7 th Grade Study Guide for Semester Test

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1 Name: KEY Date: Class: 7 th Grade Study Guide for Semester Test Scientific Method - Chapter 1 1. What are steps for scientific inquiry (scientific method)? 2. What are inferences based on? 1. Pose a QUESTION 2. Develop a HYPOTHESIS 3. Design & Conduct an EXPERIMENT 4. Collect and Interpret DATA 5. Draw CONCLUSIONS 6. COMMUNICATE Results Inferences are based on reasoning from what you already know and from evidence. What is the scientific inquiry? It is a way for (3)_scientists to study the (4) natural explanations for what they observe using (5)_evidence_. world and suggest Step 1: Identify the problem: Scientists are curious about things they experience or observe. The problem often begins as a (6)_question_. What is a hypothesis? It is a possible (7) explanation based on observations and your knowledge of the topic. People often call it an educated guess or a prediction. A hypothesis must be (8) testable. If scientists can t test their hypotheses, they won t be able to answer their questions. What are variables? They are the (9) factors that can change in an experiment. The independent (manipulated) variable is the only one that is changed to test the hypothesis. The dependent (responding) variable is the results from the experiment. 10. What is data? It is _facts, figures, and other evidence gathered during an experiment. 11. What is scientific inquiry (scientific method)? Scientific Inquiry refers to the variety of ways scientists study the natural world and develop explanations based on evidence they see. 12. How do you test a hypothesis? An investigation in the form of an experiment must be carried out and evidence must be gathered.

2 13. Why is it important to control variables in an experiment? It is important to control the variables so we will know which variable gave us the results observed. 14. When you begin an experiment, why should you create a table to record your data? A data table provides an organized way to collect and record observations. 16. Facts, figures, and other evidence gathered through qualitative and quantitative observations are called data_. 17. A(n) hypothesis is a possible answer to a scientific question. 18. In an experiment, the responding variable is the factor that may change in response to the manipulated variable. 19. A scientific law is a statement that describes what scientists expect to happen every time under a particular set of conditions. 20. When only one variable is manipulated at a time, a(n) controlled experiment is conducted. 21. The scientific inquiry process includes the diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world. 22. A factor that can change in an experiment is called a(n) variable. 23. The manipulated variable is the only variable that is purposely changed to test a hypothesis.

3 Write the letter of the correct answer on the line and circle your answer! 24. _C The statement, All objects in the universe attract each other, is an example of which of the following? A scientific inquiry C scientific law B scientific theory D controlled experiment 25. _A Which of these is NOT an example of a way scientists communicate their results? A taking out advertisements in the newspapers B publishing articles in scientific journals C giving talks at scientific meetings D exchanging information on the internet 26. Which of these is purposely changed during an experiment? A hypothesis C responding variable B dependant variable D manipulated variable 27. Which of these is a tool that can help you interpret data? A theory C hypothesis B variable D graph If the statement is true, write true. If the statement is false, change the underlined word or words to make the statement true. 28. FALSE Many trials are not needed before a hypothesis can be accepted as true. 29. T A conclusion is a summary of what is learned from an experiment. 30. T A factor that can change in an experiment is called a variable. 31. T A hypothesis is not the same as a fact. 32. FALSE Facts and figures are examples of variables. DATA 33. FALSE A well-tested explanation for a wide range of observations and experimental results is known as a scientific inquiry. THEORY

4 Measurement Chapter Why do scientists use a standard measurement system? A standard system allows scientists to compare data and communicate with each other all over the world about their results 35. What are the basic SI units of measure for length, mass, and volume? _Length meter (m) mass kilogram (kg) volume cubic meter (m³) OR liter (L) 36. What are the common tools scientists use to measure length and mass? Length metric ruler (meter stick) Mass triple beam balance 37. Explain why the weight of an object is different on Earth and the moon even though the object s mass is the same in both places. Weight is the measure of the pull of gravity on an object, and mass is the amount of matter in an object. The gravityis less on the moon, so objects weigh less. 38. What formula do you use to determine the volume of a rectangular solid? Volume = length width height Fill in the vocabulary word for each sentence. 39. Modern scientists use a system of measurement called the International System of Units, abbreviated as SI. 40. The measure of the force of gravity acting on an object is called WEIGHT. 41. The METRIC system is a system of measurement based on the number 10 and developed by scientists in the 1790s. 42. The amount of space an object takes up is its VOLUME. 43. DENSITY is the measure of how much mass is contained in a given volume. 44. When you measure liquid volume, you measure at the bottom of the MENISCUS, the curve along the top of the liquid s surface. 45. MASS is a measure of the amount of matter in an object.

