understand the characteristics of songs about friendship, e.g. melody, lyrics Practise listening skill Develop analyzing skill Introduce the theme and ask to share their friendship Introduce songs about friendship Fill in lyrics with pen and paper, or by using software, like storyboard Analyze the word use in songs about friendship Songs about friendship CD-player Lyrics handout or suitable software for gap-filling activity Handout about the characteristics of friendship songs Teacher s feedback based on sharing and analysis When filling in the lyrics, teachers can vary the teaching focus in different lessons, for example, word used, rhyme, etc. Introduction of songs about childhood Period (3 periods) Understand the characteristics of songs about childhood, e.g. melody, lyrics Introduce the theme and ask to share their experience childhood Songs about Childhood CD-player Teacher and peer evaluation based on explanation and interpretation In analyzing the main theme of the song, apart from share orally, teachers can invite 6

7 Develop analyzing skill Establish inferring skill Develop and practise discussion and explanation skill Introduce songs about childhood to learners with lyrics, but without the song title Ask to discuss and guess out the main theme of the songs with the lyrics provided Lyrics handout for gap-filling activity Handout about the characteristics of childhood songs to express their idea in other means, e.g. drawing, role-paying, etc. Introduction of songs about love Period Understand the characteristics of songs about love, e.g. melody, lyrics Understand different kinds of love Practise listening skill Develop creativity Practise knowledge learned in Part 2, e.g. rhyme and rhythm Introduce songs about different kinds of love, and ask to work out the kind of songs going to be introduced in this part Ask to work out the lyrics with pen and paper, or by using software, like storyboard Invite to rewrite or modify the lyrics Songs about different kinds of love CD-Player Lyrics handout or suitable software Handout for lyrics modification or rewriting Handout about the characteristics of love songs Teacher and peer evaluation based on lyrics modification or rewriting When filling in the lyrics, teachers can vary the teaching focus in different lessons, for example, word used, rhyme, etc. In modifying or rewriting lyrics, teachers may break the whole lyrics into parts, and ask learners to work for 1 part only Introduction of songs about life Period (3 periods) Understand the characteristics of songs about life, e.g. melody, lyrics Develop analyzing and presentation skill Establish positive attitude towards life through various songs about life Introduce the theme and ask points of view about life Introduce songs about life Ask to share their feeling on the messages delivered through the songs Songs about life CD-player Handout about the characteristics of life songs Teachers can solidify the abstract concept of life by asking to create stories from the songs introduced Consolidation Period 44 Classify different kinds Students (in groups) share Songs from Teacher and peer Teachers need to 7

8 (1 period) of songs Practise learner autonomy in selecting teaching material Develop collaborative learning songs searched by themselves with the class Ask to point out the characteristics of the songs, e.g. theme, lyrics, melody, etc. CD-player Analyzing guidelines for learners to analyze the songs shared feedback based on song sharing and analysis monitor, or even give help and guidance, to when they search songs for sharing Ensure understanding of the knowledge introduced in this part PART 4 FINAL PERFORMANCE Period Introduce of the tasks (Task 1 & 2) Period Understand and identify the purpose and the context of the performance Brainstorm ideas and gather information for the performance Practice discussion skill and interaction skills Practise collaborative skill Develop presentation skill Participate in planning and organising an activity collaboratively Introduce, explain and demonstrate the tasks (Task 1: Sing/Analyze a song; Task 2: Read/Analyze a poem), as well as the criteria Brainstorm ideas with on how and what songs/poems they can work on Group discussion Each group presents their preliminary idea at the end of the section A list of recommended songs/poems for reference Examples of past performance (if available) Advice and feedback to throughout their discussion Songs and poems in the recommendation list are mostly those taught in previous lessons, but teacher can welcome any new suggestions from 15 minutes for both Task 1 & 2; can allocate the time according to their own preference (e.g. they can sing a song for 3 minutes and spend the rest of the time on explaining the poem or vice versa) 8

9 Perform and explain a song/poem Period Knowledge about the songs and poems learnt Develop analytical and presentation skill Express ideas and feelings with proper tone and manner Develop collaborative and interactive skill Experience the feelings, emotions or ideas of the songs/poems Appreciate and evaluate others performance Perform and analyze the song/poem (10-15 minutes for each group) Evaluate one s own and others performance using a set of criteria (stated in the checklist) Discuss and give comments to performance Performance feedback forms Performance checklists Give on-going feedback and throughout the whole process The performance should be evaluated formally by teacher using a set of criteria listed in the feedback form Ask to submit a written report in sharing how much each group has learnt from planning, organising and carrying out the tasks Songs and poems in the recommendation list are mostly those taught in class before, but teacher can welcome any new suggestions from 15 minutes for both Task 1 & 2; can allocate the time according to their own preference (e.g. they can sing a song for 3 minutes and spend the rest of the time on explaining the poem or vice versa) On-line reference materials: 9

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