Rocks. Rocks from lava form only under Earth s surface. Rocks on Earth change slowly over time. Many rocks form in layers.

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1 Before You Read Before you read the chapter, respond to these statements. 1. Write an A if you agree with the statement. 2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement. Before You Read Heat can melt rock. from lava form only under Earth s surface. on Earth change slowly over time. Many rocks form in layers. Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter. Science Journal Are you a rock collector? If so, write two sentences about your favorite rock. If not, describe rocks that you have seen in enough detail that a non-sighted person could visualize them. 33

2 Section 1 The Rock Cycle Skim Section 1 of your book. Read the headings and examine the illustrations. Write three questions that come to mind Review Define mineral using your book or a dictionary. mineral New rock rock cycle Academic Use your book to define the following terms. Then use each term in an original sentence to show its scientific meaning. Use your book or a dictionary to define erode. erode 34

3 Section 1 The Rock Cycle (continued) What is a rock? Complete the blanks in this description of rock. Most common rock contains one or more such as or. Rock types may also contain,, or. The Rock Cycle Classify the three major types of rocks. Complete the graphic organizer. Types of Model the rock cycle. Draw a diagram showing the ways in which rock can change. Include the five types of rock and the processes through which they can change. 35

4 Section 1 The Rock Cycle (continued) The Rock Cycle Organize ways that each form of rock can change in the rock cycle. Complete the flowcharts. Starting form Process Ending form magma igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic rock sediment Complete the blanks in the statements about the rock cycle. In the rock cycle, matter is weathering, nor lost or destroyed. It is and used in other forms. Neither, destroys matter. SUMMARIZE IT Choose a form of rock. Then use the rock cycle diagram to describe all the possible ways that rock could form. 36

5 Section 2 Igneous Review element Scan the headings of Section 2. Identify three categories of formation of igneous rocks and three classification groups. 1.,, or 2.,, or Explain how an element is different from a compound or a mixture. New Use your book to define the following terms. igneous rock lava intrusive extrusive Academic infer Use your book or a dictionary to define infer. Then explain why inferring is important to scientists. 37

6 Section 2 Igneous (continued) Formation of Igneous Complete the flow chart about lava. melts to form At the surface it becomes which rises because it is. Identify two sources of heat that melt rocks beneath Earth s surface Distinguish among the types of igneous rocks and the processes by which they form. Complete the chart. Type Characteristics Formation Process of Rock Intrusive Extrusive Volcanic Glass 38

7 Section 2 Igneous (continued) Classifying Igneous Sequence the three types of igneous rock. The arrows show how the density, silica content, and iron and magnesium content increase among the types of igneous rock. Density Silica Iron and Magnesium Analyze how the characteristics of each type of magma affect how it rises to the surface. Type Characteristics How It Rises of Magma to the Surface Basaltic Granitic Andesitic oozes out through cracks in ocean floor or spills out of volcanos SYNTHESIZE IT Classify the following rocks on the basis of what you have learned from this section. Identify whether each is intrusive or extrusive, and identify its composition as basaltic, granitic, or andesitic. a) a dark-colored rock containing a high level of iron that formed from magma that cooled beneath Earth s surface b) a light-colored rock with high silica content that formed from lava on Earth s surface 39

8 Section 3 Metamorphic Scan the headings in Section 3. Predict two subjects that you expect will be discussed in this section Review Define pressure using your book or a dictionary. Then write a sentence that shows its scientific meaning. pressure New Academic transform Write the vocabulary term that matches each definition. rock formed when heat, pressure, or fluids act on other rock to change its form, its composition, or both describes metamorphic rock whose mineral grains line up in parallel layers describes metamorphic rock whose mineral grains generally do not form layers Use a dictionary to define transform. 40

9 Section 3 Metamorphic (continued) Formation of Metamorphic Organize information about the processes that can form metamorphic rock. Heat and pressure change. Sequence the types of rocks in the process from shale to gneiss. shale Describe the formation of foliated rock. gneiss Describe the growth of grains in sandstone to change it to quartzite, a nonfoliated rock. 41

10 Section 3 Metamorphic (continued) Classifying Metamorphic Summarize the two textures of metamorphic rocks. Describe each texture and give two examples of rocks with that texture. Metamorphic Rock Texture: Texture: Description: Description:.. Examples: Examples: SYNTHESIZE IT A planner is designing a new office building. The building will have an open courtyard around it. Analyze what metamorphic rocks the planner might use. Explain why each rock would be useful. 42

11 Section 4 Sedimentary Skim Section 4. Write three questions you would like to answer. Find the answers to your questions as you read Review Define weathering using your book or a dictionary. weathering New sediments sedimentary rock compaction cementation Academic consist Write a sentence from Section 4 that uses each term. Use a dictionary to define consist. 43

12 Section 4 Sedimentary (continued) Formation of Sedimentary Model the relative ages of sedimentary rock layers. Draw a cross-section of undisturbed sedimentary rocks. Label the oldest and youngest layers. Classifying Sedimentary Identify and define the three types of sedimentary rock in the graphic organizer below. Sedimentary Detrital Sedimentary Classify types of detrital sedimentary rock by the size and shape (where shape is relevant) of the particles found in them. Type Conglomerate Breccia Sandstone Shale Size/ shape Sketch of rock 44

13 Section 4 Sedimentary (continued) Chemical Sedimentary Sequence the steps in the formation of chemical sedimentary rocks. Complete the graphic organizer. 1. Minerals are dissolved in water Organic Sedimentary Identify two examples of chemical sedimentary rocks. Examples: List three organic sedimentary rocks and explain how each forms. CONNECT IT Rock: How It Forms: Rock: How It Forms: Rock: How It Forms: Describe at least four uses for sedimentary rocks in your life. 45

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