Design Factors. Guided Transmission Media. Electromagnetic Spectrum for Telecom. Chapter 4 Transmission Media. Bandwidth:

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1 Chapter 4 Transmission Media Overview Guided wire (twisted pair, coaxial cable, optical fiber) Unguided wireless (broadcast radio, terrestrial microwave, satellite) Characteristics & quality of data transmission is determined by medium & signal For guided medium, the medium itself is more important in determining the transmission limitations For unguided medium, the bandwidth produced by the antenna is more important Key concerns are data rate and distance in the design of trans. sys. Bandwidth: Design Factors Higher bandwidth (HZ) gives higher data rate (bps) Transmission impairments: e.g. Attenuation Limits the transmission distance Twisted pair -> coaxial cable -> optical fiber Interference: from competing signals in overlapping frequency bands can distort or wipe out a signal. Number of receivers: In guided media Point-to-point link or share link with multiple attachment: each attachment introduce some attenuation & distortion on the line, limiting distance and/or data rate Electromagnetic Spectrum for Telecom Guided Transmission Media Twisted Pair Coaxial cable Optical fiber 1

2 Twisted Pair & Applications Twisted Pair - Transmission Characteristics Most common medium: least expensive Telephone network Between house and local exchange (subscriber loop) Within buildings To private branch exchange (PBX) For local area networks (LAN) 10Mbps or 100Mbps Pros and Cons Cheap; Easy to work with Low data rate; Short distance <- bigger attenuation Analog Signal: Amplifiers every 5km to 6km Digital Transmission: repeater every 2km or 3km Limited distance Limited bandwidth (1MHz) Limited data rate (100Mbp) Susceptible to interference and noise Unshielded and Shielded TP Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Ordinary telephone wire Cheapest Easiest to install Suffers from external EM interference Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Metal braid or sheathing that reduces interference More expensive Harder to handle (thick, heavy) Cat 3 up to 16MHz UTP Categories Voice-grade cable found in most offices Twist length of 7.5 cm to 10 cm Cat 4 up to 20 MHz Cat 5 up to 100MHz Commonly pre-installed in new office buildings Twist length 0.6 cm to 0.85 cm 2

3 Coaxial Cable Applications & Transmission Characteristics Applications: Television distribution : Cable TV Long distance telephone transmission Can carry 10,000 voice calls simultaneously (via FDM) Being replaced by fiber optic Short distance links between computer devices Transmission Characteristics: Analog Amplifiers every few km; Closer if higher frequency Up to 500MHz Digital: Repeater every 1km; Closer for higher data rates Optical Fiber - Transmission Characteristics Optical Fiber Transmission Modes Optical Fiber: transmit a signal-encoded beam of light by means of total internal reflection Act as waveguide for freq. of to Hz Portions of infrared and visible spectrum Three Transmission Modes: Step-index multimode; Graded-index multimode; Single-mode Two Type of Light Sources: Light Emitting Diode (LED) Cheaper; Wider operating temp range; Last longer Injection Laser Diode (ILD): More efficient; Greater data rate WDM: multiple beams of light at different freq. are transmitted on the same fiber. This is a form of FDM. 3

4 Optical Fiber - Properties & Applications Properties: Greater capacity: in the unit of Gbps, Tbps Smaller size & lighter weight Lower Attenuation EM Isolation: not affected by external EM interference Greater Repeater Spacing: every hundreds of km Applications: Long-haul trunks ; Metropolitan trunks; LANs Rural exchange trunks Subscriber loops Wireless Transmission Unguided media Transmission & reception via antenna Directional Focused beam Careful alignment required Omnidirectional Signal spreads in all directions Can be received by many antennae 3 Frequency Ranges Terrestrial Microwave 30MHz to 1GHz: Suitable to Omnidirectional app. Refer to as broadcast radio range 2GHz to 40GHz: Microwave frequency Highly directional beams are possible Suitable to point- to-point transmission Can also be used for satellite comm. 3 x to 2 x Infrared portion of the spectrum Local apps. Within confined areas, e.g. a single room Physical Description: the most common type of antenna is the parabolic dish Focuses a narrow beam: to achieve line-of-sight trans. to the receiving antenna Apps.: Long haul telecommunications Higher frequencies give higher data rates common freq : 2 40 GHZ 4

5 Satellite Microwave Satellite is a microwave relay station Satellite receives on one frequency, amplifies or repeats signal and transmits on another frequency Requires geo-stationary orbit Height of 35,784km Applications: Television Long distance telephone Private business networks Omnidirectional Freq: 30 MHZ to 1GHZ FM radio UHF and VHF television Broadcast Radio Trans. is limited to the line of sight Suffers from multipath interference Infrared Transceivers modulate noncoherent infrared light Two parties must be within line of sight (or reflection) Blocked by walls e.g. TV remote control 5

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