# The Hubble Redshift Distance Relation

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Hubble Redshift Distance Relation"

## Transcription

1 The Hubble Redshift Distance Relation A Manual to Accompany Software for the Introductory Astronomy Lab Exercise Document SM 3: Version 1 Department of Physics Gettysburg College Gettysburg, PA Telephone: (717) Contemporary Laboratory Experiences in Astronomy

2 Contents Goal... 2 Objectives... 2 Equipment and Materials... 3 Introduction... 3 Technique... 4 Using the Hubble Redshift Program... 4 Method... 8 Determining the Age of the Universe... 9 PAGE 2

3 Version 1.0 Goal You should be able to find the relationship between the redshift in spectra of distant galaxies and the rate of the expansion of the universe. Objectives If you learn to... Use a simulated spectrometer to acquire spectra and apparent magnitudes. Determine distances using apparent and absolute magnitudes. Measure Doppler shifted H & K lines to determine velocities. You should be able to... Calculate the rate of expansion of the universe. Calculate the age of the universe. PAGE 3

4 Equipment and Materials CLEA Hubble Redshift Distance Relation laboratory exercise. Pencil, ruler, graph paper, calcula- Computer running tor. Introduction The late biologist J.B.S.Haldane once wrote: The universe is not only queerer than we suppose, but queerer than we can suppose. One of the queerest things about the universe is that virtually all the galaxies in it (with the exception of a few nearby ones) are moving away from the Milky Way. This curious fact was first discovered in the early 20th century by astronomer Vesto Slipher, who noted that absorption lines in the spectra of most spiral galaxies had longer wavelengths (were redder ) than those observed from stationary objects. Assuming that the redshift was caused by the Doppler shift, Slipher concluded that the red-shifted galaxies were all moving away from us. In the 1920 s, Edwin Hubble measured the distances of the galaxies for the first time, and when he plotted these distances against the velocities for each galaxy he noted something even queerer: The further a galaxy was from the Milky Way, the faster it was moving away. Was there something special about our place in the universe that made us a center of cosmic repulsion? Astrophysicists readily interpreted Hubble s relation as evidence of a universal expansion. The distance between all galaxies in the universe was getting bigger with time, like the distance between raisins in a rising loaf of bread. An observer on ANY galaxy, not just our own, would see all the other galaxies traveling away, with the furthest galaxies travelling the fastest. This was a remarkable discovery. The expansion is believed today to be a result of a Big Bang which occurred between 10 and 20 billion years ago, a date which we can calculate by making measurements like those of Hubble. The rate of expansion of the universe tells us how long it has been expanding. We determine the rate by plotting the velocities of galaxies against their distances, and determining the slope of the graph, a number called the Hubble Parameter, H o, which tells us how fast a galaxy at a given distance is receding from us. So Hubble s discovery of the correlation between velocity and distance is fundamental in reckoning the history of the universe. Using modern techniques of digital astronomy, we will repeat Hubble s experiment. The technique we will use is fundamental to cosmological Figure 1: Hubble s Constant research these days. Even though Hubble s first measurements were made three-quarters of a century ago, we have still only measured the velocities and distances of a small fraction of the galaxies we can see, and so we have only small amount of data on whether the rate of expansion is the same in all places and in all directions in the universe. The redshift distance relation thus continues to help us map the universe in space and time. PAGE 4

5 Version 1.0 Technique The software for the CLEA Hubble Redshift Distance Relation laboratory exercise puts you in control of a large optical telescope equipped with a TV camera and an electronic spectrometer. Using this equipment, you will determine the distance and velocity of several galaxies located in selected clusters around the sky. From these data you will plot a graph of velocity (the y-axis) versus distance (the x-axis). How does the equipment work? The TV camera attached to the telescope allows you to see the galaxies, and steer the telescope so that light from a galaxy is focused into the slit of the spectro-meter. You can then turn on the spectrometer, which will begin to collect photons from the galaxy. The screen will show the spectrum a plot of the intensity of light collected versus wavelength. When a sufficient number of photons are collected, you will be able to see distinct spectral lines from the galaxy (the H and K lines of calcium), and you will measure their wavelength using the computer cursor. The wavelengths will be longer than the wavelengths of the H and K labs measured from a non-moving object (397.0 and nanometers), because the galaxy is moving away. The spectrometer also measures the apparent magnitude of the galaxy from the rate at which it receives photons from the galaxy. So for each galaxy you will have recorded the wavelengths of the H and K lines and the apparent magnitude. From the data collected above, you can calculate both the speed of the galaxy from the Doppler-shift formula, and the distance of the galaxy by comparing its known absolute magnitude (assumed to be (-22) for a typical galaxy) to its apparent magnitude. The result is a velocity (in km/sec) and a distance (in megaparsecs, Mpc) for each galaxy. The galaxy clusters you will observe have been chosen to be at different distances from the Milky Way, giving you a suitable range to see the straight line relationship Hubble first determined. The slope of the straight line will give you the value of H o, the Hubble Parameter, which is a measure of the rate of expansion of the universe. Once you have H, you can take o its reciprocal to find the age of the universe. The details of the measurements and calculations are described in the following sections. Using the Hubble Redshift Program Welcome to the observatory! We will simulate an evening s observation during which we will collect data and draw conclusions on the rate of expansion of the universe. We will gain a proficiency in using the telescope to collect data by working together on the first object. Collecting data for the other four objects will be left to you to complete the evening s observing session. Then you will analyze the data, draw your conclusions, and use the information to predict the age of the universe. Let s begin. 1. Open the Hubble Redshift program by double clicking on the Hubble Redshift Icon (pink). Click on the MENU BAR and enter student names and the lab table number. Click OK when ready. Log in... in 2. The title screen of exercise appears. In the MENU BAR, the only available (bold-faced) choices are to start or to quit, click on Start. The Hubble Redshift Distance Relation program simulates the operation of a computer-controlled spectrometer attached to a telescope at a large mountain-top observatory. It is realistic in appearance, and is designed to give you a good feeling for how astronomers collect and analyze data for research. The screen shows the control panel and view window as found in the warm room at the observatory. Notice that the dome is closed and tracking status is off. PAGE 5

