# FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY SIMULATOR

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1 FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY SIMULATOR R.Raja 1, L.Udhaya kumar 2, S.Rakesh kumar 3 School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA university, Tirumalaisamudram, Thanjavur , Tamil Nadu, India ABSTRACT-This paper proposes the simulation of photovoltaic (PV) cell operated in various conditions. A DC-DC Buck converter is used to produce the simulated voltage from a high input voltage. The mathematical model of photovoltaic (PV) cell is modelled and some of the parameters are refer to data sheet to make it accurate. The users have to enter the ambient temperature (Ta) and irradiance (G) to simulate the PV voltage. Here the fuzzy logic controller is designed as a feedback compensator for fast response and error reduction. Finally, the proposed model with fuzzy controller was implemented in MATLAB and its performance compared with a PID Controller shows a significant improvement. Key words: photovoltaic, Buck converter, mat lab, ambient temperature, irradiance. I. INTRODUCTION Sun produce a light energy that contains photons convert into electric energy known as photovoltaic cell (PV). In our daily life the power is very essential; Energy source of the PV cell is interesting. The demand of solar energy is developed while compare last 20 years.it is no pollutant and renewable energy. They have several applications and it is fast developing energy source because of the rise in energy is need. Number of solar PV cell is increase in series output of current is high, increase in parallel output of the voltage is high [1] [5]. The PV cell module of the output is depends on irradiance (G) and cell temperature depends on ambient temperature (Ta).The simulation is mainly proposed as power source to verify repeatability and reliability. The converter operated in steady state same as in transient condition in all probable grid/insolation [9]. The PV array is imitate by linear amplifier using particular photo sensor.it is considered when the temperature is not varied. In the model error will occur when the single photo sensor produce different from the cell in series resistance (R s ), ideality factor (A), reverse saturation current (I o ). SIMULINK/MATLAB model of PV cell have a varying parameter such as ambient temperature (T a ) and Irradiance (G) [2] [9]. The design of feedback loop is stable and switching the process is correctly. This paper the fuzzy logic controller is design, the output simulation result as same as the input voltage. The output is equal to the input voltage, output voltage is produced depends on D (duty cycle) [11]. Simulations results are shown in graph and compare the results are also shown in graph. The performance of Fuzzy logic controller is better than the PID controller in Fig V (a) [1]. FIG.I (a). Equivalent circuit of PV cell ISSN : Vol 5 No 2 Apr-May

2 FIG. I (b). Schematic diagram of PV cell II. MODEL OF PV CELL The model of PV cell is operated in all condition and it will depend on ambient temperature, irradiance. The model is modelled in mat lab. The user can enter the value of the parameters such as irradiance (G), ambient temperature (Ta). Some of the parameters are given to the model. To find diode current (I d ) have formula. We know whether the value of model is produced voltage correct or not. For that purpose in real time we have to check values are same, the ambient temperature is measured by the resistance temperature detector (RTD) and irradiance is measured by light dependent resistor (LDR). It shows the photoconductivity, the photo resistor is a semiconductor it will absorb the photons and frequency. When resistor reducing light power is increased (irradiance). Photo resistor is used to track the light that is irradiance. I d = I SAT *[exp (v d /v t )-1] FIG: II (a). Model of PV cell ISSN : Vol 5 No 2 Apr-May

3 Fig. II (b). Subsystem of PV Cell III. DC-DC BUCK CONVERTER The buck converter is step down voltage, the buck converter is indicate the low voltage produced at the output. It is non-linear due to switching position. The buck converter operates in two modes continuous and discontinuous mode, current on the inductor not ever drops to zero in continuous mode and discontinuous mode depends on energy intake by the load through the current in the inductor drops towards zero [8]. When the switch is ON, DC source is supply power which outcome of production voltage from the resistor. Switch is OFF, resistor will discharge the energy from inductor and capacitor. The buck converter is model with help of MATLAB/Simulink. The pulse width modulation (PWM) generates the signal with respect to width of the signal. It is modulate the duty cycle by PWM signal and it control the amount of signal ON/OFF duty cycle send to dc-dc converter. V 0 = DV S Where, D= duty cycle; D= T ON + T OFF V S = supply voltage; Fig. III. Model of Dc-Dc Buck converter IV.FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER The fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is designed with five membership function, named as Negative small (NS), Negative big (NB), Zero (ZO), Positive Small (PS), and Positive Big (PB). In FLC the Mamdani method is used. In membership function Triangular shapes are implemented. In FLC have two input error and change in error but in this paper we are used error and integrated error. The error will integrated given input of FLC. Four main parts in the fuzzy logic controller Fuzzification, Defuzzification, Rule base, Inference mechanism FUZZIFICATION: It will interface just modify the inputs and so they can be understood and compare the rules. Input variable values are measure. Input data is converting into linguistic variables in fuzzy set. RULE BASE: It will supply the experimental knowledge action of process depends of specialist. IF-THEN rules are considered in fuzzy rules. The linguistic variables are contained in precondition and consequents. ISSN : Vol 5 No 2 Apr-May