5 Read the passage and study the graphs below. Answer questions on the lines provided. Bar Graphs A bar graph is a good choice to use when the manipulated variable is not a number and the data displayed is not continuous. Bar Graph A is a graph of this type of data. The manipulated variable in this case includes three high schools in a county. Because the manipulated variable is not a number and not continuous, a bar graph is a good choice to display the data. Each of the three schools has a position along the horizontal axis. The responding variable is the number of students at a high school. The vertical axis is labeled with the responding variable, and a scale on the vertical axis covers the range of the data collected. In Bar Graph A, each bar shows how many students are enrolled at that school. Bar Graph B shows a variation on the basic bar graph. This graph includes a second manipulated variable school year. Each year has different shading, as indicated by the small boxes to the upper left of the graph. Each school now has two bars. This grouping of bars ensures that the reader of the graph understands that the bar graph shows data for two years for each school. 46. Identify the manipulated and responding variables in both graphs. Manipulated = County High Schools Responding = Number of Students 47. In Bar graph A, how many students attend the largest school? About 375 students 48. Why are the bars in Bar Graph B shaded differently? The dark represent one year ( ), and the light represents a different year ( ) 49. Which school had the most students in , and which had the most students in ? _ = South = Northwestern

6 Earth s Interior Chapter Label AND describe the layers of Earth by writing the name of the layer in the blank. Layer 1_Crust rocky outside layer that forms Earth s skin Layer 2_Mantle made of very hot, but solid rock Layer 3_Outer Core liquid layer of the core made of nickel and iron Layer 4_Inner Core solid layer of the core made of metal 51. What are two types of evidence geologists use to learn about Earth s interior? Rock Samples (direct) Seismic Waves (indirect) 52. Compare how pressure and temperature change with depth inside Earth. Pressure and temperature increase as depth increases (you go deeper into Earth) Building Vocabulary: Match each term with its definition by writing the letter of the correct definition in the right column on the line beside the 53. _A basalt a. a dark rock with fine grains 54. _E crust b. the force pressing on an area 55. _C outer core c. the layer made up of molten iron and nickel 56. _D granite d. a rock with light color and coarse grains 57. _B pressure e. Earth s outer skin of rock 58. _F seismic wave f. a wave produced by an earthquake 59. _H inner core g. a layer of hot, solid rock below the crust 60. _G mantle h. a dense ball of solid iron and nickel

7 Earth s Interior - Chapter 8 If the statement is true, write true. If the statement is false, change the underlined word or words to make the statement true. 61. _False - nickel Earth s core is mostly made up of iron and magnesium. 62. _False - outer_ Scientists think that movements in the liquid inner core create Earth s magnetic field. 63. _False - basalt_ The oceanic crust is most like granite in composition overall. 64. _True _ Pressure and temperature increase as you move deeper below Earth s surface. 66. False - crust The core is Earth s outer skin of solid rock. Write the letter of the correct answer on the line at the left. 67. _B In which layer of Earth is the asthenosphere located? A inner core C outer core B mantle D crust 68. _C Which best describes the mantle? A molten metal C hot but solid rock B dense, solid metal ball D dry land and ocean floor 69. _C Which lists the main layers of Earth in order from outermost to innermost? A lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesosphere C crust, mantle, core B core, mantle, crust D mantle, core, crust 70. _A What do geologists call the crust and uppermost mantle? A lithosphere C mesosphere B asthenosphere D outer core Understanding Main Ideas: Label each picture by writing the type of heat transfer it shows.