6 \$!! " 3. To begin our evening s work, first open the dome by clicking on the dome button. The dome opens and the view we see is from the finder scope. The finder scope is mounted on the side of the main telescope and points in the same direction. Because the field of view of the finder scope is much larger than the field of view of the main instrument, it is used to locate the objects we want to measure. The field of view is displayed onscreen by a CCD camera attached on the finder scope. (Note that it is not necessary for astronomers to view objects through an eyepiece.) Locate the Monitor button on the control panel and note its status, i.e. finder scope. Also note that the stars are drifting in the view window. This is due to the rotation of the earth and is very noticeable under high magnification of the finder telescope. It is even more noticeable in the main instrument which has even a higher magnification. In order to have the telescope keep an object centered over the spectrometer opening (slit) to collect data, we need to turn on the drive control motors on the telescope. 4. We do this by clicking on the tracking button. The telescope will now track in sync with the stars. Before we can collect data we will need to do the following: ( a) Select a field of view (one is currently selected). ( b) Select an object to study (one from each field of view). 5. To see the fields of study for tonight s observing session. Click once on the change field item in the MENU BAR at the top of the control panel. The items you see are the fields that contain the objects we have selected to study tonight. An astronomer would have selected these fields in advance of going to the telescope by: ( a) Selecting the objects that will be well placed for observing during the time we will be at the telescope. ( b) Looking up the RA and DEC of each object field in a catalog such as Uranometria 2000, # Norton s Atlas, etc. This list in the change field menu item contains 5 fields for study tonight. You will need to select one galaxy from each field of view and collect data with the spectrometer (a total of 5 galaxies). To see how the telescope works, change the field of view to Ursa Major II at RA 11 hour 0 minutes and Dec. 56 degrees 48 min. % Notice the telescope slews (moves rapidly) to the RA and DEC coordinates we have selected. The view window will show a portion of the sky that was electronically captured by the charge coupled device (CCD) camera attached to the telescope. The view window has two magnifications (see Figure 2 on next page): Finder View is the view through the finder scope that gives a wide field of view and has a cross hair and outline of the instrument field of view. Spectrometer View is the view from the main telescope with red lines that show the position of the slit of the spectrometer. PAGE 6

7 ( * # )! Version 1.0 Figure 2 Field of View from the Finder Scope As in any image of the night sky, stars and galaxies are visible in the view window. It is easy to recognize bright galaxies in this lab simulation, since the shapes of the brighter galaxies are clearly different from the dot-like images of stars. But faint, distant galaxies can look similar to like stars, since we can t see their shape. & 6. ' 7. Now change fields by clicking on Ursa Major I in the lists of selected galaxies to highlight the field. Then click the OK button. Locate the Monitor button in the lower left hand portion of the screen. Click on this button to change the view from the Finder Scope to the Spectrometer. Using the Spectrometer view, carefully position the slit directly over the object you intend to use to collect data any of the galaxies will be fine. Do this by slewing, or moving, the telescope with the mouse and the N, S, E or W buttons. Place the arrow on the # N button and click on the left mouse button. To move continuously, press and hold down the left mouse button. Notice the red light comes on to indicate the telescope is slewing in that direction. As in real observatories, it takes a bit of practice to move the telescope to an object. You can adjust the speed or slew rate of the telescope by using the mouse to press the slew rate button. (1 is the slowest and 16 is the fastest). When you have positioned the galaxy accurately over the slit, click on the take reading button to the right of the view screen. The more light you get into your spectrometer, the stronger the signal it will detect, and the shorter twill be the time required to get a usable spectrum. Try to position the spectrometer slit on the brightest portion of the galaxy. If you position it on the fainter parts of the galaxy, you are still able to obtain a good spectrum but the time required will be much longer. If you position the slit completely off the galaxy, you will just get a spectrum of the sky, which will be mostly random noise. We are about to collect data from the object. We will be looking at the spectrum from the galaxy in the slit of the spectrometer. The spectrum of the galaxy will exhibit the characteristic H & K calcium lines which would normally appear at wavelengths Å and Å, respectively, if the galaxies were not moving. However, the H & K lines will be red shifted to longer wavelengths depending on how fast the galaxy is receding. Photons are collected one by one. We must collect a sufficient number of photons to allow identification of the wavelength. Since an incoming photon could be of any wavelength, we need to integrate for some time before we can accurately measure the spectrum and draw conclusions. PAGE 7

