1 ا ق ر أ و ر بك الا آ ر م ا لذ ى ع لم ب ال ق ل م ع لم الا ن س ان م ال م ي ع ل م Recite and your Fosterer is Most Honourable. Who taught with the pen. He taught man that which he did not know. ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR OF THE HOLY QURAN Introduction It s very tragic that most of us recite the Holy Quran, the word of ALLAH, the book of instructions, the only Source of authentic knowledge, without understanding it. We offer Salat, reciting passages in Arabic which we do not mean, because again we do not understand what we say. In our worldly life, for nominal financial and social benefits, we take pains even in old age, to learn any language imposed on us. We spend hundreds and thousands of rupees on private tuitions for our children, to make them understand highly complicated subjects of Mathematics and Science, but when the problem of understanding the Holy Quran is posed, we are indifferent. Are we not answerable for this indifferent attitude of ours? Yes! It is in response to this fear that this work has been prepared so as to help the English knowing readers of the Holy Quran in learning basic important rules of grammer used in the Holy Quran. The Holy Quran contains 1800 and odd basic root words which have been repeated in a variety of grammatic forms. Some of these words convey more than one meaning. All these words add up to 2000 and odd. If one learns the meanings of these 2000 and odd words and the grammatic rules to use them correctly in framing sentences, then, Insha Allah, in due course of time, he may be able to understand
2 nearly the whole of the Holy Quran without the help of any translation and he may also be able to offer his Salat knowing the meaning of every word he recites. Aren t these great temptations to understand, memorise and digest this small book? May Allah help us, in fulfilling this desire with the sole aim of practically implementing all that we understand, and there by achieve success and happiness in this world and in the hereafter. Ameen. Dr. MIR ANEESUDDIN, M.Sc., Ph.D. (Osm) CONTENTS ELEMENTARY GRAMMER / PRONOUNS & WORDS OTHER THAN NOUNS AND VERBS ARABIC WORDS ا س م NOUN Noun is the name of any person, place or thing. Following varieties of nouns deserve our attention. ا س م ج ام د INFLEXIBLE NOUN م ص د ر VERBAL NOUN ا س م ن ك رة COMMON NOUN ا س م م ع ر ف ه PROPER NOUN ف اع ل ) SUBJECT ACTIVE NOUN ( PASSIVE NOUN ( OBJECT ) اسم ضرف و مكان و زمان NOUN OF PLACE AND TIME م ف ع و ل
3 ا س م ا له NOUN OF THE INSTRUMENT ا س م ص ف ت ADJECTIVE ا س م م ب ال غ ه NOUN OF EXAGERATION ا س م ت ف ض ي ل COMPARATIVE NOUN ج م ع ت ك ث ي ر NOUN OF MULTITUDE RELATIVE NOUNS GENDER ( MASCULINE, FEMININE ) NUMBER:- SINGULAR, DUAL, PLURAL ض م ان ر PRONOUNS ف ع ل VERB Verb is a word that indicates an action associated with past, present or future. فعل لا زم INTRANSITIVE VERB فعل متعدي TRANSITIVE VERB فعل ماضي معروف PAST TENSE ACTIVE VOICE فعل ماضي مجهول PAST TENSE PASSIVE VOICE فعل مضارع AORIST TENSE فعل مضارع معروف AORIST TENSE, ACTIVE VOICE فعل مضارع مجهول AORIST TENSE PASSIVE VOICE OTHER FORMS OF PAST TENSE OTHER FORMS OF AORIST TENSE ا مر IMPERATIVE MOOD
4 ن ه ي PROHIBITIVE IMPERATIVE AND PROHIBITIVE MOODS OF FIRST AND THIRD PERSONS ث لا ث ي م ز ي د ف ي ه DERIVATIVES OF TRILITERALS WORDS OTHER THAN NOUNS AND VERBS PREPOSITIONS CONJUNCTION WORDS USE FOR QUESTIONS AFFIRMATIVE WORDS NEGATIVE WORDS WORDS CONVEYING CONDITION DIRECTIONAL WORDS OTHER PARTICLES PHASES AND SENTENCES A group of two or more words is know as a م ر آب ( compound ). PHRASE SENTENCE CHAPTER 1 ARABIC WORDS In Arabic language, most of the Nouns and Verbs are derived from words normally consisting of a minimum of 3 alphabets like
5 - ع ب د ف ع ل ف ع ل - ع ب د He worshipped He did The meaning, gender, number, tense etc. of any root word can be altered, by adding appropriate alphabets in the beginning, middle or at the end and also by changing the signs above and below each alphabets. ا ق ت ل I murder Murderer We murdered He murdered ق ات ل ق ت ل ن ا ق ت ل ق ت ل He was murdered Thus from a single 3 lettered root word numerous other words can be derived but the basic meaning of the root words is normally retained in some form or the other. There are 8 signs which are marked above or below an alphabet to produce sounds shown below : u, as in who a, as in far e, as in seen un, as in dhun an, as in run in, as in pin.
