1 Hazardous Locations Overview Presented By: Ryan Parks Hazardous Locations Team Leader
2 Topics of Discussion What is a Hazardous Location? What causes an explosion? Potential ignition sources Protection concepts 101 Classification Schemes (ATEX/IEC vs. NEC) Designing/Certification for HazLoc
3 Hazardous Locations Overview, Ignitions Sources, and Protection Concepts
4 What is Potentially Explosive Atmosphere Certification and why might you need it? Any industry that processes, uses or manufactures materials that may give rise to a flammable atmosphere (gas, mist, liquid, dusts or even small fibres) may have a potentially explosive atmosphere. Such industries/processes include: Oil and Gas Drilling Petrochemical Refining and Processing Fuel Storage Chemical manufacturing Car Manufacturing Water Treatment Power Generation Pharmaceutical Distilleries Food manufacturers Aviation Military Painting
5 Deepwater Horizon
6 Facts about Disaster 11 Missing, presumed dead $350,000,000 cost for rig (now 5,000 ft below water) $350,000,000 spent so far BP 200,000 gallons (5,000 barrels) leaking per day in the Gulf - $75/barrell = $375,000/day $2 14 billion estimated in clean-up and compensation (preliminary) Damage to shipping lanes, tourism, fishing/shrimping industry, and wildlife/environment Faulty cement casing around well; failed pressure testing hours before explosion Faulty BOP; Kill Switch not activated
7 What is an explosion? In order to create an explosion there has to be fuel (for example and explosive gas such as hydrogen), and oxidizer (such as the oxygen in air) and a source of ignition energy (for example, a hot surface or an electrical spark). These three items are commonly referred to as the fire triangle.
8 The Fuel The explosion properties of our fuel (gasses, vapours, combustible dusts) have been studied and organized by their fammability limits and ignition temp etc. in order to suitably assess the potential of an explosion and to take appropriate preventative measures to avoid an explosion.
9 Fuel Properties All flammable gasses, vapours and mists require to be mixed with oxygen to make them burn. There is about 20-21% of oxygen in the air we breath. Mixtures of a flammable gas and certain percentages of air will burn if ignited. Too much or too little oxygen, the mixture will not ignite. The upper and lower concentrations of gas in atmospheric air, by volume, are known as their flammability or explosive limit.
10 Explosion Properties Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) The concentration of flammable gas or vapour in air, below which the gas atmosphere is not explosive. Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) The concentration of flammable gas or vapour in air, above which the gas atmosphere is not explosive.
12 Explosion Properties At a critical concentration called the most easily ignited concentration (MEIC), the amount of energy required to cause ignition is minimal. The critical energy at the MEIC is called minimum ignition energy (MIE).
13 Fuel Properties Temperature Every material has a spontaneous ignition temperature, SIT (or AIT, auto ignition temperature) at which it will ignite spontaneously. If the temperature of a mixture is raised, the amount of electrical energy required for ignition will decrease, reaching zero at the AIT.
14 Temperature classification Equipment is identified with a temperature class Either identified by a T rating or by a temperature in degrees C. The temperature class identifies the hottest temperature that the equipment can obtain. This can be a either the inside or the outside of the equipment depending on the protection concept.
15 Temperature Class The full list of temperature codes are
16 Temperature Class The resulting temperature codes for the substances listed previously (temperature classification) are shown below: Substance Methane Propane Ethylene Acetylene Hydrogen Temp Class T1 T1 T2 T2 T1
17 Gas Grouping Example: Material Flashpoint (deg C) LEL (%) UEL (%) Ignition Temp (deg C) T Class Gas Group Methane T1 IIA Ammonia NA T1 IIA Kerosene T3 IIA
18 Combustible Dust Around 50 explosions are reported per year, ranging from small deflagrations to building destroying detonations which lead to large numbers of fatalities. They are usually associated with the grain and mining industries, however they can occur whenever a process uses particulate materials, either as feed stocks, intermediates or products.
