# CS 418: Interactive Computer Graphics. Compositing & Blending in WebGL. Eric Shaffer

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1 CS 418: Interactive Computer Graphics Compositing & Blending in WebGL Eric Shaffer

2 Lynwood Dunn ( ) Visual effects pioneer Acme-Dunn optical printer Run film through a projector and re-photograph it Can zoom in or out, applies filters etc.

3 Compositing Example

4 Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences Scientific and Engineering Award To Alvy Ray Smith, Tom Duff, Ed Catmull and Thomas Porter for their Pioneering Inventions in Digital Image Compositing. PRESENTED MARCH 2, 1996

5 The Over Operator Use alpha channel to indicate opacity [Smith] Over operator [Porter & Duff S 84] A over B: C A over B = α A C A + (1 α A ) α B C B α A over B = α A + (1 α A ) α B Alternatively (and better?), you can pre-multiply the colors C A and C B by the alpha value C = (αr, αg, αb, α) A over B w/premultiplied alpha C A over B = C A + (1 α A ) C B α A over B = α A + (1 α A ) α B A B Pre-multiplied alpha and Post-multiplied alpha are not equivalent. You will usually get similar results, but not in all situations.

6 Is Over Associative? A over (B over C) = C A + (1-α A )(C B + (1-α B )C C ) C B A

7 Is Over Associative? A over (B over C) = C A + (1-α A )(C B + (1-α B )C C ) = C A + (1-α A )C B + (1-α A )(1-α B )C C C B A = C AB + (1 α A (1-α A )α B )C C = C AB + (1-α AB ) C C = (A over B) over C What about α = α A + (1-α A ) α BC = α A + (1-α A )(α B + (1-α B ) α C ) = α A + (1-α A )α B + (1-α A )(1-α B )α C = α AB + (1-α AB )α C

8 Questions. Is post-multiplied alpha associative? Is the over operator commutative?

9 Questions. Is post-multiplied alpha associative? NO Is the over operator commutative? NO

10 Accumulating Opacity What if you have multiple layers of surfaces to blend? Have to work in sorted order Back to front: Over operator C out = C + (1 α) C in α out = α + (1 α) α in Could also work front to back view C out,α out C,α C in,α in

11 Hidden Surface Removal Hidden Surface Removal don t render surfaces occluded by surfaces in front of them Was a significant area of research in early days of CG lots of algorithms suggested Painter s Algorithm Render objects in order from back to front i.e. sort your triangles by depth and render deepest first Can anyone imagine any problems with this approach?

12 Problems with the Painter s Algorithm No correct rendering order for intersecting triangle occlusion cycles Sorting is slow too slow for interactivity in complex scenes

13 Hidden Surface Removal: Z-Buffer Key Observation: Each pixel displays color of only one triangle, ignores everything behind it Donʼ t need to sort triangles, just find for each pixel the closest triangle Z-buffer: one fixed or floating point value per pixel Algorithm: For each rasterized fragment (x,y) If z < zbuffer(x,y) then framebuffer(x,y) = fragment color zbuffer(x,y) = z framebuffer zbuffer Frame Buffer: buffer that stores the colors for the pixels we will render

14 Z-Buffer Key Observation: Each pixel displays color of only one triangle, ignores everything behind it Donʼ t need to sort triangles, just find for each pixel the closest triangle Z-buffer: one fixed or floating point value per pixel Algorithm: For each rasterized fragment (x,y) If z < zbuffer(x,y) then framebuffer(x,y) = fragment color zbuffer(x,y) = z framebuffer zbuffer

15 Z-Buffer Key Observation: Each pixel displays color of only one triangle, ignores everything behind it Donʼ t need to sort triangles, just find for each pixel the closest triangle Z-buffer: one fixed or floating point value per pixel Algorithm: For each rasterized fragment (x,y) If z > zbuffer(x,y) then framebuffer(x,y) = fragment color zbuffer(x,y) = z framebuffer zbuffer

16 Z-Buffer Get fragment z-values by interpolating z- values at vertices during rasterization True perspective projection destroys z- values, setting them all to d The perspective distortion we use preserves at least the ordering of z-values framebuffer zbuffer

