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1 INDUSTRIAL COATINGS MANUFACTURER Painting Guide Problems, causes and solutions 360 6th Street, Daveluyville, Quebec G0Z 1C0 CanaDa Toll free: Fax:

2 Table of Contents Solvent Popping Blistering Runs or Sags Cracking Craters/Fish Eyes Delamination Chipping Poor Hiding no Hold Out Sandscratch Swelling Orange Peel Wrinkling Dry Spray Crawling Slow Drying Water Spotting

3 3 Solvent Popping Small blisters on the paint surface; those that have popped appear like craters. air or solvent vapor trapped in the film, leaving the film during the drying process, which can leave pop marks. Improper surface preparation or cleaning. Wrong diluents; probably too fast. Excessive film thickness of the undercoat, which may trap solvent. Incorrect flash-off time or improper drying time between coats. Top-coat too heavy. allow surface to be thoroughly cleaned. Select the right thinner according to existing shop conditions: a) hot condition: use slow thinner b) cold condition: use fast thinner allow sufficient flash-off time and drying time between each coat. apply recommended film thickness. If the damage is severe, paint must be removed, then refinished. In less severe cases, sand until smooth and refinish.

4 4 Blistering Hollow bubbles in the paint film. Excessive moisture in air supplied during the application. Insufficient drying time between coats. Improper surface cleaning, tiny specs or dirt left on the surface. Temperature too high during application. Contamination of compressed air lines. Wrong thinner. Too heavy coats. It may trap solvents which escape later and cause blisters. Make sure substrate is well cleaned before painting. allow sufficient flash-off time between coats. Use proper thinner according to ambient conditions. Check humidity in the point shop. Remove the finish and sand through, then refinish.

5 5 Runs or Sags Usually occurs on vertical surfaces. It s a local thickening of the paint film in the form of wavy lines moving downwards. Film thickness too heavy. air pressure too low, causing lack of atomization. s temperature is too low, Wrong amount of thinner (too much). Wrong spray techniques. Spray gun too close to surface. Too much paint. Sand smooth and repaint. Maintain a suitable, consistent shop temperature and air flow. Install good lighting system in the spray booth. Use proper gun adjustment, techniques and air pressure. Select the right finishing tip. Use the right thinner according to the temperature. Make sure you follow the technical instructions. allow sufficient flash-off time and drying time between each coat.

6 6 Cracking Deep cracks through the paint film where you can see through the primer or substrate. Excessive film thickness. Coating applied over a previously cracked finish or unstable substrate. too hot or too cold. Two components not uniformly mixed. Insufficient flash-off time between coats. Remove poor quality product before painting. Remove too heavy coats. Follow technical recommendations such as: flash-off time, film thickness, drying time, paint preparation, etc. Sand affected area and repaint.

7 7 Craters/Fish Eyes Craters or fish eyes occur often during the application or immediately after. Paints retract and leave a kind of crater or if it s smaller and rounder, it s normally called fish eyes. Improper surface cleaning. Surface is contaminated with oil, grease, wax, silicone or other substances. Excess of anti-crater. Contamination of air supply or air line. Hand prints. Contaminations from silicone or others. always clean the surface thoroughly. Make sure air lines are not contaminated with oil, moisture or dirt. Protect against diesel exhaust fumes or other airborne contaminants. Keep paint shop clean and free from contaminants. s allow the paint to dry. Find out the source of the contaminant and remove it. Clean substrate thoroughly with soap and water. Sand and repaint. In certain case, it will be necessary to remove the paint completely and repaint.

8 8 Delamination Loss of adhesion between the paint and the substrate. Large pieces of coating are peeling off. Contamination of the underlying surface (wax, oil, dirt, grease, etc.) Inadequate cleaning or surface preparation. Inadequate sanding. Too heavy coats. Wrong application technique (viscosity, air pressure). Surface too hot or too cold when sprayed. Ensure that the surfaces to be painted are correctly prepared and cleaned. Ensure proper sanding along the edges and areas around hardware. Follow technical information (viscosity, air pressure, reducer etc.). Follow recommended film thickness. Ensure proper flash-off and drying time between coats. Remove the detached paint from the affected area, prepare the underlying surface correctly and repaint.