19 Potential Ignition Sources Hot surfaces Flames Mechanically generated sparks Stray electric currents Static Lightening Radio Frequency (Range 1 & 2) Ionising Radiation Ultrasonic Adiabatic compression and shock waves Exothermic reactions (inc. self ignition of dusts)
20 Protection Concepts ATEX, IEC and NEC 505 use the same protection concepts. NEC 500 only uses Ex d, Ex i, DIV 2 and Purge. Only intrinsic safety is very similar. European Equipment must meet Constructional Requirements & Tests.
21 Flameproof (Explosion-proof) Ex d It is assumed that the surrounding explosive atmosphere can enter the enclosure and that there will be internal explosions during the life of the equipment. The enclosure therefore has to be strong enough not to fracture or distort under the internal pressures generated. Contains explosions and prevents propagation Applications: Switchgear, motors, lights Flamepath
22 Intrinsic Safety Low energy levels prevents incendive sparking and hotspots
23 Purged and Pressurized Excludes gas by positive pressure differential 3 types: Static, leakage compensation and continuous dilution Applications: Control cabinets, analyser units and analytical instruments
24 Increased Safety Ex e The apparatus must not arc, spark, or produce ignition capable hot surfaces in normal operation. X X X
25 OIL IMMERSIONN Ex o Steel Vessel Oil Electrical Apparatus
26 POWDER FILLING Ex q Protection of high power electronics Applications: starters for Ex e lighting, capacitors etc Electrical Apparatus Powder Filling Enclosure
27 Encapsulation Protects by immersion in encapsulant Typical applications: Solenoid valves, power supplies
28 Encapsulation Ex m Encapsulant Cable Entry Electrical Apparatus Explosive Atmosphere
29 Type n Protection for Zone 2 Methods: Non sparking/arcing parts Restricted breathing Simplified pressurization Energy limiting apparatus Sealed or encapsulated device Enclosed break Hermetically sealed Encapsulated
30 Protection Concept for Dust Classified Areas The protection concept for dust hazards is to prevent the dust from entering the enclosure or apparatus. Additionally, the maximum surface temperature of the equipment to which the dust can be exposed shall not exceed the ignition temperature of the dust. The IP (Ingress Protection) rating system provides a means of classifying the degree of protection from foreign bodies and liquids. IEC/EN covers electrical equipment and apparatus.
31 Classification Schemes, Certification, and Design Guidelines
32 Manufacturers of electrical equipment (and nonelectrical for Europe) must be aware that if they sell to industries that have potentially explosive atmospheres they may be asked for certification, and that often the equipment will need to be certified by a Notified or NRTL Body such as Intertek.
33 Given the onerous nature of an explosion, special certification schemes have been set up to control the design and certification of equipment for potentially explosive atmospheres. *mandatory under law/procurement specifications
34 An Explanation of ATEX, NEC and IEC Systems Environments that generate potentially explosive atmospheres classify the dangerous areas based on the likelihood and duration of the explosive atmospheres presence. This is referred to as a Zone (Europe and NEC 505) or Division (NEC 500)
35 Equipment Groups Apparatus is divided into Equipment groups: Group I for mines susceptible to methane (firedamp). Group II for explosive gases for locations other than mines Group III for dusts
36 Equipment Categories Further divided into categories: M1and M2 for mining Category 1 (Zone 0, 20), 2 (Zone 1, 21) and 3 (Zone 2, 22) for all other industries.
37 Zone Definitions A place in which an explosive atmosphere in the form of a gas/vapour (or cloud of combustible dust) in air. Zone 0 (Zone 20).is present continuously, or for long periods or frequently. Zone 1 (Zone 21).is likely to occur in normal operation occasionally. Zone 2 (Zone 22).is not likely to occur in normal operation but if it does occur, will persist for a short period only.
