Ecology Study Guide (ch )

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1 Test! Definitions: 1. Ecology 2. Population 3. Community 4. Ecosystem 5. Biome 6. Biotic 7. Abiotic 8. Biodiversity 9. Biogeochemical cycles 10. Nitrogen fixation 11. Carrying capacity 12. Energy pyramid 13. Habitat Quiz Ecology Study Guide (ch ) 14. Niche 15. Keystone species 16. Symbiosis (all 3) 17. Predation 18. Competition 19. Succession (1 o and 2 o ) 20. Pioneer species 21. Climax community 22. Trophic level 23. Food web 24. Producer/autotroph 25. Consumer /heterotroph 26. Decomposer 27. Detritivore 28. Chemotroph 29. Particulates 30. Smog 31. Greenhouse effect 32. Habitat fragmentation 33. Introduced species 34. Umbrella species 35. Sustainable development 36. Ecological footprint 37. Renewable and nonrenewable resources 38. Biomagnification Basic Ecology (13.1, 13.2, part of 14.1, 15.3, part of 16.1) 1. Know the components and order of the levels within the biosphere. 2. Differentiate between habitat and niche; be able to give examples of each. 3. Be able to explain ecosystems and their biotic/abiotic factors. 4. Understand each of the biomes learned in class, and what two things make up a climate. 5. Be able to explain how a keystone species may affect an environment. 6. Know the reasons why populations could increase/decrease. 7. What do we know about earth s carrying capacity? Energy and the Ecosystem (13.3, 13.4, 13.5) 1. Know the basic components of an ecosystem. 2. Be able to explain the role of producers, consumers, and decomposers. 3. Be able to read a food chain diagram and identify the type of consumer and trophic levels if given a picture similar to the one below. 4. Be able to calculate energy as you move up trophic levels (*remember only 10% moves up each level). 5. Know the basic stages of the water, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles. Community Interactions (part of 14.1, 14.2) 1. Be able to explain predation and competition. 2. Be able to explain the various forms of symbiosis (mutualism, commensalism, parasitism). 3. Be able to explain how the competitive exclusion principal plays a role competition. Succession (14.5) 1. Be able to explain the process of primary and secondary succession. What are the differences? Which takes place at a faster rate? 2. Be able to identify organisms that are characteristic of each stage of succession. Environmental Issues ( ) 1. Give examples of renewable and nonrenewable resources. What is the importance of resource management? 2. Be able to explain the causes, effects, and solutions to: Air Quality o Air pollution, smog, acid rain, green house effect Water Quality o Water pollution o Understand biomagnification, the accumulation of toxins, and how they travel up the food chain/trophic levels. Do fat soluble pollutants get stored in an organisms body? Threats to biodiversity o Non-native species- how do they distrupt the ecosystem? o Assess the consequences of the loss of biodiversity 3. Explain how an umbrella species can protect an entire ecosystem 4. Define sustainable development and describe some of its methods.

2 12B Ecosystems Variations and Adaptations of Organisms In: Explain what adaptations animals in the ecosystem to the right must have in order to survive: Desert Adaptations Abiotic Factors of a Desert: Plant Adaptations: Animal Adaptations: Tundra Adaptations Abiotic Factors of a Tundra: Plant Adaptations: Animal Adaptations: Rainforest Adaptations Abiotic Factors of a Rainforest: Plant Adaptations: Animal Adaptations: OUT: Compare how plant and animal adaptations in a hot/dry environment to a cold environment:

3 Flow of Matter & Energy Food Web Simulation: What happens when one organism is taken out of the food chain? How does it affect others? Producer/Autotroph Food Chains & Food Webs Label each trophic level with the correct identifier: decomposer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, producer, herbivore, carnivore, fungi, main energy source, plant, autotroph, heterotroph Consumer/Heterotroph Biological Magnification Decomposer Trophic Levels Describe what would be the affect on the rest of the food chain above if a drought occurred and drastically reduced the number of producers.