6 or are used for abrupt stop, as in cut ف ع ل ت for repeating the sound of an alphabet as in running, ال له. Nouns can be identified by the prefix ا ل as in ا ل رح م ان or in the signs, or on the last alphabet of a world ن اص ر ا, ز ي د or ح ام د. A verb can be identified when it is prefixed by س و ف, ل, ق د or س and by the sign on the last alphabet. Past tense He has killed ق د ق ت ل Present tense He knows ي ع ل م Future tense He will strike س ي ض ر ب Future tense You will know س و ف ت ع ل م و ن Order ( you ) kill ا ق ت ل The number of alphabets and their signs in the case of the preposition used for joining nouns and verbs are fixed : م ن = from ع لى = over ف ي = in The three lettered word ف ع ل meaning to work, is usually selected to demonstrate the changes that can be brought about in the meaning, gender, tense etc. of a root word by altering the signs of and increasing the number of alphabets : ا ف ع ال = works ف ع ل = work ف اع ل = works one who ت ف ع ل = work You ( will ) When the root words contains the vowels ي or و or ا then along with the signs some of the letters too are changed or even dropped. In the case of the root word for the third person singular past tense, it is written ق و ل instead of writing ق و ل as ق ال that is و is replaced by ا. In the case of the root letter و ق ي for the ق ن ا ع ذ اب ال نار meaning Guard as in ق imparative form, only one letter is used ( guard or save us from the punishment of fire ) CHAPTER II ا س م NOUN
7 Noun is the name of any person, place or thing. Following varieties of nouns deserve our attention. ا س م ج ام د 1. INFLEXIBLE NOUN A noun which has not been derived from an infinitive : ف ي ل = Elephant ف ر س = Horse 2. VERBAL NOUN م ص د ر A noun that has been derived from an infinitive and from which other words are derived : ( Infinitive ) murder To = ق ت ل ( Noun ) Murder = ق ت ل ( Derived subject ) Murderer = ق ات ل ( Derived object ) murdered one who is = م ق ت و ل ا س م ن ك رة 3. COMMON NOUN These nouns refer to Classes or groups of things : ن ج م = Star ب ي ت = House ا س م م ع ر ف ه 4. PROPER NOUN م كة ح ام د : like These nouns refer to particular persons, places or things When the alphabets ا ل are prefixed to a common noun, it gets converted to a proper noun, imparting the meaning of the English article THE The Star ا لن ج م The House ا ل ب ي ت The noun in subjective case ( active ) ends in noun is objective case Hamid became ج اء ح ام د. The ( passive ) ends in I struck Hamid ض ر ب ت ح ام د ا. The noun which is. ذ ه ب ت إلى ح ام د preceded by a preposition end in I went towards Hamid
8 In case the noun is prefixed with ا ل then the last alphabet will be marked by respectively instead of. ف اع ل 5. ACTIVE NOUN SUBJECT This noun is derived from the root word by adding ا after the first alphabet and marking the sign on the central alphabet. - ف ات ح ف ت ح - ن اص ر ن ص ر One who helps One who opens م ف ع و ل 6. PASSIVE NOUN OBJECT This noun is derived from the root word by prefixing م and inserting و between the second and third letters. The central alphabet is marked with the sign. - م ف ت و ح ف ت ح - م ن ص و ر ن ص ر One who is helped one that is opened اسم ضرف و مكان و زمان.7 NOUN OF PLACE AND TIME The noun has م with sign prefixed to the root word. The central alphabet has the sign if the Aorist verb ف ع ل م ض ار ع has or on the central alphabet of the root word. The central alphabet will have marked on it, if the central alphabet of the Aorist verb also has marked on it. Name of Place / Time Aorist Verb Opening م ف ت و ح ي ف ت ح Helping م ن ص ر ي ن ص ر Sitting م ج ل س ي ج ل س ( Exceptions to the rule ) ي ش ر ق ي س ج د م ش ر ق م س ج د