38 Hazardous Area Classification: Europe Zone System Gases Mists & Vapours Zone 0,1 or 2 Combustible Dusts Zone 20, 21 or 22
39 Class/Division Definitions Class I - Contains flammable gases or vapors in quantities large enough to produce an explosion. Class II - Is hazardous due to the presence of combustible dust in the air. Class III - Contains easily ignitable fibers or flyings in the air. However, the quantities of fibers and flyings suspended in the air are not likely to be large enough to cause an explosion. Division 1 - There is a high probability of an explosive atmosphere in normal operation. This can be for part of the time, up to all the time. Division 2 - There is a low probability of an explosive atmosphere being present during normal operation. *Group designations further define the types of gases, and dusts (A, B, C, D) (E, F, G) *Example of an American certification would be: Class I, Div 1, Groups A, B and C; Class II, Div 2, Groups F and G
40 Hazardous Area Classification: North America Class & Division System Gases Mists & Vapors Class I Div 1 or 2 Combustible Dusts Class II Div 1 or 2 Fiber & Flyings Class III Div 1 & 2 Zone System Gases, Mists & Vapors Only Zone 0, 1 or 2 Note: The majority of Areas Classified in North America are Class and Division
41 Correlation Somewhat?
42 Gas Groups (ATEX, IEC and NEC 505) Group II is further divided into three sub-divisions (groups): IIA, for atmospheres containing propane or gases of an equivalent hazard. IIB, for atmospheres containing ethylene or gases of an equivalent hazard. IIC, for atmospheres containing hydrogen or gases of an equivalent hazard.
43 Group III
45 Designing for Hazloc What Market? US, Canada, ATEX, IECEx, INMETRO, GOST-R/Roztechnadzor, etc What Classification? Class I, II, III Division 1, 2 Zone 0, 1, 2 What Protection Technique? What Enclosure Rating?
46 Certification Differences Europe Notified Bodies IEC Ex TL s & CB s Standards CENELEC CEN IEC Components ATEX or IEC Ex European Standards North America NRTL Standards Nationally Published Standards (ie UL, CSA, FM, ISA, ANSI) Components Must be either Listed or Recognized by NRTL North American Standards
47 Equipment that needs ATEX Product Certification- Electrical CAT 1 (Zone 0, 20) & CAT 2 (Zone 1, 21) Requires a Notified Body & QM CAT 3 (Zone 2, 22) Can be Self Certified Product Certification- Non-Electrical CAT 1 (Zone 0, 20) Requires a Notified Body & QM CAT 2 (Zone 1, 21) Requires A TCF to be Lodged CAT 3 (Zone 2, 22) Can be Self Certified
48 North America NEC, Article CEC, Article 18 Div. System with some use of Zone System (Zone Equipment sometimes accepted in Div.) Suitability per the following: 1. Listing/Labelling Intertek 2. Evaluation by Qualified Agency Intertek 3. Accepted by AHJ Evidence Intertek
49 ETL & cetl Listing For Hazloc Requires Ordinary Location certification Potential Enclosure rating testing Certification to Protection Technique Standards
50 Listing vs. Classification Examination of all risks: Explosion, along with shock, fire, mechanical, etc. HazLoc + OrdLoc = Listing HazLoc Only = Classification
51 Other Evaluations Required Indoor vs. Outdoor Use Type 1 (indoor only) Type 3/3R (rain) - outdoor Type 4/4X (hose) Evaluation per UL 50/50E and CSA C22.2 #94
52 IEC Ex Scheme Multilateral Certification Scheme Ex Product Certification Ex Quality System Certification Obtain National Certification Requires: Evaluation and Testing by IEC Ex TL Certification of Product and QA by IEC Ex CB
53 Service Line Review Product Certification ATEX EU and other adoptive regions (Middle East) IECEx Members of the International IECEx Scheme US/CAN cetlus Field Labels Site Safety Consultancy Inspections and Risk Assessments (Assemblies or Plant) Audits & Certification Training Open Bespoke
54 Our Hazardous Location Credentials OSHA recognized Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL) for Hazardous Location Divisional Listing in the U.S. Standards Council of Canada accredited Certification Body (CB) and Testing Organization (TO) Notified Body and UKAS Accredited for the ATEX Directive, 94/9/EC. IECEx Certification Body (CB) and Test Laboratory (TL) Full Hazloc Training including an Accredited COMPEX Training Center - Chester Site Safety Services (Risk Assessment, Area Classification and Inspection) Specialist in Oil Tools, Rigs and Skids. We certify products for compliance to National and International published standards which satisfy the applicable requirements of the National Electrical Code (NEC) in the U.S., the Canadian Electrical Code (CEC) in Canada, IECEX and the European Union's ATEX Directive. Some of the standards we test to include those of ANSI, UL, IEC, CSA, MIL Specs, FM, and CENELEC and CEN.