4 Flow of Matter & Energy Pyramids of Ecology Energy Flow: Describe what happens to most of the energy an organism consumes: Pyramid of Energy 10% Energy Rule Pyramid of Biomass Explain in your own words the 10% energy rule in an ecosystem: Pyramid of Numbers Explain why are there fewer top-level predators in a food chain or food web:

5 Interpreting Relationships In: What type of relationship exists between the two animals in the cartoon? Explain your answer. Symbiosis Habitat Label each with the : : Niche Mutualism Tickbird live on rhinos & eat ticks. Ticks get food, rhino free of ticks. Mosquito feeds off human. Human is hurt. Commensalism Sea anemone protects the clownfish from predatory fish. Competition Parasitism Interpret the predator/prey relationship in the graph below: Predator/Prey Picture

6 Population Growth IN Activity: Make a list of limited resources found in an environment. Graphs! Exponential Growth: occurs when individuals in a population reproduce at a rate. (J Shaped) Can populations grow exponentially forever? Yes or No Logistic Growth: occurs when a population s growth or stops following a period of exponential growth (S Shaped) Population Growth Graph Describe the graph. What happens to the deer population over time? Affected By: Populations in Ecosystems Carrying Capacity Growth Rate What causes the growth to slow? Birth rates rate increases Both of these occur at once When the number of organisms an ecosystem can sustain, it is called the. Carrying Capacity happens because in an ecosystem, there are factors (habitat, shelter, territory, food, water) Immigration increases Both of these occur at once What is Density? Number of per unit Varies depending on species and its Density? Factors Density Dependent Factors: Density Independent Factors: What limits growth? Examples: OUT Activity: Explain why populations reach a carrying capacity. Why can t populations keep growing exponentially?

7 11D Succession 12F Change Ecological Succession & Environmental Change In: Describe an example of how natural or human disturbances can change an ecosystem. Use numbers to sequence the pictures of primary succession: Ecological Succession Primary Succession Pioneer species populates area. Large plants grow on soil. Volcanic eruption causes no soil to exist. Lichens die to help form soil. Environmental Change Secondary Succession Ecosystem Stability Impact on Populations & Species Picture OUT Question: Describe how the 2011 Texas drought caused environmental change. Explain how the drought impacted ecosystem stability.

8 Name: Date: Period: Nitrogen Cycle Diagram (TEKS 12E) DRAW A DIAGRAM of how matter moves through the nitrogen cycle. (Label & Color the diagram.) Use p.78 for help. DESCRIBE BELOW the steps in your diagram of how matter moves through the nitrogen cycle.

9 Name: Date: Period: Disruptions of the Nitrogen Cycle (TEKS 12E) DRAW DIAGRAMS of how matter moves through ecosystems when the Nitrogen Cycle is disrupted. (Label & Color diagrams.) A. Draw a diagram of the CAUSE of a disruption to the nitrogen cycle. B. Draw a diagram showing the EFFECT of a disruption to the nitrogen cycle. EXPLAIN (DIAGRAM B) BELOW the consequences of disrupting the Nitrogen cycle.

10 Nitrogen Cycle COMIC STRIP (TEKS 12E) Name: Period: Nitrogen molecules just love to travel and spend time in different places. Create a comic strip/story board about nitrogen s adventures to different places. Your comic strip must be at least 9 comic strip boxes long, but more may be used. You must draw, color, and dialogue how nitrogen cycles through the ecosystem. Use p.78 for help

11 Name: Date: Period: Carbon Cycle Diagram (TEKS 12E) DRAW A DIAGRAM of how matter moves through the Carbon Cycle (Label & Color the diagram.) Use textbook p.77 for help. A. Draw a diagram of the carbon cycle. DESCRIBE BELOW your diagram of how matter moves through the carbon cycle.