9 ي ص ل ي م ص ل ى 8. NOUN OF THE INSTRUMENT ا س م ا له Names of working instruments. There are three forms ) ح ر ث ( Plough م ح ر ث م ف ع ل Key ) ف ت ح ( م ف ت اح م ف ع ال Fan ) ر و ح ( م ر و ح ة م ف ع ل ة.9 ADJECTIVE ا س م ص ف ت These words indicate qualities or attributes of nouns. In some cases, after the second alphabet of the root word, one of the vowels و, ي or ا is added as follows : Good ش ر ي ف ) ش ر ف ( Dignified و ق و ر ) و ق ر ( Brave ش ج اع ) ش ج ع ( Following forms are also used Difficult ص ع ب ف ع ل Beautiful ح س ن ف ع ل Hard ص ل ب ف ع ل Very happy ف ر ح ف ع ل Beneficent ر ح م ان ف ع لان ا س م م ب ال غ ه 10. NOUNS OF EXAGGERATION To express an excess of some quality, following terms of the root word فعل are used. Very cautious ح ذ ر ف ع ل Very merciful ر ح ي م ف ع ي ل Heavy eater ا آ و ل ف ع و ل Very learned ع لا م ف عال Very elderly آ بار ف عال Very truthful ص د ي ق ف عي ل Cutter م ج ز م م ف ع ل Great bestower م ن ع ام م ف ع ال Very poor م س ك ي ن م ف ع ي ل
10 Very peculiar ع ج اب ف ع ال Great differentiator ف ار و ق ف اع و ل One who laughs ض ح ك ة ف ع ل ة Established one ق يو م ف عو ل Very holy ق دو س ف عو ل One who finds excuses ق لب ف عل ا س م ت ف ض ي ل 11. COMPARATIVE NOUN These nouns are used for comparison. Derived from the root word فعل the word ( masculine ) and افعل means one who has the capacity to work. The forms فعيل ( feminine ) show comparative capacity of doing more work, following فعلى examples throw more light. Comparative Comparative Noun feminine masculine ص غ رى ا ص غ ر ص غ ي ر آ ب رى ا آ ب ر آ ب ي ر Comparative nouns do not have the prefix ال or the signs or on the last alphabet. ج م ع ت ك ث ي ر 12. NOUN OF MULTITUDE The noun is derived by suffixing ة to certain singular nouns ش ج ر ش ج ر ة Many trees 13. RELATIVE NOUNS When ي is suffixed to certain nouns, the derived word conveys the sense of belonging to : Belonging to Arabia ع ب ب ي ع ر ب Belonging to India ه ن د ي ه ن د 14. GENDER MASCULINE, FEMININE ة In most cases a feminine noun can be identified by the suffix Masculine ع اب د س اج د ع ال م Feminine ع اب د ة س اج د ة ع ال م ة
11 When the masculine noun is the equivalent of the word ا ف ع ل its feminine is either ف ع لاء or ف ع لى Masculine Feminine ف ع لى - ف ع لاء ا ف ع ل ا ص غ ر ص غ رى ا ص ف ر ص ف ر اء There are some irregular forms which do not end in ة or اى or اء yet they are considered feminine : س م اء = Sky ا ر ض = Earth ن ار = Fire 15. NUMBER :- SINGULAR, DUAL, PLURAL Dual ( for two things ): To convert singular to dual, ا ن is added at the end of the active noun, that is, subject ف اع ل and ي ن at the end of passive noun, that is, object is marked with the sign ي ن or ا ن. The alphabet just before م ف ع و ل and the last ن of the dual always has the sign. Singular Dual Passive Dual Active Two eyes ع ي ن ع ي ن ان ع ي ن ي ن Two hands ي د ي د ان ي د ي ن ع ال م ة Two learned women ع ال م ت ان ع ال م ت ي ن Plural has two kinds : ج م ع س ال م - plural ) Sound 1 ( ج م ع م ك سر plural ) Broken 2 ( In sound plural ج م ع س ال م alphabets of the singular form remain in the same order. ون is added at the end of active noun subject ف اع ل and ي ن at the end of passive noun object م ف ع و ل. The letter before و is marked with for the