Making sense of Intrinsic Safety and Intrinsically Safe Tools What is Intrinsically Safe? Intrinsic safety is a protection standard employed in potentially explosive atmospheres. Devices that are certified
Basics of Explosion Protection INTRODUCTION Understanding Global Explosion Protection Class and Division System Class-Zone System CENELEC Zone System IEC A INTRODUCTION Basics of Explosion Protection Basics
Hazardous Areas Technical Guide An Introduction to ATEX Terminology & Regulations Hazardous Areas Technical Guide An Introduction to ATEX Terminology & Regulations Contents Introduction..............................................................................
Hazardous Locations Training If you are involved with projects associated with hazardous locations, which involves the installation or inspection and maintenance of electrical or non-electrical e.g. mechanical;
Table of Contents Introduction............................................................. 3 Basic Requirements for an Explosion.......................................3 What is an explosion?...................................................3
Addressing Hazardous Areas Safety Requirements with Properly Designed Intrinsically Safe and Ex Approved HMIs and Panel PC Solutions for the Oil & Gas Industry By: Santiago Consunji American Industrial
Hazardous Area Classifications Product Bulletin Hazardous Area Classifications and Protections The intent of this document is to provide a broad overview of hazardous area classifications and the types
Table of Contents Introduction............................................................. 3 Basic Requirements for an Explosion.......................................4 What is an explosion?...................................................4
This document is the Exd Flame Detector Installation Guide/010/Issue 3 Flameproof (Ex d) IR² and IR³ Flame Detector Installation Guide General This Installation Guide gives information on the Flameproof
The basics of explosion protection preface It is a fact that gases, vapours and mists escape during the production, processing, transportation and storage of flammable substances in the chemical and petrochemical
Hazardous Area Classifications Product Bulletin Hazardous Area Classifications and Protections The intent of this document is to provide a broad overview of hazardous area classifications and the types
Understanding European versus U.S. temperature code ratings for solenoidoperated valves by Manny Arceo A White Paper From ASCO 4 Introduction Solenoid valves are vital components of many process automation
Video Systems Explosion Protected White Paper Series Imaging Challenges in Explosive Environments Explosion Protected White Paper Series #1: Imaging Challenges in Explosive Environments Introduction Extraordinary
IEC 61892-7 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD Edition 2.0 2007-11 Mobile and fixed offshore units Electrical installations Part 7: Hazardous areas INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION PRICE CODE XA ICS 47.020.60
An Introduction to ATEX - Meeting the Challenges of European Directive 94/9/EC (ATEX 95) Presented by Andy Holmes ATEX Consultant, TÜV Product Service Ltd 1. Introduction 1.1 Objectives of explosion protection
ATEX Directive 94/9/EC - EUROPEAN DIRECTIVES GENERAL The accidental ignition of an atmosphere containing a large quantity of gas, vapour, mists and/or dust may cause an explosion. Specific measures have
EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES - CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS AREAS (ZONING) AND SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT OVERVIEW ASSESSING THE RISK RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FIRES AND EXPLOSIONS CLASSIFYING HAZARDOUS AREAS INTO ZONES
Legislation, Standards and Technology Design, testing, certification, installation & maintenance of electrical equipment in hazardous locations in India by Wolfgang Berner, Ashwini Bondale and Manikandan
Practical Guidelines for Electrical Area Classification in Combustion Turbine-Generator Power Plants Ram K. Saini, P.E. Principal Engineer, Chuck Emma, P.E. Principal Engineer, Burns and Roe Enterprises,
