The Federal Courts. Chapter 16

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1 The Federal Courts Chapter 16

2 The Nature of the Judicial Introduction: Two types of cases: System Criminal Law: The government charges and individual with violating one or more specific laws. Civil Law: The court resolves a dispute between two parties and defines the relationship between them. Most cases are tried and resolved in state courts, not federal courts.

3 The Nature of the Judicial System Participants in the Judicial System Litigants Plaintiff- the party bringing the charge Defendant- the party being charged Jury- the people (normally 12) who often decide the outcome of a case Standing to sue: plaintiffs have a serious interest in the case.

4 Jurisdiction Jurisdiction: the authority of the courts to hear certain cases. Under the Constitution, federal courts have jurisdiction in cases involving federal law, treaties, and the interpretation of the Constitution. There are three different types of jurisdiction Original jurisdiction: lower courts have the authority to hear cases for the first time Appellate jurisdiction: courts that hear reviews or appeals of decisions from the lower courts

5 The Nature of the Judicial System Participants in the Judicial System Interest Groups Use the courts to try to change policies Amicus Curiae briefs to influence the Supreme Court Attorneys Legal Services Corporation- lawyers to assist the poor Not all lawyers are equal

6 The Structure of the Federal Court System Figure 16.1

7 The Structure of the Federal Court System

8 The Structure of the Federal District Courts Court System Original Jurisdiction: courts that determine the facts about a case- the trial court. Federal crimes Civil suits under federal law / across state lines Supervising bankruptcy / naturalization Reviews some federal agencies Admiralty and maritime law cases

9 The Structure of the Federal Courts of Appeal Court System Appellate Jurisdiction: reviews the legal issues in cases brought from lower courts. Hold no trials and hear no testimony. 12 circuit courts U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuitspecialized cases (patents, claims against US) Focus on errors of procedure & law

10 The Structure of the Federal The Supreme Court Court System 9 justices- 1 Chief Justice, 8 Associate Justices Supreme Court decides which cases it will hear Some original jurisdiction, but mostly appellate jurisdiction. Most cases come from the federal courts Most cases are civil cases

11 The Politics of Judicial The Lower Courts Senatorial Courtesy: Selection Unwritten tradition where a judge is not confirmed if a senator of the president s party from the state where the nominee will serve opposes the nomination. Has the effect of the president approving the Senate s choice More influence on appellate level

12 The Politics of Judicial The Supreme Court Selection President relies on attorney general and DOJ to screen candidates. 1 out of 5 nominees will not make it. Presidents with minority party support in the Senate will have more trouble. Chief Justice s position can be a sitting justice, or a new member.

13 The Backgrounds of Judges Characteristics: and Justices Generally white males Lawyers with judicial experience Other Factors: Generally of the same party as the appointing president Yet the judges and justices may disappoint the appointing president

14 The Courts as Policymakers Accepting Cases Use the rule of four to choose cases. Issues a writ of certiorari to call up the case. Very few cases are actually accepted each year. Figure 16.4

15 The Courts as Policymakers Making Decisions Oral arguments may be made in a case. Justices discuss the case. One justice will write an opinion on the case. Figure 16.5

16 The Courts as Policymakers Making Decisions, continued Opinion: Statement of legal reasoning behind a judicial decision. Stare decisis: basically to let the previous decision stand unchanged. Precedents: How similar past cases were decided. Original Intent: The idea that the Constitution should be viewed according to the original intent of the framers.

17 The Courts as Policymakers Implementing Court Decisions Must rely on others to carry out decisions Interpreting population: understand the decision Implementing population: the people who need to carry out the decision- may be disagreement Consumer population: the people who are affected (or could be) by the decision

18 The Courts and the Policy A Historical Review Agenda John Marshall and the Growth of Judicial Review The Nine Old Men The Warren Court The Burger Court The Rehnquist Court

19 Understanding the Courts The Courts and Democracy Courts are not very democratic Not elected Difficult to remove But the court does reflect popular majorities Groups are likely to use the courts when other methods fail- promoting pluralism There are still conflicting rulings leading to deadlock and inconsistency

20 Understanding the Courts What Courts Should Do: The Scope of Judicial Power Judicial restraint: judges should play a minimal policymaking role- leave the policies to the legislative branch. Judicial activism: judges should make bold policy decisions and even charting new constitutional ground.

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