Section 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships. KEY CONCEPT Ecology is the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment.

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1 Section 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships KEY CONCEPT Ecology is the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment.

2 Ecologists study environments at different levels of organization. Ecology is the study of the interactions among living things, and between living things and their surroundings.

3 Ecologists study environments at different levels of organization. An organism is an individual living thing, such as an alligator. Organism Organism

4 Ecologists study environments at different levels of organization. A population is a group of the same species that lives in one area. Organism Population Population Organism

5 Ecologists study environments at different levels of organization. A community is a group of different species that live together in one area. Community Community Organism Population Population Organism

6 Ecologists study environments at different levels of organization. An ecosystem includes all of the organisms as well as the climate, soil, water, rocks and other nonliving things in a given area. Community Ecosystem Ecosystem Community Organism Population Population Organism

7 Ecologists study environments at different levels of organization. A biome is a major regional or global community of organisms characterized by the climate conditions and plant communities that thrive there. Community Ecosystem Biome Ecosystem Community Organism Population Population Organism

8 Ecologists study environments at different levels of organization. The biosphere is the sum of all biomes on earth. It includes all living organisms on earth, together with the dead organic matter produced by them.

9 Section 13.2 Biotic and Abiotic Factors KEY CONCEPT Every ecosystem includes both living and nonliving factors.

10 An ecosystem includes both biotic and abiotic factors. Biotic factors are living things. plants animals fungi bacteria

11 An ecosystem includes both biotic and abiotic factors. Abiotic factors are nonliving things. moisture temperature wind sunlight soil

12 Changing one factor in an ecosystem can affect many other factors. Biodiversity is the assortment, or variety, of living things in an ecosystem. Rain forests have more biodiversity than other locations in the world, but are threatened by human activities.

13 Changing one factor in an ecosystem can affect many other factors. A keystone species is a species that has an unusually large effect on its ecosystem. keystone

14 Changing one factor in an ecosystem can affect many other factors. Keystone species form and maintain a complex web of life. creation of wetland ecosystem increased waterfowl Population increased fish population keystone species nesting sites for birds

15 Section 13.3 Energy in Ecosystems KEY CONCEPT Life in an ecosystem requires a source of energy.

16 Producers provide energy for other organisms in an ecosystem. Producers get their energy from non-living resources. Producers are also called autotrophs because they make their own food.

17 Producers provide energy for other organisms in an ecosystem. Consumers are organisms that get their energy by eating other living or once-living resources. Consumers are also called heterotrophs because they feed off of different things.

18 Almost all producers obtain energy from sunlight. Photosynthesis in most producers uses sunlight as an energy source. Chemosynthesis in prokaryote producers uses chemicals as an energy source. carbon dioxide + water + hydrogen sulfide + oxygen sugar + sulfuric acid

19 Section 13.4 Food Chains and Food Webs KEY CONCEPT Food chains and food webs model the flow of energy in an ecosystem.

20 A food chain is a model that shows a sequence of feeding relationships. A food chain links species by their feeding relationships. A food chain follows the connection between one producer and a single chain of consumers within an ecosystem. GRAMA GRASS DESERT COTTONTAIL HARRIS S HAWK

21 A food web shows a complex network of feeding relationships. An organism may have multiple feeding relationships in an ecosystem. A food web emphasizes complicated feeding relationships and energy flow in an ecosystem.

22 A food chain is a model that shows a sequence of feeding relationships. Consumers are not all alike. 1. Herbivores eat only plants. 2. Carnivores eat only animals. 3. Omnivores eat both plants and animals. 4. Detritivores eat dead organic matter. 5. Decomposers are detritivores that break down organic matter into simpler compounds. carnivore decomposer

23 A food chain is a model that shows a sequence of feeding relationships. Trophic levels are the nourishment levels in a food chain. Primary consumers are herbivores that eat producers. Secondary consumers are carnivores that eat herbivores. Tertiary consumers are carnivores that eat secondary consumers. Omnivores, such as humans that eat both plants and animals, may be listed at different trophic levels in different food chains.

24 Section 13.4 Cycling of Matter KEY CONCEPT Matter cycles in and out of an ecosystem.

25 Water cycles through the environment. The hydrologic, or water, cycle is the circular pathway of water on Earth. Organisms all have bodies made mostly of water. precipitation condensation surface runoff evaporation transpiration lake groundwater water storage in ocean

26 Elements essential for life also cycle through ecosystems. A biogeochemical cycle is the movement of a particular chemical through the biological and geological parts of an ecosystem.

27 Elements essential for life also cycle through ecosystems. Carbon is the building block of life. The carbon cycle moves carbon from the atmosphere, through the food web, and back to the atmosphere. Carbon is emitted during the burning of fossil fuels. Some carbon is stored for long periods of time in areas called carbon sinks. carbon dioxide in air photosynthesis combustion respiration respiration decomposition of organisms photosynthesis carbon dioxide dissolved in water fossil fuels

28 Elements essential for life also cycle through ecosystems. The nitrogen cycle mostly takes place underground. Some bacteria convert gaseous nitrogen into ammonia through a process called nitrogen fixation. Some nitrogen-fixing bacteria live in nodules on the nitrogen in atmosphere roots of plants; animals others live freely in soil. plant nitrogen-fixing bacteria in roots nitrogen-fixing bacteria in soil decomposers ammonium ammonification nitrifying bacteria nitrates nitrites nitrifying bacteria denitrifying bacteria

29 Elements essential for life also cycle through ecosystems. Ammonia released into the soil is transformed into ammonium. Nitrifying bacteria change the ammonium into nitrate. Nitrogen moves through the food web and returns nitrogen in atmosphere to the soil during decomposition. animals plant nitrogen-fixing bacteria in roots nitrogen-fixing bacteria in soil decomposers ammonium ammonification nitrifying bacteria nitrates nitrites nitrifying bacteria denitrifying bacteria

30 Natural and human activities can disrupt biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems. Natural disruptions volcanic eruptions forest fires landslides and earthquakes living organisms

31 Natural and human activities can disrupt biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems. Disruptions caused by humans poor farming practices burning fossil fuels

32 Section 13.6 Pyramid Models KEY CONCEPT Pyramids model the distribution of energy and matter in an ecosystem.

33 An energy pyramid shows the distribution of energy among trophic levels. Energy pyramids compare energy used by producers and other organisms on trophic levels. Between each tier of an energy pyramid, up to 90 percent of the energy is lost into the atmosphere as heat. Only 10 percent of the energy at each tier is transferred from one trophic level to the next. energy lost energy transferred

34 Other pyramid models illustrate an ecosystem s biomass and distribution of organisms. Biomass is a measure of the total dry mass of organisms in a given area. tertiary consumers 75 g/m 2 secondary consumers 150 g/m 2 primary consumers 675 g/m 2 producers 2000 g/m2

35 An energy pyramid shows the distribution of energy among trophic levels. A pyramid of numbers shows the numbers of individual organisms at each trophic level in an ecosystem. tertiary consumers 5 secondary consumers 5000 primary consumers 500,000 producers 5,000,000 A vast number of producers are required to support even a few top level consumers.

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