8 * * ) ). The more photons collected, the less the noise in the spectrum, making the absorption lines easier to pick out. To ) initiate the data collection, press start/resume count To check the progress of the spectrum, click the stop count button. The computer will plot the spectrum with the available data. Clicking the stop count button also places the cursor in the measurement mode. Using the mouse, place the arrow anywhere on the spectrum, press and hold the left mouse button. Notice the arrow changes to a cross hair and the wavelength data appears in the lower right area of the window. As you hold the left mouse button, move the mouse along the spectrum. You are able to measure the wavelength and intensity at the position of the mouse pointer. Figure 3 Spectrometer Reading Window Also notice other information that appears in the window: Object: the name of the object being studied - 9. PAGE 8 Apparent magnitude: the visual magnitude of the object Photon count: the total number of photons collected so far, and the average number per pixel Integration (seconds): the number of seconds it took to collect data, Wavelength (angstroms): wavelength as read by the cursor in the measurement mode Intensity: relative intensity of light from the galaxy at the position marked by the cursor in the measurement mode Signal-to-noise Ratio: A measurement of the quality of the data taken to distinguish the H and K lines of calcium from the noise. Try to get a signal-to-noise ratio of 10 to 1. For faint galaxies, this may take some time. ) Click start/resume count from the menu bar in the Spectrometer Reading Window. Continue to collect photons until a clear spectrum of the H & K lines of calcium is displayed. These lines are approximately 40 Å apart. They should stand out from the noise. If not, continue to count photons. If you are not sure about the data, check with a lab instructor to help you interpret the data.

9 % 4 5 * / / 6 Version 1.0 Additional information is needed to complete the analysis of the information that is not displayed in the spectrometer reading window. They are the following: ( a) The absolute magnitude (M) for all galaxies in this experiment. ( b) The laboratory wavelength of the K line of calcium is Å. (c) The laboratory wavelength of the H line of calcium is Å. 10. Record the object, photon count, apparent magnitude, and the measured wavelength of the H & K lines of calcium on the data sheet located at the end of this exercise. The H & K lines measured should be red shifted from the laboratory values depending on the galaxies motion. 11. To collect data for additional galaxies, press Return. Change the Monitor to display Finder, then follow steps 6 through 10. Method Now that we see how to use our instrument to collect data, we can use this information to determine for each galaxy, its distance and its velocity, using the following relationships: ( A) / 9 M m 5 5 logd 0 or logd m M 5 5 % Note that we measure m and assume 3 a value for M in order to calculate D (distance), where D is in parsecs. 4 (B) v H = c λ Η λ Η and vk = c λ Κ λ Κ % Note that we measure l (wavelength) in order to calculate v. ( C) λ H = Hmeasured H λ λ and λ K = λ K measured λ K 1. Using the computer simulated telescope, measure and record on your data sheet the wavelengths of the calcium H and K lines for one galaxy in each of the fields selected for the evenings observation. Also, be sure to record the object name, apparent magnitude, and photon count. Round off numbers to two decimal places. Collect enough photons (usually around 40,000) to determine the wavelength of the line accurately. 2. Use your measured magnitudes and the assumed absolute magnitude for each galaxy and derive the distance, (D), to each galaxy using equation ( A). Express your answer in both parsecs and megaparsecs in the appropriate places on your data table. Note that equation ( A) tells you how to find the log of the distance. PAGE 9

10 8 : To find the distance, D, you must take the anti log, i.e. D 10 log D If your calculator cannot calculate powers of 10, please ask to use your instructor s calculator. 3. Use your measured wavelengths given above to calculate the redshifts for each line, λh and your data table. λ K. Record each on 4. Use the Doppler shift formula, to determine the velocities as determined by both the H and K lines. There is a place on the data table for each of these figures: v H c λ λ H H 2 and v K c λ λ K K 5. Calculate and record the velocity of the galaxy. It is the average of the velocities determined from the H and K lines. & 6. Now plot a Hubble diagram by graphing the velocity of a galaxy in km/sec (y-axis) vs. the distance in megaparsecs (x-axis) on a sheet of graph paper. Draw a straight line through the origin that best fits all the data points. The slope of the line is the Hubble Parameter (H). To calculate the slope of the line, measure a value of D and v from a point near the upper right end of the line you drew (do not use one of the points that you plotted, just use a data point). Determine H using the following equation: ( D) / H v D where H is the Hubble Parameter in km/sec/mpc v is the velocity measured from your line D is the distance measured from your line a) Record your value for the Hubble Parameter on your data table on the line called the Average Value of H. b) Mark the point you used on your graph c) Label the axis of your graph, and give it a meaningful title. Determining the Age of the Universe / The Hubble Law, equation (D), can be used to determine the age of the universe. Using your average value of H, calculate the recessional velocity of a galaxy of a galaxy which is 800 Mpc away. ; Velocity of a galaxy 800 Mpc away: PAGE 10 km/sec

11 8 0 Version 1.0 ; Verify your velocity by looking it up on your Hubble diagram. You now have two important pieces of information: 1. How far away the galaxy is. 2. How fast it is going away from us. You can visualize the process if you think about a trip in your car. If you tell a friend that you are 120 miles away from your starting point and that you traveled 60 miles per hour, your friend would know you had been traveling TWO hours. That is your trip started two hours ago. You know this from the relationship: Distance equals Rate ( or velocity ) * Time which we can write as 4 (E) D R T or T D R Thus, 2 hrs = 120 mi 60 mi / hr % Now let s determine when the universe started its trip. The distance is 800 Mpc, but first convert Mpc into km because the rate, or velocity, is in km/sec Mpc = km Use equation (E) to determine how many seconds ago the universe started: secs There are about 3.15 x 10 7 seconds in one year. Convert your answer into years: years The age of the universe is years. SHOW MATH HERE IN AN ORGANIZED FASHION. PAGE 11

