MEDIUM AND HIGH VOLTAGE HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKS

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1 Elements of a Quality Power System MEDIUM AND HIGH VOLTAGE HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKS

2 Agenda An overview of Transmission and Distribution system equipment for Power Factor Improvement and Harmonic Mitigation, including: Typical wiring schemes Optional equipment

3 MEDIUM and HIGH VOLTAGE FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKS Benefits : Power Factor improvement Release of power transmission and transformer capacity Reduction of power system losses Improved voltage regulation.

4 MEDIUM AND HIGH VOLTAGE FILTER & CAPACITORS BANKS TYPE FIXED AUTOMATIC DISTRIBUTION POLE DISTRIBUTION PAD SUBSTATION METAL ENCLOSED SUBSTATION RACK MOUNTED

5 MEDIUM & HIGH VOLTAGE CAPACITOR BANKS CONNECTION SCHEMES Grounded Wye. Ungrounded Wye. Ungrounded Wye-Wye. H-Bridge.

6 MEDIUM & HIGH VOLTAGE CAPACITOR BANKS GROUNDED BANKS Advantages: Fused banks don t require unbalance protection system. Lower cost for base insulators on banks higher than 15kV. A C.T. in the neutral conductor is less expensive than a P.T. for the unbalance protection system. Less interruption forces for switching devices higher 34.5 kv. On small banks, No overvoltage on remaining healthy phases at single phase faulting.

7 MEDIUM & HIGH VOLTAGE CAPACITOR BANKS UNGROUNDED BANKS Advantages: There is no 3rd order harmonic current route. This reduces interference problems with communication devices, resonance overvoltages, false fuse operation, etc.. On series groups, the fault current of a faulted device is limited by the impedances of the other two healthy phases. Reduces fuse costs. No requirement for ground connection, unless the voltage between neutral and ground is needed for the unbalance protection system.

8 PROTECTION SCHEMES MEDIUM & HIGH VOLTAGE CAPACITOR BANKS T C A B C 5 1N 86 Apartarrayos 59N TP 59N TP

9 DISTRIBUTION POLE MOUNTED CAPACITOR BANK Capacity : Voltage : kvar up to 34.5 kv Configuration : Fixed or Automatic Service : Outdoor Mounting : iron structure Pad Mount systems are also available

10 DISTRIBUTION PAD MOUNTED CAPACITOR BANK Capacity : Voltage : 600 to 2400 kvar typical up to 34.5 kv Configuration : Fixed or Automatic Service : Outdoor Mounting : Outdoor N3R Cabinet

11 DISTRIBUTION CAPACITOR BANK CONTROL CIRCUIT Electrical diagram A B C Fuse or circuit breaker Capacitor Switch Capacitor C.T. P.F. Control P.T. N

12 DISTRIBUTION CAPACITOR BANK OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT

13 DISTRIBUTION CAPACITOR BANKS Types of Control Methods Power Factor Control Voltage: Current: Vars : need P.T. need C.T. need P.T. & C.T.

14 DISTRIBUTION CAPACITOR BANKS Closing delay to allow for capacitor discharge. Intelligent operation on bidirectional energy flow conditions. Autodiagnostic system. Control Features

15 DISTRIBUTION CAPACITOR BANKS Time delay selection to prevent false operation due to momentary system disturbances Control Features Programmable time period based operation Signal aquisition for remote access. Front panel access and display.

16 DISTRIBUTION CAPACITOR BANK Front panel interface for communication and programming PC/software. Selectable response to current, voltage and power factor signals. Operations counter. Automatic reports and graphics creation. Control Features

17 SUBSTATION CAPACITOR BANKS Metal Enclosed type

18 SUBSTATION CAPACITOR BANKS Metal Enclosed type Industrial Power Systems applications Capacity : Voltage : Any up to 34.5 kv Connection : Fixed or Automatic Service : Type : indoor / outdoor N1, N12 or N3R cabinet

19 SUBSTATION HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKS 52 Control Cap Switch 59 protection relay

20 SUBSTATION CAPACITOR BANK Rack mounting Industrial and Utility Power System applications Capacity : Voltage : Any up to 230 kv. Connection : Fixed or Automatic Service : Outdoor Installation : Galvanized iron structure

21 SUBSTATION CAPACITOR BANKS Rack mounted type

22 SUBSTATION HARMONIC FILTERS

23 SUBSTATION HARMONIC FILTERS

24 Components of MV & HV Systems Capacitor Cells Circuit protective devices Surge Arresters Reactors (for capacitor protection) Switches Insulators Enclosures Controls Protective Relays

25 HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKS Medium & High Voltage Cells

26 HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKS Medium & High Voltage Cells Capacitor GENERAL ELECTRIC. Single phase, Complies with IEEE/ANSI # 18, IEC 871-1, NOM-001 Operation in 50 / 60 Hertz systems. 1 or 2 bushings. Maximum over rated current percentage 180%. Maximum over rated voltage percentage 110 %. Capacitance tolerance %. Maximum ambient temperature +50 C. Internal discharge resistors. Service indoor/outdoor. Manufactured with polypropylene material. Horizontal or vertical mounting. Impregnant material free of policlored bifenils (PCB s), no askarels.