17 Precision Issues with Z-Buffering In practice, depths values are typically converted to non-negative integers when stored in the z-buffer. Comparison operation needs to be fast Imagine having depth values of {0,1,,B-1} 0 à near clipping plane distance B-1 à clipping plane distance Depths occur discretely in buckets Each bucket covers a range of length z = \$%& If we use b bits for the z-buffer values, B = 2 b You usually can t change the value b To maximize z-buffer effectiveness, need to minimize f-n '

18 Z-Fighting How can you fix z-fighting?

19 Z-Fighting How can you fix z-fighting? 1. Move co-planar polygons slightly away from each other 2. Move near and clipping planes as close together as you can

20 Order Independent Transparency Alpha blending works for sorted rendering Front to back Back to front Doesn t work for out-of-order Front, back, middle Could need to keep track separately of the front part and the back part Could keep a linked list at each pixel A-buffer (Carpenter) Not practical for hardware

21 Depth Peeling Cass Everett, NVIDIA Tech Rep, 2001 Needs 2 z-buffers (previous, current) One rendering pass per layer Fragment written to frame buffer if Farther than previous z-buffer Closer than current z-buffer After each pass, current z-buffer written to previous z-buffer Surviving fragment composited under displayed fragment

22 Depth Peels Which Layer is Which?

23 Results

24 WebGL Pipeline Scissor Test: cull pixels outside of a rectangular area Multisample: anti-aliasing operation Stencil Test: uses a stencil buffer to mask pixels can be used in shadow generation Depth Buffer Test: hidden surface removal Blending: compositing using alpha channel

25 WebGL Hidden Surface Removal gl.enable(gl.depth_test); // use depth test for hidden surface remove gl.depthfunc(gl.less); //this is the default gl.clear(gl.depth_buffer_bit); // clear depth values form previous frame Hidden surface removal uses the depth buffer (z-buffer) Happens after the fragment shader

26 Blending //enable blending gl.enable(gl.blend) //to set up the parameters of the generic blending equation //call ONE of the functions below gl.blendfunc(glenum sfactor, GLenum dfactor); //OR gl.blendfuncseparate(glenum srcrgb, GLenum dstrgb, GLenum srcalpha, GLenum dstalpha); WebGL lets you specify the factors and operations in the generic blending equation: color final = factor source color source op factor dest color dest

27 Blending color final = factor source color source op factor dest color dest

28 Changing the Blending Operator gl.blendequation(glenum mode); Lets you specify the blending operation. Addition is the default. //colorfinal = factorsource colorsource + factordest colordest gl.blendequation(gl_func_add); //colorfinal = factorsource colorsource factordest colordest gl.blendequation(gl_func_subtract); //colorfinal = factordest colordest factorsource colorsource gl.blendequation(gl_func_reverse_subtract);

29 Blending gl.blendfunc(glenum sfactor, GLenum dfactor); Lets you specify the blending function for both the RGB and Alpha values for both the source and destination gl.blendfunc(gl.src_alpha, gl.one_minus_src_alpha); Will implement the over operator we saw previously You can use it to generate semi-transparent imagery It s the most commonly used formulation

30 Pre-multiplied Alpha Non-pre-multiplied alpha example: (1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.5) Pre-multiplied alpha example: (0.5, 0.0, 0.0, 0.5) For blending use: gl.blendfunc(gl.one, gl.one_minus_src_alpha); PNG images use non-pre-multipled alpha in case you are loading colors from an image You can choose to work either way

31 Blending and Drawing Order // 1. Enable depth testing, make sure the depth buffer is writable // and disable blending before you draw your opaque objects. gl.enable(gl.depth_test); gl.depthmask(true); gl.disable(gl.blend); // 2. Draw your opaque objects in any order (preferably sorted on state) // 3. Keep depth testing enabled, but make depth buffer read-only // and enable blending gl.depthmask(false); gl.enable(gl.blend); // 4. Draw your semi-transparent objects back-to-front // 5. If you have UI that you want to draw on top of your // regular scene, you can finally disable depth testing gl.disable(gl.depth_test); // 6. Draw any UI you want to be on top of everything else Anyuru, Andreas Professional WebGL Programming: Developing 3D Graphics for the Web

32 Blending in WebGL

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