Department of Environmental Health & Safety Procedures Compressed Gas Cylinder Program March 2010 Compressed Gas Cylinder Program Page 1 of 8 Table of Contents I. Introduction II. III. IV. Policy Scope
Technical Report Edition 1 ISA-TR12.13.03 Guide for Combustible Gas Detection as a Method of Protection Draft 2 September 2005 ISA-TR12.13.03 Combustible Gas Detection as a Method of Protection ISBN: Copyright
Ethanol Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations This document lists codes and standards typically used for U.S. ethanol vehicle and infrastructure projects. To determine which codes and
CONSULTING Training Courses 2 EXPLOLABS TRAINING MAKES THE DIFFERENCE 1. GENERAL Why training by Explolabs Consulting? For training in the specialized, high-risk field of explosion protection, one needs
ATEX DIRECTIVE 99/92/EC (ATEX 137) USE The last few years have seen many changes to the regulations that apply to industry: Directive 94/9/EC (ATEX 95): Products. Directive 98/24/EC: Chemical Agents. Directive
Flammable and Combustible Liquids Presented by: Rich Perry Marsh Risk Consulting What s the Big Deal? Flammable and combustible liquids are easily ignited Ignite with explosive force Burn readily and give
Informational Note No. 2: In unclassified locations, identification is necessary to ensure that nonintrinsically safe wire will not be inadvertently added to existing raceways at a later date (C) Color
Terminal box The /TNCC range comprises many standard sizes of enclosures manufactured in stainless steel 316L for maximum environmental protection. The main body is manufactured from minimum 1,5 mm sheet
Highest level of safety under the most difficult conditions Fire protection for potentially explosive areas Fire detection technology The Ex Products Nuclear power Logical: The avoidance of flammable materials
Continuous Monitoring of Flue and Combustible or Hazardous Gases and Vapors www.static-control.in 1 Introduction The detection or monitoring of flue gases and or hazardous gases has been a complex subject
Back to Basics Choose the Right Electric Motors for Hazardous Locations Uriah van Amerom Zeton Inc. Risks associated with operating an electric motor in hazardous areas range from production downtime to
THE ATEX DIRECTIVES A ROUTE MAP FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE UK REGULATIONS John Walkington Senior Lead Consultant ABB Process Industries Eric Gilchrist Principal Consultant ABB Process Industries WHO & WHAT
Industrial Automation and Drive Technologies Products and systems for use in hazardous areas Brochure November 2010 Explosion Protection Answers for industry. The hazardous area completely under control
BRAZILIAN CERTIFICATION SYSTEM By: Giovanni Hummel (IEx) and Denise Ferreira (UL do Brasil) BRAZIL has a new Regulation www.iexcert.com.br Page 1 GENERAL INFORMATION November, 2008 - Brazil submits the
GAS CYLINDER SAFETY Introduction Certain specific properties of compressed gases make them highly useful in various research activities. These gases, however, can be dangerous if not handled in an appropriate
Legislation associated with Hazardous Locations Pieter Coetzee ZONE 2 ZONE 0 ZONE 1 Be safe be Ex Contents History Introduction Occupational Health and Safety Act. (Act 85 of 1993) General Machinery Regulation
Combustible Dust Ensuring Safety and Compliance Prepared for: REGION IV VPPPA Presented by: Brian Edwards, PE Conversion Technology Inc. ENVIRONMENTAL & SAFETY CONSULTING ENGINEERS 1 Scope of Discussion
Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Areas: Field Inspections Bill Rankin Electrical Engineer / Senior Electrical Inspector Abstract Electrical equipment and installations that fall within explosive gas atmospheres
distributing & controlling system solutions your safety our reality Users > Oil and gas industry production storage transport > Petrochemical industry > Chemical industry > Pharmaceutical industry > Food
Lined Piping Systems, Static Electricity and Earthing Guarding Against Explosion Every year there are unfortunate chemical plant accidents caused through the ignition of flammable chemicals. One of the
EXPLOSION SAFETY DOCUMENT FOR THE ATEX 137 DIRECTIVE NEW NAME FOR A FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD ASSESSMENT? Dr. Richard L. Rogers, Dr. Bernd Broeckmann, Nigel Maddison* INBUREX Consulting GmbH, Hamm, Germany,