8 71. Convection 72. Radiation 73. Conduction 74. What are convection currents and what causes them? The flow that transfers heat within a fluid. Heating and cooling of a liquid, changes in density, and the force of gravity all cause convection currents._ 75. What causes convection currents in Earth s mantle? Heat from the core and the mantle. Building Vocabulary: If the statement is true, write true. If the statement is false, change the underlined word or words to make the statement true. 76. True_ The flow that transfers heat within a fluid is called a(n) convection current. 77. True Conduction is heat transfer between materials that are touching. 78. False - Mass_ Density is a measure of how much heat there is in a given volume of a substance.

9 Rocks Chapter Describe how igneous rock forms. Igneous rock forms from the cooling of magma and lava 80. Describe how sedimentary rock forms. Sedimentary rock forms as sediment settles and pressure presses the sediment together to eventually form rock. The order is: Rock to sediment by weathering and erosion, deposition, compaction, then cementation. 82. In order, list the sequence of processes through which sedimentary rocks form. 1.) weathering 2.) erosion 3.) deposition 4.) compaction 5.) cementation 81. Describe how metamorphic rock forms. Metamorphic rock forms from heat and pressure deep within Earth. Building Vocabulary: Match each term with its definition by writing the letter of the correct definition in the right column on the line beside the term in the left column. 82. _A sediment a. small, solid pieces of material from rocks or living things 83. D_ cementation b. the process that presses sediments together 84. _B_ compaction c. the process by which running water, wind, or ice carry away bits of broken-up rock 85. _E_ deposition d. the process in which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue sediment together 86. _C erosion e. the process by which sediment settles out of water or wind

10 Plate Tectonics Chapter 10 Building Vocabulary: Fill in the blank to complete each statement. 87. A canyon on the ocean floor at which the crust bends downward is called a(n) DEEP OCEAN TRENCH. 88. The process that continually adds new material to the ocean floor is called SEA FLOOR SPREADING. 89. The process by which the ocean floor sinks into the mantle is known as _SUBDUCTION. 90. A chain of underwater mountains along which sea-floor spreading occurs is a(n) MID-OCEAN RIDGE_. Understanding Main Ideas: Label each diagram by writing the type of plate boundary it shows. 91._DIVERGENT_92. CONVERGENT 93. TRANSFORM Answer the following questions on the lines. 94. Describe what happens when a plate carrying oceanic crust collides with a plate carrying continental crust. The oceanic crust sinks under the continental crust in a process called subduction. 95. Explain what force caused the movement of the continents from one supercontinent to their present positions. Convection currents (gravity)

11 Building Vocabulary: Fill in the blank to complete each statement. 96. At a(n) _convergent boundary_, plates come together. 97. Breaks in Earth s crust where rocks have slipped past each other are called _transform boundary_. 98. The lithosphere is broken into separate sections called _plates_. 99. The geological theory that states that pieces of Earth s crust are in constant, slow motion is called plate tectonics_ Plates move apart along a(n) _fault_. Fill in the blank to complete each statement. The Rock Cycle Chapter The series of processes that that slowly change Earth s rocks from one kind to another is called the rock cycle Plate movements help drive the rock cycle by helping to form magma._ 103. Deep beneath the surface, _heat_ and pressure can change sedimentary rock to metamorphic rock Through the process of plate tectonics, metamorphic rock can become magma Sediment piles up on the ocean floor through the process of _deposition_. If the statement is true, write true. If the statement is false, change the underlined word or words to make the statement true _F - Weathering The process that breaks down granite into sediment is deposition True There are many pathways by which rocks move through the rock cycle True As rock moves through the rock cycle, material is not lost or gained _F - and Forces of the rock cycle operate inside Earth not at Earth s surface.

12 Building Vocabulary: Match each term with its definition by writing the letter of the correct term in the right column on the line beside the definition in the left column A a unit of geologic time that subdivides eras A. period B. geologic time scale 111. C a long unit of time used to divide the time between Precambrian Time and the present C. era 112. B a record of the geologic events and the evolution of life forms as shown in the fossil record

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