12 active noun and the letter before ي is marked with for the passive noun. The last ن is marked with active masculine noun and ات to passive masculine noun. Singular Plural Passive. Feminine sound plural is made by adding ات to Plural Active ع ال م ي ن ع ال م و ن ع ال م Masc. ع ال م ة Fem. ع ال م ات ع ال م ات FEMININE Active SUMMARY OF NUMBER, SING., DUAL AND SOUND PLURAL MASCULINE Passive Preposition Active Passive Preposition حرف فاعل مفعول حرف فاعل مفعول Sing. م س ل م م س ل م ا م س ل م م س ل م ة م س ل م ة م س ل م ة Dual م س ل م ي ن م س ل م ان م س ل م ت ي ن م س ل م ت ان Plu. م س ل م ي ن م س ل م و ن م س ل م ات م س ل م ات In broken plural, the original form of the singular is changed by addition or removal of alphabets and changing the signs associated with the original alphabets. Singular Plural Singular Plural آ ت اب ق ل م ا ق لام آ ت ب ا ر ج ل ب ي ت ب ي و ت ر ج ل ث ي ا ب م س ج د م س اج د ث و ب CHAPTER III
13 ض م اي ر PRONOUNS A pronoun is a word used in place or instead of a noun. If ا يا is prefixed to passive pronouns, it imparts the sense of only, ا ياك ( only you ), ). we ( only ا يان ا NEAR 3. Demonstrative Pronouns اسم اشاره FAR Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine S D P S D P S D P S D P This Those All This These All That Those All That Those All Two these Two those Two Those Two Those هذ ا هذان هو لا ء هذ ه ه ات ان ه و لا ء ذل ك ذ ان ك ا ولان ك ت ل ك ت ان ك ا ولان ك هذ ي ن ه ات ي ن ذ ي ن ك ت ي ن ك 4. Relative Pronouns 5. Introgative Pronouns م ا م ن Who Who Who Who Who Who Which Which Which Which Which which two all two all what who ا لات ي ا لت ان ا ل ت ي ا لذ ي ن ا لذ ان ا لذ ي ا لان ي ا لت ي ن ا لذ ي ن for living beings which for inanimates First Person Second Person Third Person Gender S D P S D P S D P 1. Personal Pronouns ض م ي ر ش خ ص ي I we too you you two you all He/She They two They all M ا ن ا ن ح ن ن ح ن ا ن ت ا ن ت م ا ا ن ت م ه و ه م ا ه م F " " " ا ن ت " ا ن ت ن ه ي " ه ن 2. Possessive Pronouns to be suffixed ض م ي ر ا ض اف ي Mine Ours two Ours Yours Yours two Yours all His\Her Their two Theirs M ي ن ا ن ا ك آ م ا آ م ه ه م ا ه م F " " " ك " آ ن ه ا " ه ن = fosterer My ر بي Fosterer= Our ر بن ا = heart Your ق ل ب ك = them We provided ر ز ق ن اه م CHAPTER IV فعل VERB
14 Verb is a word that indicates an action associated with past, present or future. فعل لا زم.1 INTRANSITIVE VERB It denotes an action by the subject which does not pass over to an object. ج اء ح ام د Hamid came فعل متعدي 2. TRANSITIVE VERB This verb denotes an action which passes over from the doer or subject to an object. ض ر ب ت ح ام د ا I struck Hamid فعل ماضي معروف 3.a PAST TENSE ACTIVE VOICE In this form of the verb, the first and the last alphabets of a three lettered root word have the sign alphabet may change. marked on them, while the sing on the central آ ر م س م ع ف ت ح Different forms of first, second and third persons, masculine and feminine genders and singular, dual and plural numbers used in the active voice of past tense are as follows : S = Singular, D = Dual and P = Plural. S killed. He ق ت ل Masculine D killed. They two ق ت لا Third P killed. They all ق ت ل و ا Person S killed. She ق ت ل ت Feminine D killed. They two ق ت ل ت ا P killed. They all ق ت ل ن Second S killed. You ق ت ل ت Person Masculine D killed. You two ق ت ل ت م ا P killed. You all ق ت ل ت م Second Feminine S killed. You ق ت ل ت Person D killed. You two ق ت ل ت م ا P killed. You all ق ت ل ت ن First Masculine or S killed. I ق ت ل ت Person Feminine D/P killed. We ق ت ل ن ا