Component acceptability for CE product Safety Technical Note 37 The following component status table applies to the general approval of electrical or electronic safety critical components (e.g. transformers,
Explosion Protection Theory and Practice explosion protection worldwide with installation examples This brochure on explosion protection is designed to help installation technicians, design engineers and
Competency 1.20 Mechanical systems personnel shall demonstrate a working level knowledge of the safety and health fundamentals of mechanical systems and/or components. 1. Supporting Knowledge and Skills
IECEX CERTIFICATION SCHEMES VERSUS ATEX DIRECTIVES Rudolf Pommé Hendrik Jan Sijrier KEMA Quality B.V. KEMA Quality B.V. Ultrechtseweg 310 Ultrechtseweg 310 6812 AR Arnhem 6812 AR Arnhem The Netherlands
Site and Storage Conditions for Class 3.1 Flammable Liquids Introduction Contents Introduction... 1 SITE AND STORAGE CONDITIONS...2 Part 1 General Flammability Conditions...2 Part 2 Conditions Relating
Hazardous Substance Class Definitions & Labels In the IMDG Code, substances are divided into 9 classes. A substance with multiple hazards has one 'Primary Class' and one or more 'Subsidiary Risks'. Some
Confined Spaces General Confined Space Awareness Confined spaces can be found in many industrial settings, from steel mills to paper mills, from shipyards to farms, and from public utilities to the construction
New ATEX Directive 2014/34/EU Roy Teather SAFER, SMARTER, GREENER Countries Requiring the CE Mark 2 European Directives Objectives One Europe, One Approach Less testing and certification Scope of regulatory
Safety instructions VEGAFLEX FX8*(*).FC/ O****A/H***** FM 3046039 Class I Div 1, Groups A, B, C and D Class II Div 1, Groups E, F and G; Class III Class I, Zone 0, AEx ia IIC Ga, Ga/Gb, Gb Document ID:
Controlling fire and explosion risks in the workplace A brief guide to the Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations Introduction to DSEAR This leaflet provides a brief introduction to
Products Solutions Services CompEx training From the process safety experts 1 CompEx Training The process safety experts Endress+Hauser is a global leader in measurement instrumentation, services and solutions
COMBUSTIBLE DUST EXPLOSIONS Most people would not think that dust made up of ordinary materials such as food could explode, but under certain circumstances it can. On 7 February 2008, a violent explosion
BUSINESS LICENSE (2014) CHARTER TOWNSHIP OF FLINT 1490 S. DYE ROAD, FLINT Ml 48532 (810) 732-1350 OR FAX (810) 733-6919 PLEASE CHECK: NEW BUSINESS FEE: $75.00 YEARLY LICENSE RENEWAL FEE: $45.00 NAME OF
BP Lower 48 Onshore Operations Safety Manual Page 4.19 1 Chapter 19 Purging Air from Piping and Vessels in Hydrocarbon Service I. General Requirements A. After motor vehicle accidents and underground excavation
Modular Integration of Process Equipment Packages for Oil and Gas Facilities Copyright Material PCIC Europe Paper No. PCIC Europe XXXX Allan Bozek EngWorks, Inc. 1620 49 th Avenue, SW Calgary, AB T2T 2T7
Two Documents are used for the Classification of Combustible Dusts and Hazardous Locations: NFPA 499-Recommended Practices for the Classification of Combustible Dusts and Hazardous Locations for Electrical
Session 12 Ex Protection Concepts Ex Protection Concepts Electrical Electrical Symbol Typical Typical Zones IEC Standard Basic concept of protection IEC EPL Increased safety e Gb 1,2 IEC 60079-7 No arcs,
Instructions for Safe Use (Certification N:o VTT 08 ATEX 029) Thank you for choosing Slam Trans portable transformer for your job site. Purpose of this manual is to provide you all the necessary safety
Flammable Liquids 29 CFR 1910.106 OSHA s Directorate of Training and Education These materials were developed by OSHA s Directorate of Training and Education and are intended to assist employers, workers,
Guide to enclosures for potentially explosive atmospheres Guide to enclosures for potentially explosive atmospheres The safety of every application, in every environment, thanks to ATEX-certified steel,
A PROCESS ENGINEER S GUIDE TO THE PRESSURE EQUIPMENT DIRECTIVE Simon Learman Blackmonk Engineering Ltd 22 nd April 2009 Copyright 2009 Blackmonk Engineering Ltd Contents Blackmonk Engineering Ltd Contents...