### Modeling the Expanding Universe

H9 Modeling the Expanding Universe Activity H9 Grade Level: 8 12 Source: This activity is produced by the Universe Forum at NASA s Office of Space Science, along with their Structure and Evolution of the

More information

### MODULE P7: FURTHER PHYSICS OBSERVING THE UNIVERSE OVERVIEW

OVERVIEW More than ever before, Physics in the Twenty First Century has become an example of international cooperation, particularly in the areas of astronomy and cosmology. Astronomers work in a number

More information

### The Expanding Universe. Prof Jim Dunlop University of Edinburgh

The Expanding Universe Prof Jim Dunlop University of Edinburgh Cosmology: The Study of Structure & Evolution of the Universe Small & Hot Big & Cold Observational Evidence for the Expansion of the Universe

More information

### STAAR Science Tutorial 30 TEK 8.8C: Electromagnetic Waves

Name: Teacher: Pd. Date: STAAR Science Tutorial 30 TEK 8.8C: Electromagnetic Waves TEK 8.8C: Explore how different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum such as light and radio waves are used to

More information

### The Revolution of the Moons of Jupiter Student Manual

The Revolution of the Moons of Jupiter Student Manual A Manual to Accompany Software for the Introductory Astronomy Lab Exercise Document SM 1: Circ.Version 1.1.1 Department of Physics Gettysburg College

More information

### Origins of the Cosmos Summer 2016. Pre-course assessment

Origins of the Cosmos Summer 2016 Pre-course assessment In order to grant two graduate credits for the workshop, we do require you to spend some hours before arriving at Penn State. We encourage all of

More information

### Why is the Night Sky Dark?

Why is the Night Sky Dark? Cosmology Studies of the universe as a whole Today Brief history of ideas (Early Greeks Big Bang) The expanding universe (Hubble, Relativity, density & destiny) An alternative

More information

### Classroom Exercise ASTR 390 Selected Topics in Astronomy: Astrobiology A Hertzsprung-Russell Potpourri

Classroom Exercise ASTR 390 Selected Topics in Astronomy: Astrobiology A Hertzsprung-Russell Potpourri Purpose: 1) To understand the H-R Diagram; 2) To understand how the H-R Diagram can be used to follow

More information

### Lecture 19 Big Bang Cosmology

The Nature of the Physical World Lecture 19 Big Bang Cosmology Arán García-Bellido 1 News Exam 2: you can do better! Presentations April 14: Great Physicist life, Controlled fusion April 19: Nuclear power,

More information

### Astro 130, Fall 2011, Homework, Chapter 17, Due Sep 29, 2011 Name: Date:

Astro 130, Fall 2011, Homework, Chapter 17, Due Sep 29, 2011 Name: Date: 1. If stellar parallax can be measured to a precision of about 0.01 arcsec using telescopes on Earth to observe stars, to what distance

More information

### Using Photometric Data to Derive an HR Diagram for a Star Cluster

Using Photometric Data to Derive an HR Diagram for a Star Cluster In In this Activity, we will investigate: 1. How to use photometric data for an open cluster to derive an H-R Diagram for the stars and

More information

### What is the Sloan Digital Sky Survey?

What is the Sloan Digital Sky Survey? Simply put, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey is the most ambitious astronomical survey ever undertaken. The survey will map one-quarter of the entire sky in detail, determining

More information

### Beginning of the Universe Classwork 6 th Grade PSI Science

Beginning of the Universe Classwork Name: 6 th Grade PSI Science 1 4 2 5 6 3 7 Down: 1. Edwin discovered that galaxies are spreading apart. 2. This theory explains how the Universe was flattened. 3. All

More information

### Q1. (a) Scientists have observed that the wavelengths of the light from galaxies moving away from the Earth are longer than expected....

Q1. (a) Scientists have observed that the wavelengths of the light from galaxies moving away from the Earth are longer than expected. What name is given to this observation? (ii) Draw a ring around the

More information

### Lab: Measuring Doppler Shifts

1 Introduction Lab: Measuring Doppler Shifts In this lab, we will measure the Doppler shift of the spectra of stars. Doppler shifts are used to measure the line of sight component of the velocities of

More information

### THE STARRY SKY AST MESA COMMUNITY COLLEGE

NAME: DATE: INTRODUCTION This lab exercise introduces the arrangement and motions of the stars, constellations, and other objects of the night sky. LEARNING GOALS Describe the motions of stars during a

More information

### The Doppler Effect & Hubble

The Doppler Effect & Hubble Objectives Explain the Doppler Effect. Describe Hubble s discoveries. Explain Hubble s Law. The Doppler Effect The Doppler Effect is named after Austrian physicist Christian

More information

### Big bang, red shift and doppler effect

Big bang, red shift and doppler effect 73 minutes 73 marks Page of 26 Q. (a) Scientists have observed that the wavelengths of the light from galaxies moving away from the Earth are longer than expected.