9 9 Chipping Small pieces of different shapes losing adhesion from substrate. Improper surface cleaning. Usually caused by an impact. Exposed to rough conditions (gravel road). Make sure that substrates are well cleaned. Make sure that you are using the right material. Use recommended system. Sand then repair area with flexible material.

10 10 Poor Hiding The paint film doesn t cover adequately. Insufficient total film thickness. Too much thinner. Inadequate lighting in the spray booth. Poor spraying techniques. Inaccessibility of the surface. Poor mixing of the material. Work under good light condition in the spray booth. Follow the recommended dilution. Use correct spraying techniques. Make sure to apply an even and adequate film thickness. Ensure that material is thoroughly mixed. s Sand the affected area smoothly and repaint.

11 11 no Hold Out The primer or sealer is not withstanding the solvent from the topcoat has been sanded with too coarse grit. over sand. not well prepared or cleaned. The primer was not dry enough when recoated. Top coat applied on an old finish. Make sure substrate is well cleaned before starting the job. Use a good coat of primer. Follow technical recommendations. allow sufficient flash-off time between coats. s Sand smooth. apply a primer if necessary. Repaint.

12 12 Sandscratch Swelling Usually occurs when painting over repaired work. Sanding scratches in the previous coat swell through the paint film. Improper surface preparation and cleaning. Insufficient flash-off time between coats. Wrong sand paper grit (too coarse). Excessive primer film build. Make sure you have proper surface preparation. Use the correct grade of abrasive. apply the proper film thickness of the primer. allow sufficient flash-off and drying times. Sand smooth and repaint.

13 13 Orange Peel Uneven surface formation, much like the skin of an orange. Viscosity application too high. Too little air pressure causing a lack of atomization. applied excessively thick. Wrong thinner; too fast. Wrong application technique, spray gun too far from the surface. Incorrect nozzle adjustment. Incorrect ambient or surface temperature, draughts. Sand undercoat uniformly. adjust viscosity according to the recommendation. adjust gun tips and air pressure. Use recommended thinner. Control ambient temperature of the paint shop. allow sufficient drying time between coats. Sand smooth and repaint.

14 14 Wrinkling The existing paint film shrivels, wrinkles or swells during new finish application or drying. Solvents in newly applied products attack the previous finish causing wrinkling, raising or puckering of the paint film: Recoating enamels or urethanes that are not fully cured. Exceeding maximum times during recoat. Wrong solvent. Check solvent sensitivity by rubbing a small area with thinner or existing finishes allow sufficient flash-off times between coats. Do not exceed a product s maximum recoat time before recoating or after application. avoid applying excessively wet undercoats or topcoats. Remove lifted areas and refinish.

15 15 Dry Spray Granular texture, normally with no gloss at all. Improper gun setting, insufficient fluid feed. Incorrect viscosity. Wrong thinner, too fast. Gun pressure too high. Wrong application technique; spray gun too far from surface while applying spraying too fast. Use the recommended thinner according to the paint shop conditions. adjust spray technique; gun setting, spray pattern, fluid feed, air pressure. s allow the paint to dry. Sand smooth. Repaint.

16 16 Crawling Usually occurs with clear coats. The receding wet paint film leaves some uncoated areas. Previous coats are visible. Lack of adhesion when spraying. Contamination of the undercoat. Undercoat or clear coat might contain silicone. Make sure surface to be recoated is free from silicone contamination. Frequently replace tack cloths and rags. Pay special attention to problem area. Reduce the first coat of the top coat and spray a mist coat. Sand smooth and repaint.

17 17 Slow Drying Coating does not cure within the usual time frame. Incorrect amount of hardener. Insufficient flash-off time between coats. Poor atmosphere conditions during application, coldness, humidity, lack of air movement. Wrong reducer. Wrong amount of hardener; too much or too little. Film too thick. Use appropriate thinner. Use a faster thinner when the ambient temperature is colder. apply proper film thickness. allow sufficient flash-off time between coats. Improve spraying and drying conditions. Increase temperature when too cold. Place the parts in warmer and well ventilated area. The drying process may be accelerated.

18 18 Water Spotting Whitish spots appearing in the paint film. Finish was exposed to the rain without being sufficiently cured. Finish washed too soon after application. Failure of cross linking due to moisture contamination. Wrong mixing ratio. Respect proper curing time before delivering to the rain. Follow technical recommendations. Make sure lids are tightly closed immediately after using hardener. Sand smooth and repaint.

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