GUIDELINE FOR SAFETY IN THE HANDLING OF FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS September 2007 Replaces the July 2004 edition 1. Purpose Purpose of present Guideline is to specify conditions for the safe handling of flammable
Explosion Prevention Question: Many food and industrial products produced by member companies are dry powders or crystals. If mishandled, some of these products may form an explosive mixture of air and
General information According to 94/9/EC, a device that is to be used in an environment at risk of explosion may only be brought into the market if it satisfies the standards specified in the norm. Compared
Introduction In general, over 70% of organic dusts are explosible if given an adequate ignition source and appropriate dust/air concentration. Unless the material is combustible and finely divided (generally
DEKRA Your gateway to international certification It s all about confidence On the safe side Access to national and international markets Creating confidence Safety and performance certification is crucial
Approved by APPROVED Fire Alarm System Accessories FM Approved* Intrinsically Safe Devices Single and Dual Channel Isolated Barrier Modules Features Single or dual channel intrinsically safe, transformer
1 of 7 Explosion proof enclosures DE8 C 2 of 7 The Ex d enclosures are rugged and designed for harsh environment like: Oil and gas industry Chemical industry Pharmaceutical industry Agribusiness Without
Legislation, Standards and Technology Explosion Protected Electrical Apparatus in the Russian Federation Adaptations of National Standards to International Standards, deviations and peculiarities by Vitaly
DOT ID No: UN 1971 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET DOT Hazard Class: DOT Shipping Label : Flammable Gas 2.1 Emergency No.: +971-6-5336481 Page No.: 1/5 Date last updated: 22/09/2009 1. IDENTIFICATION OF THE
Grounding and Bonding Against Static Electricity Jon Koppari, CSP, MS Occupational Safety and Health Instructor OSHA Training Institute Objectives Identify Sources of Ignition. Identify Hazards associated
The Globally Harmonized System and OSHA Hazard Communication Revision Presented by: Denese A. Deeds, CIH Industrial Health & Safety Consultants, Inc. Shelton, CT 1 Overview Where are we with implementation
Electrical Classification Using NFPA 70 and NFPA 499 to Classify Hazardous Locations Electrical classifications are established in accordance with the National Electrical Code, NFPA 70, also referred to
Compressed Gas Cylinder Safety I. Background. Due to the nature of gas cylinders, special storage and handling precautions are necessary. The hazards associated with compressed gases include oxygen displacement,
Instruction Manual March 2009 Instruction Manual hand programmer INTRINSICALLY SAFE Hand Programmer Manual The Hand Programmer is to be used only in the manner outlined in this manual, otherwise protection
Explosive Nature of Hydrogen in a Partial Pressure Vacuum Trevor Jones Project Engineer Solar Atmospheres Inc. Souderton, PA www.solaratm.com & www.solarmfg.com Hydrogen Consumption: Hydrogen is the most
0102 Model Number Features 2 mm flush Usable up to SIL 2 acc. to IEC 61508 Technical Data specifications Switching element function NAMUR, NC Rated operating distance s n 2 mm Installation flush Output
. GENERAL WELDING AND CUTTING GUIDELINES Only authorized employees who have been properly trained shall be permitted to perform welding or cutting. Employees performing cutting or welding must wear the
Whitepaper Modular Integration of Process Equipment Packages for Oil and Gas Facilities Author: Allan Bozek P.Eng, MBA, EngWorks Inc, Calgary, Canada Abstract An integrated design approach to a modular
H & S Guidance - Flammable Liquids See also: other pages INTRODUCTION Flammable liquids are liquids with a flashpoint of 55ºC or below and hence includes all liquids that are classified as flammable, highly