15 To make negative prefix He did not kill We did not kill She did not kill You two did not kill م ا م ا ق ت ل م ا ق ت ل ن ا م ا ق ت ل ت م ا ق ت ل ت م ا فعل ماضي مجهول 3.b PAST TENSE, PASSIVE VOICE To obtain this form of the verb, the sign of the first alphabet of all the active verbs is changed to and that of the second to. Passive Active ذ ه ب ذ ه ب He was made to go ق ت ل ن ا We were killed He went ق ت ل ن ا We killed To make negative prefix You were not killed He was not made to go م ا م ا ق ت ل ت م م ا ذ ه ب فعل مضارع 4. AORIST TENSE In Arabic language, present and future tense are represented by a single tense known as Aorist tense. These are some prefixes which sometime help in distinguishing present from future tense but mostly this verb represents both the tenses. فعل مضارع معروف 4.a AORIST TENSE, ACTIVE VOICE ا This form of the verb has as a prefix to the root word, one of the alphabets marked with the sign ت ن ي. The first alphabet of the root word is marked with the sign and the last with the sign, the central alphabet may have one of the three signs, or.
16 Different forms of the 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd persons masculine and feminine genders, and singular, dual and plural numbers used in the active voice of Aorist tense are as follows : S kill. He Kills / will ي ق ت ل Masculine D kill. They two kill / will ي ق ت لا ن Third P kill. They all kill / will ي ق ت ل و ن Person S She kills / will kill ث ق ت ل Feminine D kill. They two kill / will ث ق ت لا ن P kill. They all kill / will ي ق ت ل ن S kill. You Kill / will ت ق ت ل Masculine D kill. You two kill / will ت ق ت لا ن Second P kill. You all kill / will ت ق ت ل و ن Person Feminine S kill. You kill / will ت ق ت ل ي ن D kill. You two kill / will ت ق ت لا ن P kill. You all kill / will ت ق ت ل ن First Masculine or S kill. I kill / will ا ق ت ل Person Feminine D/P kill. We kill / will ن ق ت ل To make negative Aorist tense active voice لا is prefixed : He does not / will not kill We do not / will not kill لا ي ق ت ل لا ن ق ت ل فعل مضارع مجهول 4.b AORIST TENSE, PASSIVE VOICE To convert Aorist active to passive voice the sign on the prefixed alphabets ا ت ن ي is changed to and the third alphabet is marked with the sign. Passive Active ي ق ت ل He kills / will kill ي ق ت ل He is killed / will be killed
17 5. OTHER FORMS OF PAST TENSE a) Immediate past / present perfect : When قد is prefixed to past tense, we obtain present perfect tense. ق د خ ر ج He has come out b) Past perfect : To obtain the form آ ان is prefixed to the past tense, third person singular. He had written آ ان آ ت ب For different genders, numbers and persons, derivatives of آ ان are used following the rules for past tense active voice detailed earlier. All the forms in that sequence are as follows : FEMININE MASCULINE Person P D S P D S Third آ ن آ ان ت ا آ ان ت آ ان و ا آ ان ا آ ان Second آ ن ت ن آ ن ت م ا آ ن ت آ ن ت م آ ن ت م ا آ ن ت First M FSD and P آ نا آ ن ت and c) Probability in Past : Prefixing ل ع ل ن ا to the past tense imparts the sense of probability : س م ع ل ع ل ن ا Probably he has