27 HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKS Power fuse circuit-breakers

28 HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKS Fuses Expulsion type fuse or current limiting fuse to prevent over -demand currents or faults. Individual fuse per capacitor cell. Rated for system voltage. 1.6 rated current of capacitor. Indoor / outdoor service.

29 HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKS Fuses Expulsion type Current limiting type

30 HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKS EXTERNALLY VS. INTERNALLY FUSED Feature Externally Fused Internally Fused Operation principle Losses Security External fuse coordinated with the case rupture curve Lower, just one element, 0.07 W/kVar Very high, fuses coordinated with case rupture curve. Each internal package has one fuse for protection (10-15 typically) Higher, fuses per package, several for one capacitor, 0.5 W/kVAR. Good, but there is a probability of package short circuit causing case explosion Heating Minimum, the fuse is external Internal fuses heat dielectric and impregnant.

31 HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKS EXTERNALLY VS. INTERNALLY FUSED Feature Externally Fused Internally Fused Failure identification. Inmediatly and visual Difficult, location of faulted element is not visible. Main application Any kind of banks. Banks in transmission systems (115kV and higher) Protection ease Application on filters Very High, the relay detects perfectly the failure of one unit In case of failure of one unit alarm or triggering, avoids further problems Low, the relay can t be ajusted to detect the failure of one package inside the capacitor unit The loss of capacitance is gradual, increases stress of secondary equipment

32 HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKS Surge Arresters Station or Distribution Surge Arresters. System voltage type. Polymer or porcelain. Indoor / Outdoor service. Helps overvoltage discharge to ground during capacitor bank switching or nearby capacitor operations.

33 HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKS Reactors Inrush current limiting reactor Harmonic filter reactor

34 HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKS Grounding Switch Connects the three phases and neutral terminals of the capacitor bank to ground to discharge remaining energy after disconnecting the bank. Required for mantainance. Specified according to the system.

35 HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKS Capacitor Switch Oil or Vacuum Switch. System voltage and bank capacity rated. One or three phase. Management of pure capacitive current switching. Prevent reclosing between contacts. Indoor / Outdoor service. Position indicator.

36 HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKS Insulators Post station type insulator. Manufactured under IEC or ANSI standards. Rated Voltage and BIL according to the system. Indoor / Outdoor service. Porcelain or polymer. To support racks and buses.

37 HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKS Structures Racks Metal Enclosures

38 HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKS Multi-functional control. Includes measurement and control functions. Control based on: Voltage Current Reactive Power Demand or Time Controls

39 MEDIUM & HIGH VOLTAGE CAPACITOR BANKS UNBALANCE RELAY The individual fusing of the capacitors must be coordinated with the unbalance relay, in order to isolate a faulted capacitor, prior to trigger the hole bank out of service and giving a way to locate the faulted capacitor. The unbalance relay must have enough sensivity to give an alarm when one unit fails and trigger the bank when various units fail, preventing an overvoltage of 110% rated voltage.

40 MEDIUM & HIGH VOLTAGE CAPACITOR BANKS UNBALANCE RELAY It must have a time delay to prevent false operation due to inrush, line to ground faults, atmospheric discharge, nearby equipment operation and unsynchronizied operation of the capacitor bank 3 phase switch. The protection scheme must inhibit automatic reclosing of the capacitor bank switch after an overvoltage trigger event.

41 HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKS A brand you can trust. Compliance with international standards High quality systems, ISO-9001 facility Technical expertise and support Market leader for reactive power compensation in México. Large market for reactive compensation due to stiff penalties

42 UTILITIES CFE (Comision Federal de Electricidad) Luz y Fuerza del Centro Iberdrola PEMEX Petrochemical Grupo Mexico Mining STEEL PRODUCERS / MILLS HYLSA Steel Mill Deacero Steel Producer IMSA Steel plant ISPAT Steel Mill SERSIINSA Steel producer SICARTSA Steel producer Siemens Industrial manufacturing IEM Transformer manufacturing PAPER MILLS Kimberly Clark Carton y Papel de Mexico SOME OF OUR MV & HV REFERENCES

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