4 INFERENCE MECHANISM: It is the seed of the FLC, it is ability of simulation of human decision production to achieve close reasoning. The rule implication wherever human information can easily be inserting to linguistic rules. DEFUZZIFICATION: It is used to produce a non-fuzzy decision or control action from an indirect fuzzy control action through the inference mechanism. IV (a). Rule Base FIG: IV (b). Membership Function for Error FIG: IV (c). Membership function of Integral Error ISSN : Vol 5 No 2 Apr-May

5 FIG: IV (d). Duty cycle V. Comparing the Simulatiom Results Fig: V (a).performance Comparison of FLC and PID ISSN : Vol 5 No 2 Apr-May

6 TABLE.I. Performance comparisons controllers Rising Time Settling time Over shoot percentage Fuzzy logic PID TABLE II: Parameter values PARAMETER VARIABLE VALUE SERIES RESISTANCE R S ohm REVERSE SATURATION CURRENT I O 9.25*10^-6 A DIODE IDEALITY FACTOR SWITCHING FREQUENCY A f S 1.8 A 100 KHZ SUPPLY VOLTAGE V g 25 V LOAD RESISTANCE R 1 ohm CAPACITANCE RESISTANCE RC 5 m ohm PHOTO CURRENT I PH 3.9 A INDUCTANCE RESISTANCE RL 80 m-ohm VI. CONCLUSION Model of the PV cell is simulated to work in all condition. The simulation of the PV cell is modelled with help of MATLAB that is equal to any PV panel. The user can enter the parameters like an ambient temperature (Ta) and irradiance (G). PV cell has no considerable time constant. The simulation results shown and compared. The simulations are very useful to give input and model the converter to test for PV panel to load. REFERENCES [1] Y.Thiagarajan, T.S.Sivakumaran and P.Sanjeevikumar Design and Simulation of FUZZY Controller for a Grid connected Stand Alone PV System, /08/\$ IEEE [2] J. Surya Kamari and Ch. Sai Babu, Mathematical Modelling and Simulation of Photovoltaic Cellusing Matlab-Simulink Environment, Accepted Nov 5th, [3] Shell Solar S115 Photovoltaic Solar Module, SAP Ref: < [4] Ramasamy M, Thangavel S. Photovoltaic base dynamic voltage restorer with power saver capability using PI controller. IJEPES Mar 2012;36(1):51 9. [5] Weixiang Shen, Yi Ding, Fook Hoong Choo, Peng Wang, Poh Chiang Loh and Kuan Khoon Tan, Mathematical model of a solar module for energy yield simulation in photovoltaic systems, peds2009. [6] I.H. Atlas, A.M. Sharaf, A Photovoltaic Array Simulation Model for Matlab-Simulink GUI Environment, International Conference on Clean Power, pp , [7] M. Bayati Poodeh, S. Eshtehardiha, M. R. Zare, Application of Fuzzy Logic to Control the DC-DC Converter 7th WSEAS International Conference on Electric Power Systems, High Voltages, Electric Machines, Venice, Italy, November 21-23, 2007 [8] A. Vijayakumari a, A.T. Devarajan, N. Devarajan, Design and development of a model-based hardware simulator for Photovoltaic array, Electrical Power and Energy Systems 43 (2012) [9] Tarak Salmi, Mounir Bouzguenda, Adel Gastli, Ahmed Masmoudi, MATLAB/Simulink Based Modelling of Solar Photovoltaic Cell, International Journal of Renewable Energy Research,Tarak Salmi et al., Vol.2, No.2, [10] Sk.Gouse Basha and P.D.V.S.K. Kishore, Implementation and Performance offuzzy Logic Controller on DC-DC Boost Converter. [11] Kalyan Chakravarthi Boddapati Lokesh Tammineni,Load Identification of DC-DC Buck Converter, Thesis Electrical Engineering ISSN : Vol 5 No 2 Apr-May

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