heard d) Wishing in Past : Wishing to have done an action in the past, the word ل ي ت م ا is prefixed to past tense : ل ي ت م ا ح ف ظ ت Wish I had guarded e) Used to do : Prefixing the word آ ان and its derivatives detailed above ( 5 b ), to the appropriate Aorist tense gives the sense of having used to do something. He used to worship I used to open آ ان ي ع ب د آ ن ت ا ف ت ح f) Negative Past : ل م prefixed to aorist tense, converts it to negative past. He did not do We did not kill 6. OTHER FORMS OF AORIST TENSE ل م ت ف ع ل ل م ن ق ت ل a) Present tense : ل prefixed to aorist tense active voice gives the sense of present tense. He kills ل ي ق ت ل
18 b) Future tense : When the letter س is prefixed to an aorist tense, it gives the sense of near future and when the word س و ف is prefixed, it conveys the sense of distant future : س ي ن ص ر ه م ) future He will help them ( in near س و ف ي ذ ه ب ) time He will go ( after some c) Future certainity : When aorist tense is prefixed with ل and suffixed with ن and the on the last letter of the root word is changed to the verb conveys the sense of definitely doing something in future. ل ي ف ع ل ن He will definitely do d) Future Negative : When is ل ن prefixed to an aorist tense, it conveys the sense of never doing something in future. ل ن ي ف ع ل He will never do e) Should do : ل Prefixed to an aorist tense conveys the tense of should do : ل ي ف ع ل He should do f) Should not do لا : Prefixed to an aorist tense verb gives the tense of should not do : لا ي ف ع ل He should not do g) Will be : When اذا is prefixed to past tense, it conveys the sense of will be done in future : اذا ف ت ح ت When it will be opened h) Changes due to prefixes : When ل ل م ل م ا ن and لا are prefixed to the aorist tense, the last alphabet of those verbs which do not end in ن are to be marked by the sign ي ع ل م = ل م ت ع ل م. For verbs which end in ن this ن is dropped ( except in feminine plural ) ي ع ل م ان ل ما ي ع ل م ا. When ل ك ي آ ي ل ن ا ن are prefixed to aorist tense not ending ن in the last alphabet is marked with ا ن ي ع ل م =. ي ع ل م ان ي ع ل م ا is dropped ن this ن. For verbs ending in يع ل م ا مر 7 a) Imperative mood Imperative mood ( ordering or asking someone to do something ) is obtained from aorist tense second person. First aorist tense alphabet ت in the beginning is ا removed, then if the central alphabet is marked by or the alphabet
19 with the sign is prefixed. If the central alphabet is marked with then prefixed alphabet is also marked with. In both cases the last alphabet is marked with the sign. Imperative Aorist Imperative Aorist ا ض ر ب ت ض ر ب ا ف ت ح ت ف ت ح Imperative mood of different numbers and genders Feminine Masculine Aorist ت ذ ه ب ا ذ ه ب ن ا ذ ه ب ا ا ذ ه ب ي ا ذ ه ب و ا ا ذ ه ب ا ا ذ ه ب For root alphabets that start with ا this ا is dropped along with the alphabet of aorist tense ت and then the last alphabet is marked with the sign. Imperative Aorist Imperative Aorist ت ا آ ل آ ل ت ام ر م ر ( you ) order ( you ) eat ن ه ي 7 b) Prohibitive To obtain this form ( ordering or asking someone not to do something ) لا is prefixed to the aorist tense second person and the last alphabet is marked with the sign. Feminine Masculine لا ت ذ ه ب لا ت ذ ه ب ا لا ت ذ ه ب و ا لا ت ذ ه ب ي لا ت ذ ه ب ا لا ت ذ ه ب ن 7 c) Imperative and Prohibitive moods of first and third persons. These verbs are formed by prefixing ل to the aorist verbs of first and third persons, the last alphabet being marked by the sign. I should do ل ا ف ع ل He should worship ل ي ع ب د When ف or و are present as prefix then this ل is marked with. Then he should worship ف ل ي ع ب د And I should bow و ل ا س ج د