More information

### Newton s laws of motion and gravity

Newton s laws of motion and gravity 1. Every body continues in a state of rest or uniform motion (constant velocity) in a straight line unless acted on by a force. (A deeper statement of this law is that

More information

### COOKBOOK. for. Aristarchos Transient Spectrometer (ATS)

NATIONAL OBSERVATORY OF ATHENS Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing HELMOS OBSERVATORY COOKBOOK for Aristarchos Transient Spectrometer (ATS) P. Boumis, J. Meaburn,

More information

### Monday 23 June 2014 Morning

H Monday 23 June 2014 Morning GCSE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY SCIENCE PHYSICS A/FURTHER ADDITIONAL SCIENCE A A183/02 Module P7 (Higher Tier) *3173662729* Candidates answer on the Question Paper. A calculator

More information

### Building your own Spectroscope

Building your own Spectroscope 0-0.341-0.445-0.606-0.872-1.36 Lyman Balmer Paschen n=4 n=8 n=7 n=6 n=5 n=4 ENERGY/10-19 J -2.42-5.45 E 5 2 E 4 2 E 3 2 E E 5 3 4 3 n=3 n=2 (Many other transitions beyond

More information

### The Milky Way Galaxy is Heading for a Major Cosmic Collision

The Milky Way Galaxy is Heading for a Major Cosmic Collision Roeland van der Marel (STScI) [based on work with a team of collaborators reported in the Astrophysical Journal July 2012] Hubble Science Briefing

More information

### SYLLABUS FORM WESTCHESTER COMMUNITY COLLEGE Valhalla, NY l0595. l. Course #:PHYSC 151 2. NAME OF ORIGINATOR /REVISOR: PAUL ROBINSON

SYLLABUS FORM WESTCHESTER COMMUNITY COLLEGE Valhalla, NY l0595 l. Course #:PHYSC 151 2. NAME OF ORIGINATOR /REVISOR: PAUL ROBINSON NAME OF COURSE: ASTRONOMY 3. CURRENT DATE: OCTOBER 26, 2011. Please indicate

More information

### 12-3. Spherical groups of millions of stars found in the Milky Way are called: a) novas b) globular clusters X c) open clusters d) galactic clusters

Chapter 12 Quiz, Nov. 28, 2012, Astro 162, Section 4 12-1. Where in our Galaxy has a supermassive (or galactic) black hole been observed? a) at the outer edge of the nuclear bulge b) in the nucleus X c)

More information

### Knox Academy, Haddington. Our Dynamic Universe. 4. The Expanding Universe and Big Bang Theory

Knox Academy, Haddington Our Dynamic Universe 4. The Expanding Universe and Big Bang Theory 2014 Our Dynamic Universe: The Expanding Universe and Big Bang Theory Contents Unit Specification... 2 Notes...

More information

### Astro 102 Test 5 Review Spring 2016. See Old Test 4 #16-23, Test 5 #1-3, Old Final #1-14

Astro 102 Test 5 Review Spring 2016 See Old Test 4 #16-23, Test 5 #1-3, Old Final #1-14 Sec 14.5 Expanding Universe Know: Doppler shift, redshift, Hubble s Law, cosmic distance ladder, standard candles,

More information

### Unit 1.7: Earth and Space Science The Structure of the Cosmos

Lesson Summary: This week students will search for evidence provided in passages that lend support about the structure and organization of the Cosmos. Then students will summarize a passage. Materials

More information

### Graphing Motion. Every Picture Tells A Story

Graphing Motion Every Picture Tells A Story Read and interpret motion graphs Construct and draw motion graphs Determine speed, velocity and accleration from motion graphs If you make a graph by hand it

More information

### Lecture 17: Dark Energy & The Big Bang

Lecture 17: Dark Energy & The Big Bang As with all course material (including homework, exams), these lecture notes are not be reproduced, redistributed, or sold in any form. Solution? ~1998 astronomers

More information

### INSTITUTE OF THEORETICAL PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY MOLĖTAI ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY THE 35/51 CM TELESCOPE OF THE MAKSUTOV SYSTEM (ACT-452) USER'S GUIDE

INSTITUTE OF THEORETICAL PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY MOLĖTAI ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY THE 35/51 CM TELESCOPE OF THE MAKSUTOV SYSTEM (ACT-452) USER'S GUIDE 2005 MAIN TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS The Maksutov telescope

More information

### 1.1 A Modern View of the Universe" Our goals for learning: What is our place in the universe?"

Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe 1.1 A Modern View of the Universe What is our place in the universe? What is our place in the universe? How did we come to be? How can we know what the universe was

More information

### Appendix E: Graphing Data

You will often make scatter diagrams and line graphs to illustrate the data that you collect. Scatter diagrams are often used to show the relationship between two variables. For example, in an absorbance

More information

### astronomy 2008 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times.

1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times. 5. If the distance between the Earth and the Sun were increased,

More information

### Part 1: Background - Graphing

Department of Physics and Geology Graphing Astronomy 1401 Equipment Needed Qty Computer with Data Studio Software 1 1.1 Graphing Part 1: Background - Graphing In science it is very important to find and

More information

### The Expanding Universe

Stars, Galaxies, Guided Reading and Study This section explains how astronomers think the universe and the solar system formed. Use Target Reading Skills As you read about the evidence that supports the

More information

### Unit 1: Understanding the Universe

Write your name here Surname Other names Edexcel GCSE Centre Number Astronomy Unit 1: Understanding the Universe Candidate Number Wednesday 15 May 2013 Afternoon Time: 2 hours You must have: Calculator,

More information

### The Size & Shape of the Galaxy

name The Size & Shape of the Galaxy The whole lab consists of plotting two graphs. What s the catch? Aha visualizing and understanding what you have plotted of course! Form the Earth Science Picture of

More information

### Acceleration of Gravity Lab Basic Version

Acceleration of Gravity Lab Basic Version In this lab you will explore the motion of falling objects. As an object begins to fall, it moves faster and faster (its velocity increases) due to the acceleration

More information

### Measuring the Doppler Shift of a Kepler Star with a Planet

Measuring the Doppler Shift of a Kepler Star with a Planet 1 Introduction The Doppler shift of a spectrum reveals the line of sight component of the velocity vector ( radial velocity ) of the object. Doppler

More information

### The Celestial Sphere. Questions for Today. The Celestial Sphere 1/18/10

Lecture 3: Constellations and the Distances to the Stars Astro 2010 Prof. Tom Megeath Questions for Today How do the stars move in the sky? What causes the phases of the moon? What causes the seasons?

