Learning Goals Behaviorism: Classical Conditioning

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1 Learning Goals Behaviorism: Dr. K. A. Korb Components of classical conditioning Identify the,, Conditioned Stimulus, and in a learning situation Phases of classical conditioning Important factors in classical conditioning Applications of classical conditioning Behaviorism Overview Involuntary Stimuli Behaviorism definition of learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior as the result of experience. There are two types of behaviorism: 1. : Association of involuntary responses with new stimuli 2. Operant : Voluntary behavior is strengthened or weakened by punishment or rewards Salivation Nausea Increased or decreased heart rate Reflex (e.g., jumping) Certain emotions (e.g., fear) 1

2 (Pavlov, 1927) Phases of Classical (food) (bell) (bell) (food) (bell) (no salivation) Law of Association Unconditioned: Unlearned/Involuntary Neutral: No natural association Conditioned: Learned by association Stimulus: Event that activates a behavior Unconditioned Stimulus Conditioned Stimulus Response: Reaction to stimulus Unconditioned Response Conditioned Response : Stimulus that triggers unconditioned response : Unlearned response to an unconditioned stimulus : Stimulus that does not naturally elicit a response Conditional Stimulus: Neutral stimulus that comes to evoke a classically conditioned response : Learned response to a classically conditioned stimulus 2

3 (Loud Noise) (Needle to Balloon) (Needle to Balloon) (Loud Noise) (Needle to Balloon) (No Flinching) (Sickness) (Apple Juice) (Apple Juice) (Sickness) (Apple Juice) (No Nausea) (Father) (TV show) (TV show) (Father) (TV Show) (Neutral) Remember: The Response must be involuntary! 3

4 Summary of Classical Humans and animals learn reliable predictive relationships between the and Law of Association Timing of and Timing of and 4

5 Important Factors in Classical Frequency with which the unconditioned stimulus and neutral stimulus are paired More frequent pairing means stronger classical conditioning Timing of the stimulus presentations Stronger conditioning results when the neutral stimulus is presented closer in timing together with the unconditioned stimulus Emotional force of the response Stronger emotional force results in stronger classical conditioning Generalization: A similar conditioned stimulus results in a conditioned response Discrimination: A similar conditioned stimulus does not result in a conditioned response Extinction: Conditioned stimulus no longer elicits conditioned response Occurs when conditioned stimulus occurs repeatedly without unconditioned stimulus (bell) WITHOUT (food) (bell) During Extinction After Extinction (No salivation) Applications of Classical Health Psychology: Painful treatments can become associated with a neutral stimulus (e.g., food, smells) Clinical Psychology: Fears can be developed and treated through principles of classical conditioning Social Psychology: Attitudes to neutral objects can be shaped by pairing with emotionally charged stimuli 5

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