20 Prohibitive mood is obtained by prefixing the aorist first and third person verbs with لا and marking the last alphabet with. He should not play لا ي ل ع ب We should not write لا ن ك ت ب These rules are followed for feminine gender and other numbers too. 8. DERIVATIVES OF TRILITERALS ث لا ث ي م ز ي د ف ي ه The word representing the third person singular in the past tense ( TPS P ) normally contains three letters : He heard س م ع He honoured آ ر م He opened ف ت ح ث لا ث ثي م ج رد These words are known as triliterals Addition of more alphabets to these trilateral verbs introduces a wide scope for additional meanings. Some important forms of these derived triliterals are listed below with examples of TP.S.P. of trilateral and their derivatives. Derived Triliteral Infinitive Form or Chapter TP.S.P. TP.S.P. ع ل م ع ل م ت ع ل ي م ت ف ع ي ل ا ح س ن ح س ن ا ح س ان ا ف ع ال ج اه د ج ه د م ج اه د ة م ف اع ل ة ت ك اث ر آ ث ر ت ك اث ر ت ف اع ل ت ق طع ق ط ع ت ق طع ت ف عل ا ن ق ل ب ق ل ب ا ن ق لا ب ا ن ف ع ال ا آ ت س ب آ س ب ا آ ت س اب ا ف ت ع ال ا س ت غ ف ر غ ف ر ا س ت غ ف ار ا س ت ف ع ال Some of the important changes these derivatives introduce are as follows : 1. Intransitive verb changes to transitive ) intransitive He learned ( ع ل م ) transitive He taught ( ع لم 2. In place of one, two objects are required Zaid made Hamid read the book ا ق ر أ ز ي د ح ام د ا آ ت اب ا 3. Sense of intensity, excess of exaggeration is conveyed : He killed intensely or excessively ق ات ل 4. Repetition or step by step execution is indicated.
21 ت ن زل He sent down repeatedly, step by step 5. Absorption of a condition or action is shown : ت ق طع He got cut to pieces 6. Absorption of a condition or action is shown : ا ص ب ح He got cut to pieces 7. Similar action by two persons/groups is shown. ت ق اب ل Came before one another 8. Competition is exhibited, س اب ق One tried to overtake another 9. Leaving off some work is shown : ت ه جد He gave up sleep The derived triliterals are treated as root words and various other forms of verbs and infinitives are derived from them. Derivatives of ع لم are ع لم ي ع ل م ي ع ل م ع لم لا ت ع لم م ع لم م ع لم ت ع ل ي م Four and five lettered verbs which are not very common have not been discussed here. CHAPTER V WORDS OTHER THAN NOUNS AND VERBS 1. PREPOSITIONS ( Nos. given after words are chapter and verse nos. of the Quran ) ); 50:40 ( during from ( 16:67 ) : of ( 6:144 ); because of ( 28:73 ); among ( 3:75 ); م ن any ( 3:62 ); according to ( 65:6 ); instead of ( 9:38 ); than ( 97:3 ) ); 17:107 ( on to, for ( 2:284; 106:1 ); that ( he might become ) ( 28:8 ) let ( 65:7 ); ل about ( 10:77 ) with : together م ع ) 76:6 ( from with ( 2:63 ); during ( 17:79 ); in ( 15:46 ); for ( 5:45 ) by ( 38:82 ); ب ) 21:57 ( oath used for ت