More information

### Chapter 15 Cosmology: Will the universe end?

Cosmology: Will the universe end? 1. Who first showed that the Milky Way is not the only galaxy in the universe? a. Kepler b. Copernicus c. Newton d. Hubble e. Galileo Ans: d 2. The big bang theory and

More information

### EXCEL EXERCISE AND ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY

EXCEL EXERCISE AND ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY Objective: To learn how to use the Excel spreadsheet to record your data, calculate values and make graphs. To analyze the data from the Acceleration Due

More information

### Einstein Rings: Nature s Gravitational Lenses

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Einstein Rings: Nature s Gravitational Lenses Leonidas Moustakas and Adam Bolton Taken from: Hubble 2006 Science Year in Review The full contents of this book

More information

### SIERRA COLLEGE OBSERVATIONAL ASTRONOMY LABORATORY EXERCISE NUMBER III.F.a. TITLE: ASTEROID ASTROMETRY: BLINK IDENTIFICATION

SIERRA COLLEGE OBSERVATIONAL ASTRONOMY LABORATORY EXERCISE NUMBER III.F.a. TITLE: ASTEROID ASTROMETRY: BLINK IDENTIFICATION DATE- PRINT NAME/S AND INITIAL BELOW: GROUP DAY- LOCATION OBJECTIVE: Use CCD

More information

### 11.2 THE DOPPLER EFFECT Notes

11.2 THE DOPPLER EFFECT Notes III. HOW THE DOPPLER EFFECT WORKS WITH SOUND A. SOUND FREQUENCY AND PITCH The frequency of sound waves is proportional to the pitch that we hear. DEMO Tuning Forks f = higher

More information

### FREE FALL. Introduction. Reference Young and Freedman, University Physics, 12 th Edition: Chapter 2, section 2.5

Physics 161 FREE FALL Introduction This experiment is designed to study the motion of an object that is accelerated by the force of gravity. It also serves as an introduction to the data analysis capabilities

More information

### The Birth of the Universe Newcomer Academy High School Visualization One

The Birth of the Universe Newcomer Academy High School Visualization One Chapter Topic Key Points of Discussion Notes & Vocabulary 1 Birth of The Big Bang Theory Activity 4A the How and when did the universe

More information

### 1051-232 Imaging Systems Laboratory II. Laboratory 4: Basic Lens Design in OSLO April 2 & 4, 2002

05-232 Imaging Systems Laboratory II Laboratory 4: Basic Lens Design in OSLO April 2 & 4, 2002 Abstract: For designing the optics of an imaging system, one of the main types of tools used today is optical

More information

### The Fate of the Universe

The Fate of the Universe How one set of equations changed an entire field of science Brian Kay PHY 495 Objective Examine the Friedmann equation and its impact on our understanding of the evolution of the

More information

### Exploring Big Bang Evidence Grade Nine

Ohio Standards Connection: Earth & Space Sciences Benchmark A Explain how evidence from stars and other celestial objects provide information about the processes that cause changes in the composition and

More information

### Introduction. Hardware Overview

Introduction The Tinsley Laboratory built Ritchie-Chretien 30 inch Telescope has been in near continuous operation at Leuschner Observatory since 1968. It has seen many upgrades during those years with

More information

### Astronomy 10 Test #1 Practice Version

Given (a.k.a. `First ) Name(s): Family (a.k.a. `Last ) name: ON YOUR PARSCORE: `Bubble your name, your student I.D. number, and your multiple-choice answers. I will keep the Parscore forms. ON THIS TEST

More information

### Monday 24 June 2013 Morning

THIS IS A NEW SPECIFICATION H Monday 24 June 2013 Morning GCSE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY SCIENCE PHYSICS A A183/02 Module P7 (Higher Tier) * A 1 3 7 3 1 0 6 1 3 * Candidates answer on the Question Paper. A

More information

### Dress in layers, lots of layers for most locations. Some of these locations are quite windy,

Star Party Introduction Materials Where to observe What to do Observation Sheets Turn in (list) Describing the Equipment Binoculars Telescopes Introduction You will attend a star party where lots of telescopes

More information

### Name: Class: Date: ID: A

Name: Class: _ Date: _ Practice Quiz 4 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the wavelength of the longest wavelength light that can

More information

### A Determination of g, the Acceleration Due to Gravity, from Newton's Laws of Motion

A Determination of g, the Acceleration Due to Gravity, from Newton's Laws of Motion Objective In the experiment you will determine the cart acceleration, a, and the friction force, f, experimentally for

More information

### Planning Observations

Lab 6: Eclipsing Binary Stars (Due: 2008 Apr 23) Binary Stars Binary stars are systems in which two stars orbit each other under their mutual gravitational interaction. It is commonly claimed that most

More information

### An Introduction to Astronomy and Cosmology. 1) Astronomy - an Observational Science

An Introduction to Astronomy and Cosmology 1) Astronomy - an Observational Science Why study Astronomy 1 A fascinating subject in its own right. The origin and Evolution of the universe The Big Bang formation