12 Name: Date: Period: Disruptions of the Carbon Cycle (TEKS 12E) DRAW DIAGRAMS of how matter moves through ecosystems when the Carbon Cycle is disrupted. (Label & Color each diagram.) A. Draw a diagram of the CAUSE of a disruption to the carbon cycle. B. Draw a diagram showing the EFFECT of a disruption to the carbon cycle. DESCRIBE (DIAGRAM B) BELOW the consequences of disrupting the carbon cycle.

13 Name: Date: Period: Chapter16:HumanImpactonEcosystemsVocabulary 16.1HumanPopulationGrowthandNaturalResources.Giveexamplesforthefollowing: 1. Nonrenewableresourcesarenaturalresourcesthatareusedmorequicklythancanbeformed. Example: and. 2. Renewableresourcesareonesthatcannotbeusedup,orcanbereplacedasfastastheyareused. Exampleofresourcesthatcannotbeusedup: and. Exampleofresourcethatcanberegrownasquicklyasitisused:. 3. Ecologicalfootprintistheamountoflandnecessarytoproduceenoughfood,water,shelter,andenergy,andtoholdthe wasteofanindividualorpopulation. WhatistheaverageU.S.citizen secologicalfootprint? 16.2Airquality.Matchthefollowing: 4. Theadditionofanyundesirablematerialtotheair, water,orsoil. 5. Atypeofairpollutionthatformsfromthewaste productsofburnedgas,coal,andoil. 6. Microscopicbitsofdust,metal,andunburnedfuel. Thisisonecomponentofsmog. 7. Thisisproducedwhenpollutantsinthewater cyclecausethephofraintodropbelownormal. 8. Earth satmospherecontainsgasesthathelpto slowthelossofheat.thisisknownas 9. Thetrendofincreasingglobaltemperatures. a. Globalwarming b. Greenhouseeffect c. Smog d. Acidrain e. Pollution f. Particulates 16.3 WaterQuality.Fillintheblanks. 10.Onewayscientistsdeterminethe ofan isbystudyingparticular,whicharecalled. 11.Biomagnificationisthe bywhich moveupthe. 16.4Threatstobiodiversity.Definethefollowing: 12.Habitatfragmentation: 13.Introducedspecies: 16.5Conservation.Definethefollowing: 14.Sustainabledevelopment: 15.Umbrellaspecies:

14 Name: Date: Period: Ecology Review Worksheet Place the levels of ecology organization inside the correct circles using the terms from 13.1 in the textbook. Fill in the bubbles with the proper words from section 13.2 in the textbook. Ecosystem includes Such as Such as Fill in the chart with a description that describes how water moves through as ecosystem. Process Description 1. Precipitation 2. Evaporation 3. Transpiration 4. Condensation In each series, identify which word does not belong and explain why? A) Detritivore, Producer, or Decomposer? Explain. B) Omnivore, Autotroph, Herbivore? Explain.

15 C) Trophic level, Energy pyramid, Keystone species? Explain. Directions: Add at least 12 arrows to the blank food web that shows the direction energy travels in a community of species. Using the snake as an example, create 2 complete food chains in the spaces below. Label each trophic level. Food chain 1 Food chain Vocabulary: Define the words in the boxes Symbiotic Mutualism Commensalism Parasitism Example Example Example

16 15. Draw a cartoon for each of the following terms. a. ecological footprint: b. acid rain Sustainable Development (16.5) 17. What is sustainable development? a. List and Describe at least two sustainable development methods. c. global warming d. introduced species: Umbrella Species and Protecting Earth s Resources (16.5) 18. How can protecting an umbrella species protect an entire ecosystem? Biodiversity and Habitat Fragmentation (16.4) 16. What is biodiversity? Give at least one reason why biodiversity is important to humans. a. What role does habitat fragmentation play in the loss of biodiversity? What is a solution? b. What are the consequences to a loss of biodiversity? a. How are umbrella species and keystone species similar? b. How do governmental actions help to preserve natural habitats and protect resources? Who implements laws that in place to protect resources and species?

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