22 ) 2:187 17:1; ( towards to, till, ا لى ( ) condition on; upon ( 23:22 ); over ( 2:47 ) at ( 28:15 ) under ( 20:39 ); on ( ع لى 18:66 ) ( respecting in ( 11:108 ); about ( 14:10 ); into ( 15:29 ); on account of ( 60:9 ); ف ي 2:176 ); with ( 12:82 ); compared to ( 13:26 ); concerning ( 4:176 ) ) 3:97 ( of about ( 2:119 ); with ( 2:120 ); from ( 21:101 ) because ( 9:114 ); ع ن until, till, yet ح تى 2. CONJUNCTIONS then; so; but; thus; however; because; so that ف and ( 36:27 ); with ( 10:71 ); or ( 3:111 ); so that ( 6:27 ) that is ( explaining the و preceding word or sentence ) ( 21:69 ); oath ( 103:1 ); although ( 6:42 ); when etc. then; again; moreover ث م, or; either ا م ا و ا م, 3. WORDS USED FOR QUESTIONS - م تى what; - which, م ا from; - where ا ن ى why; - ل م اذ ا, ل م where; - ا ي ن, ح ي ث when; ا ي - who, whom; آ ي ف - how; ه ل, ا - is, what; آ م - how many, how much 4. AFFIRMATIVE WORDS - yes, why not ا ي yes; - ن ع م not; - yes, why ب لى 5. NEGATIVE WORDS - No; not is used for past tense. When it is used for aorist tense, it is normally م ا associated with. is used for aorist tense meaning No or Not. When it is used for past tense, it لا is either associated with or repeated. negative. meaning No is used for aorist tense but gives the tense of past ل م
23 tense. meaning Never is used for future ل ن not means Surely آ لا 6. WORDS CONVEYING CONDITION - that ا ن that; - so آ ي yet; - not ل ما when; - ا ذ ا if; - ا ن if; - ل و 7. DIRECTIONAL WORDS - ف و ق beneath; - below, ت ح ت earlier; - before, ق ب ل front; - in ا م ام behind; - و ر اء - ا م س after; - ب ع د with; - near, ع ن د than; - besides, other د و ن upon; over, above, yesterday; ح و ل - around; ب ي ن - between, among; ث م - then and there 8. OTHER PARTICLES ا نم ا if; - as آ ا ن that; - so ل ع ل but; - ل ك ن, آ لا but; - ب ل often; - بم ا ر like; - as, ك only; ل ي ت - wish; - means certainly. It is used in the beginning of a sentence and is used in the same sense in the middle of the sentence. It also means that ; - as for ا ما beware; -ا م ا ه ا, ا لا, CHAPTER VI PHRASES AND SENTENCES A group of two or more words is known as a م ر آب ( compound ). م ر آب 1. PHRASE : A group of words not giving complete sense is known as ). phrase ( ن اق ص This boy هذ ا ال و ل د ا ل صر اط الم س ت ق ي م The straight path There are two important types of phrases a) adjective b) possessive In the adjective case quality or condition of the noun is described : Hardworking boy ا ل و ل د ال م ج ت ه د Sweet water ا ل م اء ال ع ذ ب
24 The first noun is known as م و ص و ف ( possessor of the quality ) and the second noun is ص ف ت ( adjective ). In the possessive case, there is a possessive relationship between two nouns : Allah s book Khalid s house آ ت اب الل ه ب ي ت خ ال د. م ض اف ا ل ي ه and the second م ض اف The first noun is known as ( م ر آب ت ام 2. SENTENCE : A group of words giving complete sense is known as sentence ) The Quran is the book of Allah ا ل ق ر ا ن آ ت اب الل ه ف ت ح ال خ اد م الب اب The servant opened the door In Arabic language there are two kinds of sentences ج م ل ة ا س م ي ة ( sentence starting with noun ) and ج م ل ة ف ع ل ي ة ( sentence starting with verb ) As example of the first kind : ا ل و ل د ق اي م The boy is standing An example of the second kind can be obtained by reversing the order in the above sentence itself The boy is standing ق ام ال و ل د In ج م ل ة ا س م ي ة the first noun is known as م ب ت د اء ( subject ) and the second noun is خ ب ر ( predicate ). ( مسند اليه ( predicate ) and the second is مسند the first word is ج م ل ة ف ع ل ي ة In subject ). مسند اليه ( subject ) is always a noun and مسند ( predicate ) may be a noun or verb.