More information

### Acceleration Due to Gravity

Activity 5 PS-2826 Acceleration Due to Gravity Kinematics: linear motion, acceleration, free fall, graphing GLX setup file: free fall Qty Equipment and Materials Part Number 1 PASPORT Xplorer GLX PS-2002

More information

### Physics Open House. Faraday's Law and EM Waves Change in the magnetic field strength in coils generates a current. Electromagnetic Radiation

Electromagnetic Radiation (How we get most of our information about the cosmos) Examples of electromagnetic radiation: Light Infrared Ultraviolet Microwaves AM radio FM radio TV signals Cell phone signals

More information

### Milky Way & Hubble Law

Milky Way & Hubble Law Astronomy 1 Elementary Astronomy LA Mission College Spring F2015 Quotes & Cartoon of the Day Happy Thanksgiving! Announcements 3rd midterm 12/3 I will drop the lowest midterm grade

More information

### Orientation to the Sky: Apparent Motions

Chapter 2 Orientation to the Sky: Apparent Motions 2.1 Purpose The main goal of this lab is for you to gain an understanding of how the sky changes during the night and over the course of a year. We will

More information

### Douglas Adams The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy

There is a theory which states that if ever anybody discovers exactly what the Universe is for and why it is here, it will instantly disappear and be replaced by something even more bizarre and inexplicable.

More information

### Lecture 7: Light Waves. Newton s Laws of Motion (1666) Newton s First Law of Motion

Lecture 7: Light Waves Isaac Newton (1643-1727) was born in the year Galileo died He discovered the Law of Gravitation in 1665 He developed the Laws of Mechanics that govern all motions In order to solve

More information

### The Origin and Evolution of the Universe

The Origin and Evolution of the Universe 9.7 People have been wondering about the Universe for a long time. They have asked questions such as Where did the Universe come from? How big is it? What will

More information

### First Discoveries. Asteroids

First Discoveries The Sloan Digital Sky Survey began operating on June 8, 1998. Since that time, SDSS scientists have been hard at work analyzing data and drawing conclusions. This page describes seven

More information

### Chapter 1: Our Place in the Universe. 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley

Chapter 1: Our Place in the Universe Topics Our modern view of the universe The scale of the universe Cinema graphic tour of the local universe Spaceship earth 1.1 A Modern View of the Universe Our goals

More information

### Astronomy & Physics Resources for Middle & High School Teachers

Astronomy & Physics Resources for Middle & High School Teachers Gillian Wilson http://www.faculty.ucr.edu/~gillianw/k12 A cosmologist is.... an astronomer who studies the formation and evolution of the

More information

### FXA 2008. UNIT G485 Module 5 5.5.1 Structure of the Universe. Δλ = v λ c CONTENTS OF THE UNIVERSE. Candidates should be able to :

1 Candidates should be able to : CONTENTS OF THE UNIVERSE Describe the principal contents of the universe, including stars, galaxies and radiation. Describe the solar system in terms of the Sun, planets,

More information

### Scientific Graphing in Excel 2010

Scientific Graphing in Excel 2010 When you start Excel, you will see the screen below. Various parts of the display are labelled in red, with arrows, to define the terms used in the remainder of this overview.

More information

### In this project, you will be observing at least three objects with a telescope or binoculars, and drawing what you see.

Telescopic Observations Materials: Paper, pencil, camera, Telescope or Binoculars In this project, you will be observing at least three objects with a telescope or binoculars, and drawing what you see.

More information

### EDWIN HUBBLE BIOGRAPHY 720L

2 EDWIN HUBBLE BIOGRAPHY 720L EDWIN HUBBLE EVIDENCE FOR AN EXPANDING UNIVERSE Born November 20, 1889 Marshfield, Missouri Died September 28, 1953 San Marino, California By Cynthia Stokes Brown, adapted

More information

### 165 points. Name Date Period. Column B a. Cepheid variables b. luminosity c. RR Lyrae variables d. Sagittarius e. variable stars

Name Date Period 30 GALAXIES AND THE UNIVERSE SECTION 30.1 The Milky Way Galaxy In your textbook, read about discovering the Milky Way. (20 points) For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching

More information

### Excel 2007 Tutorial - Draft

These notes will serve as a guide and reminder of several features in Excel 2007 that make the use of a spreadsheet more like an interactive thinking tool. The basic features/options to be explored are:

More information

### THE BOHR QUANTUM MODEL

THE BOHR QUANTUM MODEL INTRODUCTION When light from a low-pressure gas is subject to an electric discharge, a discrete line spectrum is emitted. When light from such a low-pressure gas is examined with

More information

### Experiment 4 Analysis by Gas Chromatography

Experiment 4 Analysis by Gas Chromatography In this experiment we will study the method of gas chromatography. Gas chromatography (GC) is one of the most important analytical tools that the chemist has.

More information

### CCD Calibration I: System Corrections

CCD Calibration I: System Corrections Best Observing Season: any Level: Intermediate Learning Goals: The student will determine a CCD camera s system corrections Terminology: blooming, CCD, charge transfer

More information

### Exercise: Estimating the Mass of Jupiter Difficulty: Medium

Exercise: Estimating the Mass of Jupiter Difficulty: Medium OBJECTIVE The July / August observing notes for 010 state that Jupiter rises at dusk. The great planet is now starting its grand showing for

More information

### TELESCOPE AS TIME MACHINE

TELESCOPE AS TIME MACHINE Read this article about NASA s latest high-tech space telescope. Then, have fun doing one or both of the word puzzles that use the important words in the article. A TELESCOPE

More information

### Lutz Telescope and CCD Camera Start Up and Shut Down Procedure April 14, 2010

Lutz Telescope and CCD Camera Start Up and Shut Down Procedure April 14, 2010 Telescope Start Up Information: 1. Turn exterior lights off (light in parking lot as well as lights on ROTC building) 2. Turn

More information

### Meade 8 LX200 Set-up

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences 12.409 Hands-On Astronomy, Spring 2002 Handout 3 /week of 2002 February 11 Meade 8 LX200 Set-up Contents Telescope

More information

### Spectrophotometry and the Beer-Lambert Law: An Important Analytical Technique in Chemistry

Spectrophotometry and the Beer-Lambert Law: An Important Analytical Technique in Chemistry Jon H. Hardesty, PhD and Bassam Attili, PhD Collin College Department of Chemistry Introduction: In the last lab

More information

### ASTR 115: Introduction to Astronomy. Stephen Kane

ASTR 115: Introduction to Astronomy Stephen Kane ASTR 115: Introduction to Astronomy Textbook: The Essential Cosmic Perspective, 7th Edition Homework will be via the Mastering Astronomy web site: www.pearsonmastering.com

More information

### Galaxy Classification and Evolution

name Galaxy Classification and Evolution Galaxy Morphologies In order to study galaxies and their evolution in the universe, it is necessary to categorize them by some method. A classification scheme generally

More information

### Trial 9 No Pill Placebo Drug Trial 4. Trial 6.

An essential part of science is communication of research results. In addition to written descriptions and interpretations, the data are presented in a figure that shows, in a visual format, the effect

More information

### HR Diagram Student Guide

Name: HR Diagram Student Guide Background Information Work through the background sections on Spectral Classification, Luminosity, and the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram. Then complete the following questions

More information

### Lecture 8: Radiation Spectrum. Radiation. Electromagnetic Radiation

Lecture 8: Radiation Spectrum The information contained in the light we receive is unaffected by distance The information remains intact so long as the light doesn t run into something along the way Since

More information

### Appendix C: Graphs. Vern Lindberg

Vern Lindberg 1 Making Graphs A picture is worth a thousand words. Graphical presentation of data is a vital tool in the sciences and engineering. Good graphs convey a great deal of information and can

More information

### Transcript 22 - Universe

Transcript 22 - Universe A few introductory words of explanation about this transcript: This transcript includes the words sent to the narrator for inclusion in the latest version of the associated video.

More information

### SKINAKAS OBSERVATORY. Astronomy Projects for University Students PROJECT THE HERTZSPRUNG RUSSELL DIAGRAM

PROJECT 4 THE HERTZSPRUNG RUSSELL DIGRM Objective: The aim is to measure accurately the B and V magnitudes of several stars in the cluster, and plot them on a Colour Magnitude Diagram. The students will

More information

### The facts we know today will be the same tomorrow but today s theories may tomorrow be obsolete.

The Scale of the Universe Some Introductory Material and Pretty Pictures The facts we know today will be the same tomorrow but today s theories may tomorrow be obsolete. A scientific theory is regarded

More information

### Exploring the Universe Through the Hubble Space Telescope

Exploring the Universe Through the Hubble Space Telescope WEEK FIVE: THE HUBBLE DEEP FIELD + LIMITATIONS OF HUBBLE, COLLABORATIONS, AND THE FUTURE OF ASTRONOMY Date: October 14, 2013 Instructor: Robert

More information

### Using Microsoft Excel to Plot and Analyze Kinetic Data

Entering and Formatting Data Using Microsoft Excel to Plot and Analyze Kinetic Data Open Excel. Set up the spreadsheet page (Sheet 1) so that anyone who reads it will understand the page (Figure 1). Type

More information

### Experiment 5: Magnetic Fields of a Bar Magnet and of the Earth

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Physics 8.02 Spring 2005 Experiment 5: Magnetic Fields of a Bar Magnet and of the Earth OBJECTIVES 1. To examine the magnetic field associated with a

More information

### Lab 3: CCD Lab. 1 Introduction. 2 Background. 1.1 Goals. 1.2 Schedule. 1.3 Recommended Reading

1 Introduction 1.1 Goals Lab 3: CCD Lab In this lab you will investigate properties of the CCD, the most commonly used light detector at optical wavelengths (and beyond). You will use CCD images taken

More information

### PTYS/ASTR 206 Section 2 Spring 2007 Homework #2 (Page 1/5) NAME: KEY

PTYS/ASTR 206 Section 2 Spring 2007 Homework #2 (Page 1/5) NAME: KEY Due Date: start of class 2/6/2007 5 pts extra credit if turned in before 9:00AM (early!) (To get the extra credit, the assignment must

More information

### Determining the Sizes & Distances of Stars Using the H-R Diagram

Determining the Sizes & Distances of Stars Using the H-R Diagram Activity UCIObs 11 College Level Source: Copyright (2009) by Tammy Smecker-Hane & Michael Hood. Contact tsmecker@uci.edu with questions.

More information

### Big Bang and Steady State Theories - Past exam questions (6 mark)

Big Bang and Steady State Theories - Past exam questions (6 mark) (1) * Scientists believe that the Universe is expanding. Describe how careful observation of electromagnetic radiation from distant galaxies

More information

### Measuring Size from Images: A wrangle with angles and image scale

Measuring Size from Images: A wrangle with angles and image scale Purpose: To learn how to make measurements of angular size on images from MicroObservatory telescopes. While we can't take a measuring

More information